山东济南军区总医院妇科挂号99知识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月19日 11:57:30
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1. The Pre-Emptive Customer1、先发制人的顾客In Japan, the store clerk often asks the customer if they would like a bag to carry their goods. However some customers, particularly elderly women, immediately throw out a hasty “iranai“, or “not necessary”, before the clerk even has a chance to ask the question.在日本,店员经常会问顾客,他们是否想要一个袋子来装他们购买的产品。然而,一些顾客,特别是大妈,在店员问出这个问题之前就立刻不耐烦地说出“iranai(不要)”或者“不需要”。2. The Arguing Duo2、争吵二人组This is one we’ve probably all been guilty off at least once — a friend or relative offers to pay for the shopping and a polite refusal turns into an argument over who will pay. In the meantime, the store clerk and all the customers waiting in line are silently screaming for the Arguing Duo to hurry up.这一条,我们可能都至少犯过一次。一个朋友或亲戚要为购物买单,一次礼貌的拒绝变成了争吵谁来买单。同时,店员和所有排队的顾客都默默地在心里喊着,让这对争吵二人组快一点。3. The Small-Changer3、用零钱付账的人There are times when store clerks appreciate small change and there are times when we really want to lighten our pockets too. The Small-Changer, however, shows no regard for details like counting out money, instead dumping all their coins on the tray for the cashier to pick through.有时候店员们喜欢零钱,当然,有时候我们也真想减轻口袋。然而,用零钱付账的人无视数钱这样的细节,而是把所有的硬币丢到托盘上让收银员自己挑选。4. The Finger-Licker4、舔手指的人A technique favoured by older Japanese women in particular, this customer uses saliva to give their finger some traction when picking out a note from their wallet. The obvious problem with this is that the poor store clerk has to touch the note, trying desperately to avoid the wet spot.特别是年纪大的日本妇女喜欢的一种手法,就是顾客把唾液蘸在手指上从钱包中拿出一张纸币。这种做法显而易见的问题就是,可怜的店员必须触摸这张纸币,拼命地避开湿漉漉的地方。5. The Mute5、沉默的人While most of us know to answer a simple question when asked, The Mute prefers to say nothing. Questions like, “Will you be paying with credit card?” and “Would you like a bag?” are met with silence.我们大多数人都知道,当问一个沉默的人一个简单问题的时候,他喜欢什么都不说。像“您想用信用卡付账吗?”以及“您想要一个袋子吗?”这类问题,通常会遇到顾客沉默不语。 /201606/448584

China is home to diverse regional cuisines and a growing foreign food scene, but nothing tops the hotpot ritual of placing fresh ingredients into a boiling broth, according to a new survey.中国有着多种不同菜系,近年来异域美食热也开始日益上升,然而,根据一项最新调查显示,它们都不能超越火锅这种美食--即将多种新鲜的食材涮到滚烫的汤里。The survey, published by consulting firm OCC this week, found that hotpot is China#39;s favorite meal. A total of 2,600 people the firm surveyed in 21 Chinese cities in February also placed domestic hotpot chain Haidilao at the top of the list of the country#39;s 10 favorite restaurants.欧析企业管理咨询公司本周发布的报告指出,火锅是中国人气最高的美食。此外,该公司2月份对中国21个城市2600个消费者的调查报告也显示,国内的火锅连锁--海底捞在最受国人欢迎的TOP 10餐厅中高居榜首。Others that made the top 10 included foreign fast food chains KFC and McDonald#39;s as well as casual dining spots Pizza Hut and TGI Friday#39;s.其他进入前10的餐厅还包括外国快餐连锁肯德基和麦当劳,以及休闲餐厅必胜客和星期五餐厅。Hotpot was originally eaten to stave off the winter cold, but has become a favorite year-round food in China. Famous hotpot chains often have long lines of people waiting hours to get a table, even on scorching summer days.吃火锅原本是为了在冬天御寒,现在却成了一种四季皆宜、非常受欢迎的食物。在知名的火锅连锁店,食客经常得排队等候数小时,即便在炎炎夏日也是如此。Data from Euromonitor International showed that seven of China#39;s top 15 full-service restaurant chains specialize in hotpot.来自欧睿国际的数据显示,在中国TOP 15的全方位务连锁餐厅中,有7家都专营火锅。Stephen Dutton, an analyst with Euromonitor International, wrote in a recent research note that hotpot restaurants have become omnipresent nationwide, serving as go-to spots for social events and adapted for regional preferences. Much of hotpot#39;s popularity, Dutton said, comes from the participatory nature of the cooking process and time available for socializing.欧睿国际的分析师史蒂芬· 达顿在最近的一份研究报告中写道,火锅餐厅作为一个社交活动的好去处,在国内到处都是,同时它也根据区域饮食偏好进行了改善。达顿表示,火锅的高人气主要来源于它整个烹饪过程的参与性以及社交活动的时效性。OCC added that hotpot#39;s success also lies in the customer service at leading chains. Restaurant chains such as Haidilao provide attentive service to customers, including entertainment, such as a dance performance in which waiters fling dough to make noodles.此外,欧析还补充说明,火锅的成功还源于这些领先的连锁店的客户务。像海底捞这样的连锁餐厅还给食客们提供包括在内的贴心务。比如,在务员将面团制作成面条的过程中会伴随的舞蹈表演。 /201606/448504

  High-end lingerie sales are outpacing China#39;s generally downbeat luxury market, and heating up competition between international brands and local rivals looking to go upmarket.如今,高端女式内衣的销售状况正领跑中国普遍低迷的奢侈品市场,这加剧了国际品牌与想走高端路线的本土品牌间的竞争。US brand Victoria#39;s Secret will open its first store, and companies including Italy#39;s ultra-luxury La Perla and Germany#39;s Triumph are adding stores and moving beyond China#39;s mega-cities. International brands see China as a priority to help bolster overall sales given a fairly bleak global outlook.美国品牌;维多利亚的秘密;将在华开设第一家门店,意大利顶级奢侈内衣品牌La Perla和德国黛安芬等企业正在华增加门店数量,并正向中国大城市以外的地区进军。鉴于全球前景黯淡,国际品牌将中国视为提振整体销售的重点。Chinese consumer tastes are maturing, women are more confident about buying for themselves and leaders drive against conspicuous consumption is likely diverting spending from flashy branded bags and accessories to sports and leisure wear and the more discreet lingerie.中国顾客的品味正在走向成熟,女人们对自己投资更加自信。领导人反对铺张浪费也使得消费从耀眼的品牌包包和配饰转向运动和休闲装以及更加隐秘的内衣。;Luxury is not about buying to show off, it#39;s about buying items that make you feel good,; says Chiara Scaglia, La Perla#39;s Asia chief.拉佩拉亚洲主管基娅拉·斯嘉利亚说:“奢华不是用来显摆的,而是购买之后你的感受美好。”China#39;s women#39;s underwear market is expected to have a retail value of billion by next year - double that of the ed States - and will grow to billion by 2020, according to Euromonitor.根据消费市场研究机构欧睿国际报道,中国的女性内衣市场下一年零售额有望达到250亿美元,这将是美国的两倍,并将在2020年前增长到330亿美元。Chinese firms such as Beijing Aimer, Maniform and Ordifen are also chasing that money, targeting higher-end customers and raising their quality.包括北京爱慕,曼妮芬和欧迪芬等在内的中国公司也在力争利益,定位高端顾客,提升自身质量。;That means foreign brands will have to out-compete local brands not just on quality, but also innovation,; said Matthew Crabbe, director at Mintel, a global provider of market research.全球市场研究公司英敏特的负责人克雷布说,;这意味着外国品牌不但要在质量上超过中国本土品牌,还要在创新上更胜一筹。;For now, the market is highly fragmented, with none of the leading firms having more than around a 3 percent share. International brands see China as a priority to help bolster overall sales given a fairly bleak global outlook.现在,内衣市场还很分散,没有一个引领公司的份额超过3%。纵观相当惨淡的全球市场,国际品牌将中国视为提高整体销售的首选。La Perla, which sells bras priced around 2,000 yuan (0), has eight stores in China and plans additional outlets in Chengdu and Chongqing within the year. It also aims to open a men#39;s store in Beijing.拉佩拉内衣售价约2000元人民币(300美元),已经在中国开了8家店铺并计划在成都和重庆增开折扣店,它还计划在北京开一家男士内衣店。 /201608/458273

  The broad basis of life on Earth iscarbon-based and requires water. Carbon is much more versatile as a buildingblock for complex molecules than, say, silicon, the favourite element forspeculations about alternative alien biochemistries.地球上生命的广泛基础是基于碳和需要水。碳作为复杂分子的构建元素,比诸如硅这样在推测另类的外星人生化组成时最受青睐的元素要全能得多。As well as sugars, life on Earth needed aminoacids, the building blocks of proteins. But we know that these can be formed inouter space too, because they have been found in ;primitive;meteorites. They might be made from some variation of a chemical reactioncalled the Strecker synthesis, after the 19th-Century German chemist whodiscovered it. The reaction involves simple organic molecules called ketones oraldehydes, which combine with hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. Alternatively,light-driven chemistry triggered by ultraviolet light will do the job.和需要糖一样,地球上的生命也需要蛋白质的构成元素氨基酸。但我们知道这些也可在外太空形成,因为在“原始的”陨石中发现过它们。它们可以从被称为“斯特雷克合成反应”的化学反应的一些变化中产生,这个化学反应是19世纪德国化学家斯特雷克发现的。该反应涉及简单的有机分子酮或醛,它们与氰化氢和氨结合。或者,紫外线触发的光驱动化学反应也可以做这个工作。It looks at first as though these reactionsshould not take place in deepest space, without a source of heat or light todrive them. Molecules encountering one another in frigid, dark conditions donot have enough energy to get a chemical reaction started.乍一看,这些反应似乎不会在幽深的没有热源或光源驱动的太空发生。分子在寒冷黑暗的环境中相遇并没有足够的能量引发化学反应。However, in the 1970s the Soviet chemistVitali Goldanski showed otherwise. Some chemicals could react even when chilledto just four degrees above absolute zero. They just needed a bit of help fromhigh-energy radiation such as gamma-rays or electron beams –like thecosmic rays that whizz through all of space.然而,20世纪70年代,苏联化学家戈尔丹斯基明情况并非如此。一些化学物质甚至被冷却至只有绝对零度以上4度时,也能发生反应。它们只需要伽玛射线或电子束等高能射线助一臂之力- 这些射线就像嗖嗖穿过太空的宇宙射线。Under these conditions, Goldanski foundthat the carbon-based molecule formaldehyde, which is common in molecularclouds, could link up into polymer chains several hundred molecules long.戈尔丹斯基发现,在这种情况下,常见于分子云中的碳基分子甲醛可联结成长达几百个分子的聚合物链。Goldanski believed that such space-basedreactions might have helped the molecular building blocks of life assemble fromsimple ingredients like hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and water.戈尔丹斯基认为,这种以太空环境为基础的反应或可帮助生命的构建分子从氰化氢,氨和水等简单成分中形成。But it is far more difficult to coax suchmolecules to combine into more complex forms. Ultraviolet and other forms ofradiation can induce reactions. But they are just as likely to smash moleculesas they are to form them. Potential biomolecules – progenitors of proteins andRNA, say –would be broken apart faster than they were being produced.但诱使这类分子结合成更复杂的形态要困难得多。紫外线和其它形式的射线可诱导产生化学反应。但它们打碎分子的几率和形成分子的几率一样高。潜在的生物分子- 比如蛋白质和核糖核酸的祖细胞- 被分解比被制造出来要快得多。Ultimately the question is whether othercompletely alien environments would give rise to self-replicating chemicalsystems that can evolve.最终,问题在于其它完全陌生的环境是否会产生能够进化的自我复制的化学系统。 /201605/440203。

  Ghostbusters《捉鬼敢死队》This female-led reboot attracted criticism well before the film was even made–with its co-writer Kate Dippold telling The Telegraph that “They said it was the worst movie ever before I’d written a word.”When the original film came out 32 years ago, it too was poorly received and only became a cult hit over time. As B Culture’s critic Nicholas Barber argues, “the fans who insist that the Ghostbusters should be male have misunderstood the classic comedy they claim to revere”. The characters “were a different breed of hero…out-of-shape academics in crumpled, slime-smeared jumpsuits”.这部以女性为主导的翻拍电影在开拍前就饱受诟病,联合编剧凯特#8226;迪波尔特对《每日电讯报》透露道,“在我还没开始写之前,人们就说这是一部最糟糕的电影。”32年前,《捉鬼敢死队》第一部问世,当时影片反响冷淡,多年来也仅受到非主流一族的追捧。英国广播公司文化家尼古拉斯#8226;巴伯说道,“有粉丝坚持认为捉鬼敢死队成员应为男性,这本身就是对他们宣称自己推崇的这部经典喜剧电影的一种误解”。这些人物“是一种另类英雄……这些学者体型走样,穿着皱巴巴,黏糊糊,脏兮兮的连体裤”。This time around, the academics in jumpsuits are played by Melissa McCarthy, Kristen Wiig, Kate McKinnon and Leslie Jones; there are cameos from original cast members including Sigourney Weaver, Dan Ackroyd and Bill Murray. Director Paul Feig once again teams up with McCarthy and Wiig after his 2011 hit Bridesmaids, and addressing the backlash, he has said:“I think the cast is so good, and they can stand in the footsteps of who came before.” On general release from 12 July.这一次,梅丽莎#8226;麦卡西,克里斯汀#8226;韦格,凯特#8226;迈克金农和莱斯利#8226;琼斯扮演穿着连体裤的学者;有一些配角来自于原班人马,包括西格妮#8226;韦弗,丹#8226;艾克洛伊德和比尔#8226;默里。保罗#8226;费格导演了2011年风靡一时的电影《最爆伴娘团》,在这以后他再次和麦卡西和韦格联手,他对质疑声作出了反击,说道:“我认为演员阵容极佳,她们能够追上前辈们的脚步。”七月十二号全面上映。Café Society《咖啡公社》Woody Allen’s latest feature opened the 2016 Cannes Film Festival to mixed reviews–but drew praise for its performances. Set in the 1930s, it stars Jesse Eisenberg as a New Yorker who moves to LA and falls for his uncle’s secretary (Kristen Stewart). According to B Culture’s critic Nicholas Barber,“ Stewart has the glow of a bona fide 1930s bombshell while retaining her characteristically sheepish, down-to-earth persona”, while“Eisenberg is one of the most natural of Woody proxies”.伍迪#8226;艾伦的新作作为开幕片为2016年戛纳电影节揭幕,收到的褒贬不一,但其表演却大受好评。故事背景是在上世纪30年代的纽约,主演杰西#8226;艾森伯格饰演一个搬到洛杉矶的纽约人,他爱上了叔叔的秘书(克里斯汀#8226;斯图尔特饰)。英国广播公司文化家尼古拉斯#8226;巴伯说道,“斯图尔特浑身上下都散发着上世纪30年代性感尤物的光辉,从她身上可以看出那个年代羞怯和朴实的人物形象”,而“艾森伯格是伍迪镜头下最自然的角色之一”。The Times calls him “an Allen mini-me, an Allen avatar. From his hunched, put-upon shoulders to his nervous, rapid-fire delivery, Eisenberg gives us vintage Woody”. Despite being criticised for not matching the director’s best works, the film was described as “gentle, whimsical and sumptuously shot” by The Independent, which claims that “even if Allen’s energy levels may be dipping, he still knows just how to mix the comedy and the pathos.”Released 14 July in Thailand, 15 July in the US and 21 July in Russia.《泰晤士报》称他为“迷你版的艾伦,艾伦的化身。从他蜷缩的,饱受摧残的肩膀到他紧张的,快速的演讲,艾森伯格带给我们一个最棒的伍迪”。尽管有批评说道,这部影片比不上导演最佳的作品,它仍被《独立报》评价是一部“文雅,异想天开,奢华的影片”,宣称“尽管伍迪随着年龄增大,身体状况可能不如从前,但他仍然懂得如何将悲痛穿插在喜剧之中。”本片七月十四日在泰国上映,七月十五日在美国上映,七月二十一日在俄罗斯上映。Tale of Tales《故事的故事》“Once upon a time there were three neighbouring kingdoms each with a magnificent castle, from which ruled kings and queens, princes and princesses. One king was a fornicating libertine, another captivated by a strange animal, while one of the queens was obsessed by her wish for a child.”The billing for Tale of Tales gives a clue as to the timbre of a film populated by “sorcerers and fairies, fearsome monsters, ogres and old washerwomen, acrobats and courtesans” –played by a strong ensemble cast that includes Salma Hayek, John C Reilly, Toby Jones and Vincent Cassel.“从前,有三个邻国,每一个王国都有一座富丽堂皇的城堡,受国王王后,王子公主的统治。一位国王是与人私通的浪荡子,另一位国王被一种奇怪的动物所迷惑,还有一位王后迫切地想要个孩子。”《故事的故事》演员表给我们提供了线索,从影片的音色中可以判断出人物众多,包括萨尔玛#8226;海耶克,约翰#8226;瑞里,托比#8226;琼斯和文森特#8226;卡塞尔在内的强大的演员阵容饰演了“巫师和仙女,可怕的怪物,食人魔和年老的洗衣女工,杂技演员和交际花。”A loose interpretation of the tales of the Italian poet Giambattista Basile, it’s a worthy addition to the recent glut of fairy tale films: B Culture’s Rebecca Laurence believes it presents a fresh angle. According to The Times, “The adult fairytale is a freakish, hybrid, disturbing creature, mostly forgotten in these days of Disney sanitisation, but Tale of Tales resurrects the genre with surreal humour and gothic horror.” Released 3 July in Germany, 6 July in Switzerland and 28 July in New Zealand.意大利诗人吉姆巴地斯达#8226;巴西耳对此发表了极具包容性的见解,尽管最近童话类电影市场饱和、供过于求,但这部影片的仍有上映价值:英国广播公司文化部的丽贝卡#8226;劳伦斯认为这部影片代表了一种全新的角度。据英国《泰晤士报》报道,“成人童话是异想天开的,混合多种因素的,令人烦扰的,对童话的多数记忆都停留在迪士尼时期,但《故事的故事》运用超现实主义的幽默和哥特式的恐怖使这种艺术类型得以复兴。”本片七月三日在德国上映,七月六日在瑞士上映,七月二十八在新西兰上映。Toni Erdmann《托尼#8226;厄德曼》“Based on a really brilliant script, you have a comedy of manners and of family life at the same time–and then it is brilliantly acted,” Verena Leuken of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung told B Culture’s editor Matthew Anderson at the Cannes Film Festival, where Toni Erdmann was one of the favourites to win the Palme d’Or. At its first press screening in Cannes, the film was greeted by critics with laughter and spontaneous applause, and it’s since been showered with five-star reviews.《法兰克福汇报》的维丽娜#8226;露文肯在戛纳电影节上向英国广播公司文化部的编辑马修#8226;安德森说道,“电影的剧本很棒,这既是一部风尚喜剧,也涉及家庭生活——这也就成就了一部优秀的影片”,《托尼#8226;厄德曼》作为最受欢迎的影片之一赢得了金棕榈奖。这部影片在戛纳初登荧屏之时,批评家就对其报以欢快的笑声和自发的掌声,从此以后这部影片一直沐浴着五星级影评的光辉。Telling the story of a father (Peter Simonischek) who disguises himself as a‘life coach’to get closer to his daughter (Sandra Hüller), a busy corporate strategist, it’s the third feature in 13 years from German writer-director Maren Ade.故事讲述的是一位父亲(皮特#8226;西蒙尼谢克饰)伪装成一位人生导师去接近他的女儿(桑德拉#8226;乌勒饰),他的女儿是一位忙碌的企业战略家,这是德国编导马伦#8226;艾达十三年中拍摄的第三部故事片。Time Out praised it for a“sly evocation of the absurdities and banalities of modern life”, while The Telegraph said that“The film’s sweetness and bitterness are held so perfectly in balance, and realised with such sinew-stiffening intensity, that watching it feels like a three-hour sports massage for your heart and soul.”There is plenty to provoke thoughts among the laughs, too.“It has some serious things to say about family dynamics, about the pressures that professional women face, and how working too much can hollow us out,” says Anderson. Released 14 July in Germany, 15 July in Austria and 21 July in Switzerland.Time Out称其“淘气得唤起了现代生活中的谬论和陈腐”,而《每日电讯报》“这部影片很好地平衡了甜蜜与苦涩,实现了环环相扣的紧张情节,看这部电影给你带来的精神上的冲击与看一场三小时的体育运动别无二致。”在欢笑声中也引起来许多思考。安德森说:“这部影片有其严肃之处,讲述了如何维持家庭活力,职业女性承担的压力以及过量的工作是如何将我们压垮。”七月十四日在德国上映,七月十五日在奥地利上映,七月二十一日在瑞士上映。Absolutely Fabulous《荒唐阿姨》One of the first comedies to skewer our current celebrity culture, Absolutely Fabulous emerged as a sketch on the show French amp; Saunders before becoming one of the most successful sitcoms of the 1990s. Some have argued it was best left in that decade–and writer and actor Jennifer Saunders, who stars as Edina alongside Joanna Lumley as Patsy, admits the media landscape has changed.“It is a different beast”, Saunders told The Independent.“The idea of PR now is that anyone can do it. Anyone can review a film, anyone can get their stuff online, so it is a very different world.”《荒唐阿姨》是首批讽刺时下名流文化的喜剧之一,最初出现在电视剧《弗兰奇和桑德斯》中,当时只是一部滑稽短剧,之后《荒唐阿姨》便成为上世纪九十年代最成功的情景喜剧之一。一些人说这是那个年代最成功的影片——作者兼演员詹妮弗#8226;桑德斯饰演埃迪娜,而乔安娜#8226;拉姆利则饰演帕琪。桑德斯承认媒体格局已经发生了变化。“这和以前不同了”,桑德斯告诉《独立报》。“现在任何人都可以做公关。任何人都可以电影,任何人都可以从网上得到他们想要的东西,因此这是一个非常不同的世界。”Yet despite that, she believes they have created a story that is relevant today.“I think the film reflects the fact that Patsy and Eddy don’t survive so well in that world because they#39;re not in control of it anymore.” The film has more than 60 cameos, including Rebel Wilson, Jon Hamm, Joan Collins, Barry Humphries, and Kate Moss–according to Saunders, the only person to turn down a role was Barack Obama. On general release from 1 July. (Credit: David Appleby)但是尽管如此,她仍相信他们创作了一个与现今密切相关的故事。“我认为这部影片反映了一个事实,帕齐和艾迪不能在那个世界中生活的很好,因为她们不再能够控制自己的命运。”这部电影有60多个配角,包括瑞贝尔#8226;威尔森,乔#8226;汉姆,琼#8226;考林斯,巴里#8226;汉弗莱斯和凯特#8226;丝——据桑德斯所说,贝拉克#8226;奥巴马是唯一拒绝出演的人。七月一日全面上映。The Commune《公社》Thomas Vinterberg (The Hunt, Far From the Madding Crowd) co-founded the Dogme 95 film collective with Nymphomaniac director Lars von Trier, a movement he has compared to a commune. Vinterberg spent part of his childhood in a co-operative household, memories of which form the basis for his latest film.托马斯#8226;温特伯格(电影《狩猎》和《远离尘嚣》的导演)和 《女性瘾者》的导演拉尔斯#8226;冯#8226;特里尔联合发起一场名叫道格玛95的电影运动,他将这场电影运动比作一个公社。托马斯#8226;温特伯格童年时期中一段时间生活在社区,他的最新一部电影的素材就是基于这段时期的经历。Set in 1970s Copenhagen, the Commune follows married couple Anna (Trine Dyrholm) and Erik (Ulrich Thomsen) as they experiment with collective living in the house Erik inherited from his father. The Guardian praised Dyrholm for her“emotional and intensely focused lead performance”, while Sight and Sound called it“his finest since Festen…more authentic than many of its predecessors”, and argued:“Vinterberg resists the temptation to dismiss the 70s commune experiment as naive, misguided or doomed to failure: while it may not have worked out perfectly for all who tried it, many, he suggests, found it rewardingly supportive and worthwhile.”《公社》故事发生在20世纪70年代的哥本哈根,讲述的是埃里克从他父亲那里继承下一幢别墅,埃里克(乌尔里奇#8226;汤姆森饰)和安娜(翠娜#8226;迪斯霍尔姆饰)夫妇试着与其他人共同生活在这个房子里。《卫报》称赞了翠娜#8226;迪斯霍尔姆“饱满而炽热的情感以及对故事情节的精准把握”,同时,电影杂志《视与听》称这部影片是托马斯#8226;温特伯格自《家宴》以来最好的一部电影,较之前的作品而言更具真实性,并说道,“温特伯格不落窠臼,他并不认为上世纪70年代进行的的公社实验是幼稚之举,具有误导性并注定失败:尽管公社对所有尝试过的人并不完全适用,但温特伯格认为许多人仍然觉得公社运动是值得持并具有意义的。”Released 15 July in Sweden, 29 July in the UK and 19 August in Poland.本片七月十五日在瑞典上映,七月二十九日在英国上映,八月十九日在波兰上映。Star Trek Beyond《星际迷航:超越星辰》The third instalment of another rebooted franchise stars Chris Pine as Captain Kirk and Zachary Quinto as Spock, described by The Telegraph as“an emotional shape-shifter, the charmer who might also be dangerous–or the implacably stoic half-Vulcan who’s somehow an amazing friend”. Zoe Saldana (Uhura) co-stars alongside Anton Yelchin (Chekov), in what was to be his one of his final roles–tributes have been paid to the 27-year-old actor, who died after he was pinned against a wall by his car.《星际迷航》系列电影的第三部,由克里斯#8226;派恩饰演柯克舰长,扎克瑞#8226;昆图饰演史波克,《每日电讯报》称其为“情感丰富的变形者,当然可爱的人也可能是具有危险性的,而极其坚忍的半人伏尔甘有时也会是很好的朋友。”这部电影的联合主演还有佐伊#8226;索尔达娜(饰乌胡拉)和安东#8226;尤金(饰契诃夫),安东#8226;尤金因车祸离世,年仅27岁,这部电影也是向他人生最后的角色之一致敬。In May, the film’s cast mourned the loss of Leonard Nimoy, as Quinto said“In a way I feel like he’s almost more a part of this film than he was of the other two. We were all so cognizant of his absence.”5月份公布的电影演员表里也少了伦纳德#8226;尼莫伊,正如昆图所说:“某种程度上我觉得他在这部电影中的分量并不逊色于其他两部电影,这也让我们清楚地认识到他现在已经不在了。On general release from 19 July.七月十九日全面上映。Swiss Army Man《瑞士军人》Described as“the strangest Sundance film ever”, Swiss Army Man divided critics when it premiered at the film festival in January. Paul Dano (Love amp; Mercy) plays a man stranded on a desert island; Daniel Radcliffe (The Woman in Black, Harry Potter) is a farting corpse who washes up on shore. The two become friends in what is billed as“a gonzo buddy comedy”, an improbable story that is“proudly scatological”, according to Slate.被冠以“史上最奇怪的圣丹斯电影”的称号,《瑞士军人》在一月份电影节上首次公演获得的影评褒贬不一。保罗#8226;达诺(作品《爱与慈悲》)饰演一位被困在荒岛上的男人;丹尼尔#8226;拉德克利夫(作品《黑衣女人》,《哈利#8226;波特》)饰演一具被冲上海岸的还臭屁不断的尸体。这部电影被宣传为“一部怪诞兄弟类喜剧片”,两位主演在电影中成为了好友,就像斯莱特所说,这个看起来天方夜谭的故事“以粗俗为亮点”。“The tale of a marooned castaway and the friendly cadaver who nurses him back to health, Swiss Army Man opens as a desert-island fantasy and morphs into a disturbingly intimate buddy movie–hilarious, deranged, and always alive with possibility.”It’s the feature film debut of music directors Daniel Scheinert and Daniel Kwan, who manage to“create something improbably beautiful out of what could have been a feature-length fart joke”. Released 1 July in the US, 14 July in Australia and 22 July in Estonia.“故事讲述了一个人漂流到荒岛孤立无援,得到了一具亡灵仍存且待人友好的尸体的照顾,《瑞士军人》起初以荒岛幻想为主要基调,然后转变成了一部亲密的兄弟电影——这部电影搞笑疯狂,而且充满各种可能。”这部剧情片是音乐视频片导演丹尼尔#8226;斯切乃特和丹尼尔#8226;关坤的处女作,他们“创造出一些不太可能会发生的美好的事情,从中引起了一段长篇囧事”。七月一日在美国上映,七月十四日在澳大利亚上映,七月二十二日在爱沙尼亚上映。Our Kind of Traitor《我们这种叛徒》Ewan McGregor and Naomie Harris star in the latest John le Carré adaptation, produced by Simon and Stephen Cornwell, le Carré’s sons, who also made The Night Manager. The screenplay was written by Hossein Amini (Wings of a Dove, Drive), who is praised by The Evening Standard for making“highly incisive and effective revisions”to le Carré’s 2010 novel:“This is a new, wholly contemporary le Carré film, sumptuously paced and produced, taking in many striking settings, miles away from the drabness so stylishly cultivated in Tomas Alfredson’s Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy of 2011”. Stellan Skarsg#229;rd and Damian Lewis co-star as a Russian criminal and MI6 man; according to Entertainment Weekly,“Skarsg#229;rd saves it; wild and funny and ferociously alive, he’s a crucial bolt of color in all that tasteful gray.”Released 1 July in the US, 7 July in Germany and 21 July in Brazil.伊万#8226;麦格雷戈和娜奥米#8226;哈里斯主演了由约翰#8226;勒#8226;卡雷最新改编的电影,勒#8226;卡雷的儿子西蒙#8226;康奈尔和史蒂芬#8226;康奈尔担任制片人,他们也曾制作过《夜班经理》。电影剧本由霍辛#8226;阿米尼(作品《鸽之翼》、《亡命驾驶》)编写,《标准晚报》称赞其对勒#8226;卡雷2010年的小说作出了“高度精准的生动改编”。报上说“这是一部崭新的、充满现代气息的卡雷式电影,鸿篇巨制、场景浩繁,摆脱了枯燥无味,巧妙地吸收了2011年托马斯#8226;阿尔弗莱德森拍摄的《间谍疑云》的精华”。斯特兰#8226;斯卡斯加德和戴米恩#8226;路易斯联合主演了俄罗斯罪犯及军情六处特工。据《周刊》报道,“斯卡斯加德以狂野豪放又生动有趣的方式演活了这部电影,是这部电影引人玩味的灰色基调中的重要一环”。七月一日在美国上映,七月七日在德国上映,七月二十一日在巴西上映。 /201607/453075

  Michael Dobie moved to Liming in September 2010 with two friends who discovered the Chinese village in a travel brochure. Crisscrossed by dirt roads, the rustic setting in the mountains of Yunnan province offered few amenities.2010年9月,迈克尔·多比(Michael Dobie)和两个朋友搬去了黎明村。正是这两个朋友在一本旅游指南中发现了这个中国村庄。这里位于云南省的山区,泥土路纵横交错,几乎没什么便利设施。“It was pretty wild,” Dobie said. “People were walking miles into town for supplies. It was kind of just one street, that type of traditional village.”“非常偏远,”多比说。“进城买东西要走很远的路。差不多只有一条街道,就是那种传统的村庄。”But the group came with a purpose — to establish traditional, or “trad,” climbing in China — and for this, Liming offered two advantages. First, its endowment of soaring sandstone cliffs was rich with cracks and crevices ideal for the sport. Second, the local government embraced their vision and granted permits to explore the surrounding crags. In the early months of 2011, Dobie set out cleaning routes, removing undergrowth and knocking away loose rock. By the summer, he’d finished more than 40.但他们来这里是有目的的——在中国推广传统攀岩,而在这一点上,黎明村有两个优势。首先,这里高耸入云的砂岩悬崖上布满了裂口和缝隙,非常适合进行传统攀岩。其次,当地政府持他们的设想,准许他们探索四周的悬崖。2011年初,多比开始清理路线,清除矮树丛,敲掉松动的岩石。到夏天的时候,他已经清理完了40多条路线。Traditional climbing differs from other varieties like sport climbing in the method climbers use to protect themselves against falls. While sport climbers tie into a line of permanently fixed bolts, traditional climbers carry along a set of removable anchoring devices that they jam into cracks in the rock face. The skill involved in making placements that will hold a person’s weight and break a big fall adds difficulty, and the extra equipment costs are significant.传统攀岩不同于运动攀岩等其他攀岩的地方,在于攀岩者用来防止自己跌落的方式。进行运动攀岩的人会把自己固定在一排永久固定的螺栓附近,而传统攀岩者会随身携带一套可拆卸的锚固装置,并把它们卡在岩面的裂缝里。攀岩者安放的装置要能承载自身的重量,在坠落时也能撑住。这其中涉及的技巧增加了这项运动的难度,额外的设备成本也很高。In part because of these differences, sport climbing became popular in China as early as the 1980s while traditional remained all but unknown. By 2010, other southern cities like Yangshuo and Kunming had cultivated homegrown sport climbing communities, with hundreds of routes developed by multiple generations of enthusiasts.在一定程度上正是因为这些区别,运动攀岩早在80年代就在中国流行起来了,而传统攀岩依然几乎不为人知。到2010年,中国南方的阳朔和昆明等城市都培养出了本土的运动攀岩群体,几代爱好者开辟出了成百上千条路线。“I consider Yangshuo the Yosemite of China because it’s where rock climbing started here, and it’s the largest place in China,” said Andrew Hedesh, a Yangshuo-based climber and author of a forthcoming guidebook on the area. But the dearth of traditional climbing frustrated Dobie.“我觉得阳朔就是中国的优胜美地(Yosemite),因为攀岩就是从那里开始发展起来的,那里是中国最大的攀岩圣地,”身在阳朔的攀岩爱好者安德鲁·赫德什(Andrew Hedesh)说。他写的一本介绍该地区的指南即将出版。但传统攀岩的稀少令多比感到失望。“At the beginning I saw it as a service project,” he said. “All the people developing over the last 20 years in China have all been foreigners doing sport climbing. So the Chinese, that was all they knew.”“刚开始我把它当做是一个务项目,”他说。“过去20年里,在中国推广攀岩的人,都是进行运动攀岩的外国人。中国人也一样,他们只知道运动攀岩。”Less than a year after its inception, however, Dobie’s project took on an unlikely life of its own. Word of his efforts in Liming sp abroad, and professional climbers, including Matt Segal, began to notice. Segal visited Liming in 2011 to explore and develop new, more challenging routes, documenting his trip for a wider, international network of climbers with sleek s and colorful articles. 然而,开始不到一年后,多比这个项目的命运出现了意想不到的变化。有关他在黎明进行的多项活动的消息传到了国外,包括马特·塞加尔(Matt Segal)在内的一些职业攀岩者开始关注。2011年,塞加尔前往黎明村探索和开发更具挑战性的新路线,并用优美的视频和引人入胜的文章记录下了自己一路的见闻,向更广大的国际攀岩社区介绍了这里。The next year, Liming held its first trad festival, backed by major sponsors. Segal returned to participate.第二年,黎明举办首届传统攀岩交流大会,得到了大型赞助商的持。塞加尔重回故地,参加交流大会。“It was crazy to go back to this area where I felt like I was developing routes for myself, to see dozens and dozens of Chinese climbing these 5.9s that I was like, ‘Nobody’s ever going to be climbing these,’” said Segal, referring to the Yosemite Decimal System which ranks climbs on a scale from 5.0 to 5.15.“我曾在这个地区开发路线,当时感觉是在给自己开发,觉得‘没人会来这儿攀岩’,而今我回到这里,看到很多中国人在攀登这些难度系数为5.9s的峭壁,我觉得很兴奋,”塞加尔说。他指的是优胜美地登山难度系数(Yosemite Decimal System),范围是5.0至5.15。“Liming is turning into a world-class climbing destination.”“黎明正变成世界级的攀岩目的地。”For most of China’s modern history, a tumultuous political climate and strict regulations left the country closed off to any would-be foreign explorers. But as restrictions were eased in the late 20th century, its vast interior and potentially exceptional terrain have captivated the interest of climbers and outdoor enthusiasts worldwide. Mark Synnott, a professional mountaineer who was one of the first foreigners to climb in a newly opened Tibet in 2002, is among them.在中国现代历史的大部分时间里,政治环境动荡,政府管制严格,任何外国探索者都无法进入这个国家。但是20世纪末限制放松后,中国广袤的内陆和潜在的独特地形引起了世界各地登山者和户外运动爱好者的兴趣。职业登山运动员马克·辛诺特(Mark Synnott)是其中之一。他是2002年西藏开放不久时第一批去那里登山的外国人之一。“One thing that stuck with me since that trip is how much of China, back then and still today, is unexplored,” he said. “China may be the place that holds the biggest treasure trove of unexplored mountain territory in the world.”“那次旅行之后,我一直在想,中国还有多少地方无人涉足——不管是那时还是现在,”他说,“中国未开发山峰的宝库也许是世界上最大的。”Segal, who has retuned to China several times to scout other areas outside Liming, agreed. “You can just kind of like point your finger at a map of China and find good rock, and some of it’s getting developed really fast,” he said.塞加尔后来几次回到中国,探索黎明之外的其他区域。他和辛诺特的想法一样。“你随便在中国地图上指一个地方,就能在那里找到很好的峭壁,有些地方开发得很快,”他说。Given the scale of China’s unexplored inland, Liming’s evolution under Dobie might suggest a coming boom in new climbing areas. But the same ruggedness that makes China’s outback so enticing also creates obstacles to new development.由于中国内陆未勘察的地方还有很多,所以黎明在多比的开发下所取得的进步可能意味着会出现一大批新的攀岩地点。但是中国内地令人着迷的崎岖不平也给新的开发带来不便。“Yangshuo is in Guangxi province and within Guangxi there are aly about 12 different climbing spots,” Hedesh said. “It’s just that nobody goes to them because they’re in the middle of nowhere.”“阳朔在广西,其境内已有约12处攀岩点,”赫德什说,“不过中很多地方就是没人去,因为地点实在太偏僻。”For this reason, some more-established climbers doubt that the sport is moving away from its traditional centers, at least for now.也正是因为这个原因,有些名气更大的攀岩家对于这项运动正在远离它传统中心的说法是持怀疑态度的,至少目前是这种情况。“I think Yangshuo is going to continue to be the epicenter of climbing in China,” said Adam Kritzer, the owner of Climb Dali, a climbing club in central Yunnan. “There are probably a few dozen potential Limings in China, but they aren’t going to get developed any time soon.”“我认为,阳朔会继续成为中国的攀岩中心,”云南中部的攀岩俱乐部大理攀岩(Climb Dali)的所有者亚当·克里策(Adam Kritzer)说,“中国很可能还有几十个地方具有黎明那样的潜质,但它们在短时间内得不到开发。”Yet while the familiar sport climbing hubs still dominate China’s climbing scene today, others see a transition ahead. Driven by a growing Chinese middle class that can afford to travel, rock climbing has become increasingly popular as an outdoor recreation sport.不过,虽然如今的中国攀岩业仍以常见的运动攀岩地点为主,但也有人认为未来会发生变化。随着有财力旅行的中国中产阶级的壮大,攀岩变成一种越来越受欢迎的户外休闲运动项目。“Climbing has been in parts of the Chinese community for the past 15 years, and it’s really been in gyms and Yangshuo, but now people want the adventure part of it,” said Colin Flahive, a founder of Dali Bar, a natural food company in Kunming that sponsors China-based climbers. “With climbing there’s the exercise and there’s the drive to reach new levels, so going to the gym is almost as exciting as going to the crag. But when you move past that, the excitement of going to new places and exploring new spots is the second phase of climbing, and I think that’s where everything is moving at this point.”“在过去15年里,攀岩已经出现在中国社会中,主要是在健身馆里和阳朔,但现在人们想获得攀岩的冒险体验,”昆明天然食品公司达力巴(Dali Bar)的创始人科林·弗拉海夫(Colin Flahive)说。该公司为在中国的攀岩者提供赞助。“如果人们攀岩是为了锻炼身体或达到更高水平,那么去健身房和去峭壁几乎同样令人兴奋。但是当你过了那个阶段,下一阶段就是想获得去新地方探索新攀岩点的兴奋感。我认为,现在一切都在朝那个方向发展。”This expansion into new areas has been helped along by a number of entrepreneurs who have seized on the sport’s growth as a business opportunity. “There are these Chinese outdoor companies that want to become larger names, and so what they do is they hire people to go develop routes,” Hedesh said. “They get an entire team of famous rock climbers, travel around for a month and put up 50 routes in an area.”向新地区的扩展得到一些企业家的帮助,他们从这项运动的发展中看到了商机。“有些中国户外运动公司想更出名,所以他们雇人开发新路线,”赫德希说,“他们请来全部是著名攀岩者组成的队伍,四处旅行一个月,在一个地区开发50条线路。”While this business-driven model feels unnatural to some western climbers, others see it as the realistic next step. “I think a lot of it has to do with the culture of China and the way that a lot of Chinese people think, maybe more in terms of business rather than the joy of climbing,” Kritzer said. “But it’s basically worked really well for the development of climbing. It’s made it a little more commercialized, but it’s enabled people to develop areas that wouldn’t otherwise be developed.”虽然这种商业驱动的模式在一些西方攀岩者看来不是自然发展,但也有人认为那是下一步的现实步骤。“我觉得这与中国文化以及很多中国人的思维方式有很大关系,他们更多的是从商业角度而非享受攀岩的角度出发,”克里策说道。“不过总体来说,它对攀岩的发展很有用。它虽然让攀岩变得更商业化了一点,但它能让人们去开发原本得不到开发的地方。”The relatively free license to develop far-flung rural areas for rock climbing is another aspect of China that many find exceptional. Where other countries have rigid national laws governing public land, China’s land administration system gives a great deal of authority to leaders at the local level. So particularly in the mountains, where agricultural and commercial interest is minimal, climbers are generally welcomed.相对来说,中国政府对在偏远农村地区开发攀岩项目没有限制,在很多人眼里,这也是中国的一大优势。其他国家对公共土地管理制定了严格的国家法律,但中国的土地管理制度赋予地方领导者很大的权限。尤其是在几乎毫无农业和商业价值的山区,攀岩者总的来说是受欢迎的。“The freedom we have here is really nice,” said Peter Mortimer, a researcher at the World Agroforestry Centre and a Kunming-based climber. “I’ve bolted and climbed a bit in Laos, Vietnam and Thailand, and there there’s always issues — there’s a lot of red tape. But here I’m just kind of free of all of that, which appeals to me.”“我们在这里真的拥有很大的自由,”世界农林业研究中心(World Agroforestry Centre)的研究员、驻扎在昆明的攀岩者彼得·莫蒂默(Peter Mortimer)说道。“我在老挝、越南和泰国攀过岩,总是有各种问题,需要很多审批手续。但这里几乎完全不需要审批,这一点很吸引我。”He added: “The easy access and the low level of restriction in terms of development just means it’s going to take off.”他补充说:“从开发角度讲,这里很便利,限制少,那意味着它会蓬勃发展。”With growing numbers of well-off Chinese able to travel in search of newer and better terrain, some believe this coalescence of natural advantages will make China’s hinterland more appealing to the next generation of climbers.越来越多有财力旅行的富裕中国人在寻找更新、更好的地形,所以有些人认为,所有这些因素会使中国内地对下一代攀岩者更具吸引力。“Krabi in Thailand, which used to be all Europeans and Americans, it’s now almost all Chinese climbers going down there,” Flahive said. “In that search for adventure, there’s going internationally, but then there’s also developing the local stuff. In Yangshuo, the rock is getting polished. People are craving something new.”“泰国的甲米府(Krabi)原来到处都是欧洲人和美国人,现在那里几乎全是中国攀岩者,”弗拉海夫说道。“追求冒险已成为全球趋势,但人们也在开发地方特色。阳朔的岩石正被磨光。人们渴望新事物。”Mortimer, who continues to develop outside Kunming, said: “I noticed that in some of these areas I’d been developing, people I’d never even seen before had somehow heard of it and were appearing at the crags. Ten minutes from one of our favorite crags here we just followed a new farm road and came across a new cliff that’ll yield another 60 climbs. It’s just been sitting there like 10 minutes away. Who knows what else is in the hills.”莫蒂默继续在昆明之外的地方开发。他说:“我注意到,在我开发的一些区域,一些我从没见过的人不知怎么听说了它,出现在那些峭壁上。我们从最喜欢的一块峭壁出发,沿着新建的乡间公路走了10分钟,发现一块新的峭壁,它有潜力跻身60个经典攀岩点之列。它就在10分钟路程之外的地方。谁知道山里还有什么。”Now back in the ed States, Dobie is quick to admit that despite his work in Liming, traditional is still very much a niche part of China’s climbing scene. “It rings true for the rest of the world — most people are really into sport climbing,” he said. “I don’t think Liming will ever be as popular with the Chinese as sport climbing.”已经回到美国的多比承认,虽然他在黎明做了很多工作,传统攀岩在中国攀岩界仍是小众市场。“在世界其他地方也是如此——大部分人真的喜欢运动攀岩,”他说。“我觉得,黎明在中国人中永远不会像运动攀岩那样受欢迎。”But even among this small community, he has aly witnessed a growing appetite for new undertakings. “Some of the Chinese climbers who’ve been to Liming have started developing another area called Beiliu in Guangxi, so that’s an example of them finding something of their own, in their own country, that I’d never seen, and then starting to develop,” he said.但是,即便在这个小圈子里,他已经看到了人们对新项目越来越大的兴趣。“去过黎明的一些中国攀岩者开始在广西北流进行开发,这个例子明,他们在自己的国家自己找到一个地方进行开发——那是我没见过的地方,”他说。“People in Yangshou once said the Chinese would never get into sport climbing, and now you go there and there are like 40 people sharing a crag,” Dobie said. “I think there’s this sense of disbelief about something new. I think it’s human.”“阳朔的攀岩者曾经说,中国人永远不会迷上运动攀岩,现在你去那里看看,一块岩壁上能有40个人,”多比说道。“我认为,这是因为人们对新事物有一种不信任感。我觉得这是人的本性。” /201606/447442“The huge challenge of this work is to help patients feel more normal and less alone during this unusual experience of dying,” he said. “The more we can articulate that people do have vivid dreams and visions, the more we can be helpful.”“这项工作所面临的巨大挑战是,我们需要帮助患者在逐步走向死亡这种不寻常的历程中感觉更正常,减轻他们的孤独感,”他说。“人在临终时确实有着生动的梦境和幻象。这一点我们传达得越清楚,对患者的帮助就越大。”Other research suggests that dreams seem to express emotions that have been building. Tore Nielsen, a dream neuroscience researcher and director of the Dream and Nightmare Laboratory, at the University of Montreal, surmised that at the end of life, such a need becomes more insistent. Troubled dreams erupt with excessive energy. But positive dreams can serve a similar purpose.其他的一些研究表明,梦境是对累积情绪的一种表达。加拿大蒙特利尔大学(University of Montreal)梦境与梦魇研究实验室(Dream and Nightmare Laboratory)主任、梦境神经系统科学研究员托雷·尼尔森(Tore Nielsen)推测,人在走到生命尽头时,用做梦宣泄情感的需求变得越发迫切。患者通过噩梦来发泄过剩的精力。不过,积极的梦境也可以起到类似的作用。“The motivation and pressure for these dreams is coming from a place of fear and uncertainty,” he said. “The dreamers are literally helping themselves out of a tough spot.”“患者之所以会做这种梦,出自他们的恐惧和不确定,”他说。“实际上,他们是在通过做梦这种方式帮助自己走出困境。”In the weeks and days before death, the dreams of the patients in the study tended to occur with greater frequency, populated with the dead rather than the living. The researchers suggest that such phenomena might even have prognostic value.这项研究中的患者在离世前几周或几天内做梦往往更加频繁,且梦境中故去者要多于活着的人。研究人员认为,这种现象甚至可能具有一定的预测价值。“I was an aggressive physician, always asking, ‘Is there more we can do?’ ” said Dr. Kerr, who is also the chief medical officer for Hospice Buffalo. “There was a patient who I thought needed to be rehydrated, and we could buy him some time.” But, he said, a nurse, familiar with the patient’s dreams, cautioned: “‘You don’t get it. He is seeing his dead mother.’ He died two days later.”“我是一个有进取心的医生,我总是问自己:‘我们是不是还可以再做些什么?’”克尔士说道;他也是水牛城临终关怀中心的首席医疗官。“曾有一名患者,我认为他需要接受再水化治疗,这样可以让他多活些时日。”但是,一位熟悉患者梦境的护士告诫他说:“你不明白。他梦见了自己死去的母亲。”“两天后,那名患者去世了。”他说。Certainly, many dying patients cannot communicate. Or they recount typical dream detritus: a dwarf lifting the refrigerator, neighbors bringing a chicken and a monkey into the patient’s apartment. And some patients, to their disappointment, do not remember their dreams.当然,有许多垂危的患者丧失了与人交流的能力,或者他们只能回忆起梦境中的细枝末节:侏儒抬着冰箱;邻居把一只鸡和一只猴子带进患者的公寓什么的。还有患者沮丧地表示自己记不起做了什么梦。Dr. Kerr, who recently gave a talk at TEDxBuffalo about the research, said he was simply advocating that health care providers ask patients open-ended questions about dreams, without fear of recrimination from family and colleagues.克尔士最近在TEDxBuffalo就这项研究发表了演讲,他说自己只是提倡医务人员用开放式的问题来询问患者的梦境,无需担心会招致患者家属和同事的指责。“Often when we sedate them, we are sterilizing them from their own dying process,” he said. “I have done it, and it feels horrible. They’ll say, ‘You robbed me — I was with my wife.’”“我们常常会给他们使用镇静剂,使他们走得平静,”他说。“我干过这种事,感觉很糟糕。患者们会说:‘你们打扰了我——我本来正在梦中和妻子相会呢。’”While the patient was lying in bed, her mother by her side, she had a vision: She saw her mother’s best friend, Mary, who died of leukemia years ago, in her mother’s bedroom, playing with the curtains. Mary’s hair was long again. “I had a feeling she was coming to say, ‘You’re going to be O.K.’ I felt relief and happiness and I wasn’t afraid of it at all.” — Jessica Stone, 13, who had Ewing’s sarcoma, a type of bone cancer, a few months before she died.有一名患者在母亲陪在她床边的时候出现了幻象:她看到了她母亲最好的朋友,多年前死于白血病的玛丽在她母亲的卧室摆弄着窗帘。玛丽的头发又长长了。“我有一种感觉,她来是想对我说:‘没关系,一切都会好起来的。’我感到宽慰和幸福,再也不害怕了。”——身患尤文氏肉瘤(一种骨癌)的13岁女孩杰西卡·斯通(Jessica Stone)在去世几个月前讲述。Many in hospice suffer from delirium, which can affect up to 85 percent of hospitalized patients at the end of life. In a delirious state, brought on by fever, brain metastases or end-stage changes in body chemistry, circadian rhythms are severely disordered, so the patient may not know whether he is awake or dreaming. Cognition is altered.临终关怀中心的许多患者都患有谵妄(delirium),患病率在住院的临终患者中可高达85%。发热、肿瘤的脑转移或人体在垂危时的化学变化导致患者神志不清,这种状态下他们的昼夜节律严重紊乱,因此很可能搞不清楚自己究竟是醒着还是在做梦,认知功能也受到了影响。Those who care for the terminally ill are inclined to see end-of-life dreams as manifestations of delirium. But the Hospice Buffalo researchers say that while some study patients slipped in and out of delirium, their end-of-life dreams were not, by definition, the product of such a state. Delirious patients generally cannot engage with others or give a coherent, organized narrative. The hallucinations they are able to describe may be traumatizing, not comforting.照顾绝症患者的人倾向于将临终的梦境视作谵妄的表现。但水牛城临终关怀中心的研究人员表示,虽然参与研究的患者时不时地陷入谵妄,但依据定义来看,临终的梦境并非这种状态的产物。神志不清的患者一般无法与他人互动或进行连贯的、有条理的陈述。他们能描述出来的只有那些给他们带来伤害和不适的幻觉,而舒适安逸的那类则不行。Yet the question remains of what to make of these patients’ claims of “dreaming while awake,” or having “visions” — and the not-uncommon phenomena of seeing deceased relatives or friends hovering on the ceiling or in corners.然而,问题是:这些患者“做白日梦”或出现“幻象”,“看到已故亲友在天花板或角落徘徊”等这类异常现象,其根源究竟在哪里。Donna Brennan, a longtime nurse with Hospice Buffalo, recalled chatting on the couch with a 92-year-old patient with congestive heart failure. Suddenly, the patient looked over at the door and called out, “Just a minute, I’m speaking with the nurse.”唐娜·布伦南(Donna Brennan)是水牛城临终关怀中心的一名老护士了,她回忆起与一名92岁的充血性心力衰竭患者在沙发上聊天的情形:突然之间,患者朝门口看了一眼,喊道,“稍等一下,我在跟护士谈话呢。”Told that no one was there, the patient smiled, saying it was Aunt Janiece (her dead sister) and patted a couch cushion, showing “the visitor” where to sit. Then the patient cheerfully turned back to Mrs. Brennan and finished her conversation.在被告知那里没有人后,患者露出了微笑,说来者是詹妮斯阿姨(Aunt Janiece,她已故的姊姊),还拍拍沙发坐垫,示意“访客”坐下。然后乐呵呵地转回身来继续跟布伦南谈话。In her notes, Mrs. Brennan described the episode as a “hallucination,” a red flag for delirium. When the episode was recounted to Dr. Kerr and Anne Banas, a Hospice Buffalo neurologist and palliative care physician, they preferred the term “vision.”布伦南在记录中将此事称为“幻觉(hallucination)”,这是谵妄的一个警示信号。而当克尔士和水牛城临终关怀中心的神经学家、姑息治疗医生安妮·巴纳斯(Anne Banas)听到这段叙述时,他们更偏向于使用“幻象(vision)”一词。“Is there meaning to the vision or is it disorganized?” Dr. Banas asked. “If there is meaning, does that need to be explored? Does it bring comfort or is it distressing? We have a responsibility to ask that next question. It can be cathartic, and patients often need to share. And if we don’t ask, look what we may miss.”“这些幻象是别有意义还是杂乱无章?”巴纳斯士问道。“如果它们别有意义,那是否需要深入探讨?我们有责任进一步追问:它们是令人舒心还是苦恼?临终的幻象可能充满了情绪宣泄,患者通常需要有人和他们一同分担。要是我们不闻不问,我们恐怕会错过什么!”Dr. William Breitbart, chairman of the psychiatry department at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, who has written about delirium and palliative care, said that a team’s response must also consider bedside caregivers: “These dreams or visions can be interpreted by family members as comforting, linking them to the legacy of their ancestry.美国纪念斯隆-凯特琳癌症中心(Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)的精神科主任威廉·布赖特巴特(William Breitbart)士曾经撰写过关于谵妄和姑息治疗的报告,他表示,医护团队在工作时必须将床边照护者也考虑在内:“家属们可能会将这些梦境和幻象解读为一种安慰,将它们视作与祖先相联系的纽带。“But if people don’t believe that, they can be distressed. ‘My mother is hallucinating and seeing dead people. Do something about it!’” Dr. Breitbart trains staff to respect the families’ beliefs and help them understand the complexities of delirium.“但是,如果人们不相信这些,就可能因此而苦恼。“我的母亲产生了幻觉,老是看到死去的人。快做点什么来改变这种状况!’”布赖特巴特士训练工作人员尊重家属的观念,并帮助他们了解谵妄的复杂性。Some dream episodes occur during what is known as “mixed-state sleep” — when the boundaries between wakefulness and sleep become fragmented, said Dr. Carlos H. Schenck, a psychiatrist and sleep expert at the University of Minnesota Medical School. Jessica Stone, the teenager with Ewing’s sarcoma, spoke movingly about a dream of her dead dog, Shadow. When she awoke, she said, she saw his long, dark shape alongside her bed.美国明尼苏达大学医学院(University of Minnesota Medical School)的精神病学家、睡眠专家卡洛斯·H·申克(Carlos H. Schenck)士说,某些梦发生在所谓的“混合睡眠”,也就是俗话说的半睡半醒状态下。身患尤文氏肉瘤的少女杰西卡·斯通生前曾经动情地讲述她梦见了自己死去的爱犬——影子(Shadow)。她还说,自己醒过来的时候,看到它修长的深色身影就在她的床边。Dr. Banas, the neurologist, favors the phrase end-of-life experiences. “I try to normalize it for the family, because how they perceive it can push them away from that bedside or bring them closer,” she said.神经学家巴纳斯士更喜欢称其为“临终体验”。她说:“我试着让患者的家属视其为一种正常的现象,因为他们对此的看法可以令他们与患者的关系变得疏离或者亲近。”The patient had never really talked about the war. But in his final dreams, the stories emerged. In the first, the bloody dying were everywhere. On Omaha Beach, at Normandy. In the waves. He was a 17-year-old gunner on a rescue boat, trying frantically to bring them back to the U.S.S. Texas. “There is nothing but death and dead soldiers all around me,” he said. In another, a dead soldier told him, “They are going to come get you next week.” Finally, he dreamed of getting his discharge papers, which he described as “comforting.” He died in his sleep two days later. — John, 88, who had lymphoma. 有一名患者,之前从未怎么谈及过战争。但在他生命最后的梦境中,那些故事浮出了水面。第一个梦里,他梦见到处都是血淋淋的濒死的士兵。那是诺曼底的奥马哈海滩,波涛拍岸。当年才17岁的他是救援艇上的射击手,他们拼命地想把伤员们抢救出来,送回得克萨斯号战舰(U.S.S.Texas)上。“我的周围除了死亡和死去的大兵之外,一无所有,”他说。在另一个梦里,一名死去的士兵对他说:“他们下周会来接你。”最后,他梦见自己拿到了退伍书,他说这让自己“松了一口气”。两天后,患者在睡梦中离开了人世。——他的名字是约翰(John),88岁,患有淋巴瘤。Not all end-of-life dreams soothe the dying. Researchers found that about 20 percent were upsetting. Often, those who had suffered trauma might revisit it in their dying dreams. Some can resolve those experiences. Some cannot.并非所有的临终梦境都能给濒死之人带来抚慰。研究人员发现,约20%的梦令人郁闷。通常情况下,曾经遭受过创伤的人很可能会在临终的梦境中再度体会到那些伤痛。有些人可以泰然处之,不会为之所困扰。有些人则做不到。When should doctors intervene with antipsychotic or anti-anxiety medication, to best allow the patient a peaceful death? For the Hospice Buffalo physicians, the decision is made with a team assessment that includes input from family members.医生应该在何时采用抗精神病药物或抗焦虑药物等手段进行干预,从而尽可能地令患者在平静安详中渡过人生的最后时光呢?水牛城临终关怀中心的医生们认为,这种决策应通过团队评估来达成,包括患者家属提供的信息。Dr. Kerr said: “Children will see their parents in an altered state and think they’re suffering and fighting their dying. But if you say: ‘She’s talking about dead people, and that’s normal. I’ll bet you can learn a lot about her and your family,’ you may see the relative calming down and taking notes.”克尔士说:“儿女们发现父母处于异常的精神状态下,会觉得他们是在痛苦地与死亡抗争。但如果这时你告诉他们:‘她是在与故去的人交谈,这很正常。我敢打赌你能从中了解到很多关于她以及你的家庭的事情,’说不定家属们就会慢慢平静下来,还会做记录。”Without receiving sufficient information from the family, a team may not know how to the patient’s agitation. One patient seemed tormented by nightmares. The Hospice Buffalo team interviewed family members, who reluctantly disclosed that the woman had been sexually abused as a girl. The family was horrified that she was reliving these memories in her dying days.如果不能从患者的家人那里获得足够的信息,团队可能就无从解读患者焦躁不安的根源。有一名患者一直噩梦缠身。水牛城临终关怀中心的团队约见了他的亲属,他不情愿地透露,患者在少女时代曾遭受过性侵。她在临终之际又一次陷入了这些记忆,令她的家人惊骇不已。Armed with this information, the team chose to administer anti-anxiety medication, rather than just antipsychotics. The woman relaxed and was able to have a powerful exchange with a priest. She died during a quiet sleep, several days later.获得了这一信息,团队选择给患者使用抗焦虑药物治疗,而非单用抗精神病药物。这名患者放松了下来,也可以与牧师进行有效的交流了。几天后,她在平静的睡眠中逝世。This fall, Mrs. Brennan, the nurse, would check in on a patient with end-stage lung cancer who was a former police officer. He told her that he had “done bad stuff” on the job. He said he had cheated on his wife and was estranged from his children. His dreams are never peaceful, Mrs. Brennan said. “He gets stabbed, shot or can’t breathe. He apologizes to his wife, and she isn’t responding, or she reminds him that he broke her heart. He’s a tortured soul.”去年秋天,护士布伦南照料一名终末期肺癌患者。他以前是一名警官。他告诉她,他在工作时“干过坏事”,还说自己曾对妻子不忠,孩子们都疏远他。他的梦都不平静,布伦南说道。“他梦见自己被刀捅、被击或者无法呼吸。他向太太道歉,但她没有理会他,反而提醒他是怎样伤透了她的心。他的灵魂备受煎熬。”Some palliative care providers maintain that such dreams are the core of a spiritual experience and should not be tampered with. Dr. Quill, who calls people with such views “hospice romantics,” disagreed.有些姑息治疗提供者认为,此类梦境是患者精神体验的核心内容,不应该被打扰。奎尔士不赞同这种观点,称这些人是“临终关怀浪漫主义者”。“We should be opening the door with our questions, but not forcing patients through it,” Dr. Quill said. “Our job is witnessing, exploring and lessening their loneliness. If it’s benign and rich with content, let it go. But if it brings up serious old wounds, get real help — a psychologist, a chaplain — because in this area, we physicians don’t know what we’re doing. ”“我们应该用提问来打开患者的心门,但不可以强迫他们,”奎尔士说。“我们的工作就是见、探索并减轻他们的孤独。如果梦境内容丰富且无害,就不用管它。但如果它揭开了惨痛的旧伤疤,就需要有心理学家或牧师提供切实的帮助——因为我们这些普通医生并不了解这个领域。”In the first dream, a black spider with small eyes came close to her face. Then it turned into a large black truck with a red flatbed, bearing down on her. Terrified, she forced herself awake. In another dream, she had to pass through her laundry room to get to the kitchen. She glanced down and saw about 50 black spiders crawling on the floor. She was so scared! But when she looked closer, she saw they were ladybugs. She felt so happy! “Ladybugs are nice and I knew they weren’t going to hurt me,” she recounted later. “So I made my way to the kitchen.”— Rosemary Shaffer, 78, two months before she died of colon cancer.在第一个梦里,一只长着小眼睛的黑蜘蛛爬近了她的脸。然后,它变成了后挂一辆红色平板拖车的黑色大卡车,朝她轧过来。她吓坏了,惊醒过来。在另一个梦里,她必须穿过洗衣房到厨房去。她低头一瞥,只见有大约50只黑蜘蛛在地板上爬。她害怕极了!但是,等她细看端详,才发现那只是些瓢虫。她顿时又觉得庆幸不已!“瓢虫还好,我知道它们不会伤害我,”她事后回忆道。“所以,我顺利地走进了厨房。”——78岁的患者罗斯玛丽·谢弗(Rosemary Shaffer)在因结肠癌去世两个月前的讲述。The Hospice Buffalo researchers have found that these dreams offer comfort not only for the dying, but for their mourners.水牛城临终关怀中心的研究人员发现,这些梦不仅抚慰了垂死之人,受益的还有为他们哀痛的人。Kathleen Hutton holds fast to the end-of-life dream journals fastidiously kept by her sister, Mrs. Shaffer, a former elementary schoolteacher and principal. Rosemary Shaffer wrote about spiders and trucks, and then the ladybugs. In one dream, she saw flowers at a funeral home, which reminded her of those her daughter painted on handmade scarves. She felt loved and joyful.凯瑟琳·赫顿紧紧握着她的姊姊、曾经担任小学教师和校长的谢弗的日记,她在日记里一丝不苟地记录下了自己的临终梦境。罗斯玛丽·谢弗写到了蜘蛛和卡车,然后还有瓢虫。在一个梦里,她看到了殡仪馆里的鲜花,这让她想起了女儿在手工围巾上描绘的花朵,令她感到爱和欢悦。“I was glad she could talk about dreams with the hospice people,” Ms. Hutton said. “She knew it was her subconscious working through what she was feeling. She was much more at peace.”“我很高兴她能和临终关怀中心的人说起自己做的梦,”赫顿说。“她知道这是她的潜意识通过她的感受在起作用。她变得平静多了。”Knowing that has made her own grief more manageable, said Ms. Hutton, who teared up as she clasped the journals during a visit at the hospice’s family lounge.在造访临终关怀中心的家庭休息室时,赫顿拿着这些日记,落下泪来,她说自己会好过一些。Several months ago, Mrs. Brennan, the nurse, sat with a distraught husband, whose wife had pancreatic cancer that had sp to the liver. She had been reporting dreams about work, God and familiar people who had died. The patient thought that she would be welcomed in heaven, she said. That God told her she had been a good wife and mother.几个月前,护士布伦南坐在一名悲痛欲绝的丈夫身边,他的妻子患了胰腺癌,已经扩散到肝脏。她说自己一直梦见工作、上帝和过世的熟人。布伦南说,患者认为自己会在天堂受到欢迎。上帝告诉她,她是好妻子、也是好母亲。“Her husband was angry at God,” Mrs. Brennan said. “I said: ‘But Ann is not. Her dreams aren’t scary to her at all. They are all about validation.’“她的丈夫却很生上帝的气,”布伦南说。“于是我说:‘但是安(Ann)的心中全无怨愤。她的梦境一点也不令她感到恐惧。它们都充满了对她一生的认可。’“He just put his head down and wept.”“他垂下头,哭了起来。” /201607/452649Liu Hui was a Chinese mathematician who lived in the 200s in the Wei Kingdom.刘徽,数学家,公元200年魏晋年间人。In 263 he published a book with solutions to mathematical problems presented in the famous Chinese book of mathematics known as Jiuzhang Suanshu or The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.公元263年,他出版了一本解决数学难题的专著——注释《九章算术》。In these commentaries he presented(among other things ):在这此注释里,刘徽主要提出了:An estimate of π in the comments to chapter 1. He estimated pi to 3. 141014 with a 192 sided polygon and later calculated pi as 3. 14159 by using a 3 079 sided polygon.圆周率(第一章)刘徽算到192边形的面积,得到π3.141014,又算到3 079边形的面积,得到π3.14159。He suggested that 3. 14 was a good approximation.他认为3. 14是个比较好的近似值。His estimation is made with a method similar to Archimedes. 刘徽的计算方法与阿基米德的计算方法相似。The Nine Chapters used the value 3 as π, but Zhang Heng had previously estimated it to the square root of 10;《九章算术》里的π值为3,但是张衡原来已经算出π是10的平方根;Gaussian elimination;高斯消元;Cavalieri#39;s principle to find the volume of a cylinder.“牟合方盖”说。He also presented, in a separate appendix called Haidao suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, several problems related to surveying.在《海岛算经》中,刘徽还提出了测高测远方法以及多次测望的方法。Liu was one of the first mathematicians known to leave roots unevaluated, giving more exact results instead of approximations.刘徽是最先不求解,不给近似值而给出精确值的数学家之一。 /201604/435707

  

  We all want to do better, be better and feel better. But, according to wellness activist and self-described ;cancer thriver; Kris Carr, that can only happen if you’ve first done one important thing: accept yourself.我们都希望自己可以做得更好、变得更好、感觉更好。但是,这位健康先锋,自称“癌症斗士”的克丽丝·卡尔认为,这些的前提首先要做到很重要的一点:接受自己。Self-acceptance is the foundation for living a better life, Carr says. Seeking that better life is something everyone does. How you seek it, though, is crucial in determining whether or not you’ll find it.卡尔表示,自我认同是活得更好的基础。每个人都在寻求更好的生活,而如何寻求,则是你是否成功的关键所在。So, Carr continues, you must be very clear on what acceptance is — and what it isn#39;t. With three powerful es, she sums it up.接着她又说,你必须清楚地明白什么是接受、什么不是。此中精髓都藏在她总结的这三句话中。 /201607/452652

  Most Americans have heard that they should drink eight glasses of water a day to stay hydrated, but there is surprisingly little data to support this advice. 大多数美国人都曾听说日饮八杯水对补水的重要性。出人意料是,这个建议基本没有任何数据持。But now, a new “beverage hydration index” provides evidence-based suggestions for how to most efficiently hydrate. The index was developed from a British study published in December that tracked how long 13 common beverages remain in the body after being consumed. 但现在,新出台的“饮品补水指数”为高效补水的方式提供了有据的建议。这项指数基于2015年12月英国发布的一项研究,追踪记录了13种常见饮品在被摄取后停留人体的时间。“In the last 25 years, we’ve done many studies on rehydration after exercise,” said Ronald J. Maughan, a hydration expert from Loughborough University, and lead author of the study. “We thought it was time to look at hydration in typical consumers who aren’t exercising.” “在过去的25年中,我们针对运动后人们的补水状况进行了许多研究,”罗纳德#8226;J#8226;莫恩说道,他是拉夫堡大学的补水研究专家,同时也是这项研究的主要作者。“我们认为是时候研究不运动人群的补水状况了。”The hydration index is modeled after the well-known glycemic index, which measures how the body responds to the carbohydrate content of different foods. (The glycemic index is used to help individuals keep their glucose-insulin response under control.) The guiding principle behind the new hydration index is that some fluids last longer in your body than others, providing more hydration. After all, if you drink a cup of water and then immediately excrete half that amount in your urine, you haven’t added eight ounces to your water supply, but only four. 补水指数的设定参照了众所周知的血糖指数,血糖指数测量的是身体对不同食物中碳水化合物的反应。(血糖指数用于帮助人们血糖-胰岛素维持稳态。)新的补水指数的指导原则是:某些液体在体内留存更久,因此具备更好的补水能力。毕竟,你若是饮下一杯八盎司的水,而后立即小解排出一半,那么你真正吸收的水量只有四盎司。The British study determined the hydration index of 13 common beverages by having the participants, 72 males in their mid-20s, drink a liter of water as the standard beverage. The amount of water still remaining in subjects’ bodies two hours later — that is, not voided in urine — was assigned a score of 1.0. All other beverages were evaluated in a similar manner, and then scored in comparison to water. A score higher than 1.0 indicated that more of the beverage remained in the body as compared to water, while a score lower than 1.0 indicated a higher excretion rate than water. 英国的这项研究检测了13种常见饮品在72位男性身体中的补水指数,这些受测者的年龄均在25岁左右,他们在测试初饮用了一公升的水作为参照标准。两小时后受测者体内水分含量——即未经由尿液流失的液体量——被记录为1.0。然后以相似的方式测试其他饮料的补水指数,再将其与水的指数作比较。高于1.0的饮料的体内水分留存率高于水,低于1.0的饮料排出率高于水。The results showed that four beverages — oral rehydration solution, like Pedialyte; fat-free milk; whole milk and orange juice — had a significantly higher hydration index than water. The first three had hydration index scores around 1.5, with orange juice doing slightly better than water at 1.1. Oral rehydration solutions are specifically formulated to combat serious dehydration such as that resulting from chronic diarrhea. 研究显示有四种饮料的补水指数远高于水,它们分别是以电解质液体为代表的口补水溶液;脱脂牛奶;全脂牛奶和橙汁。前三种饮料的补水指数高达1.5左右,橙汁的补水指数为1.1,比水略高。口补水溶液是为应对严重脱水(如慢性腹泻所引发的脱水)而配制的。“It’s a very clever, even brilliant study,” said Lawrence Armstrong, a hydration expert at the University of Connecticut and immediate past president of the American College of Sports Medicine. “It assumes that water is the optimal rehydration fluid, which is biologically correct, and then compares other fluids to water.”“这是一项相当聪明,也很精的研究,”康涅狄格大学的补水专家、即将卸任的美国运动医学会主席劳伦斯#8226;阿姆斯特朗表示。“它假定水为最理想的补水液体——从生物学角度而言的确如此——然后再将其他液体与水作比较。”Why is milk so efficient at rehydration? “Normally when you drink, it signals the kidneys to get rid of the extra water by producing more urine,” Dr. Maughan said. “However, when beverages contain nutrients and electrolytes like sodium and potassium, as milk does, the stomach empties more slowly with a less dramatic effect on the kidneys.”牛奶高效补水的原理是什么?“通常当你摄取水分时,肾脏会收到通过产生尿液来排出多余水分的指令,”莫恩士说道,“但是若你饮用的液体含有营养成分和诸如钠和钾这样的电解质,比如饮用牛奶,那么胃的排空速率就会变慢,肾脏因此收到的指令变弱。”Perhaps surprisingly, drinks containing moderate amounts of caffeine and alcohol or high levels of sugar had hydration indexes no different from water. In other words, coffee and beer are not dehydrating, despite common beliefs to the contrary, and regular soda can hydrate you just as well as water. 让人大感意外的是,含适量咖啡因、酒精或含糖高的饮料与普通水的补水指数相当。换句话来说,饮用咖啡和啤酒不易脱水,虽然这与人们的常识相左。同时,苏打水能和普通水一样带来同样的补水效果。“It’s true that caffeine is a diuretic, but not at the concentration found in most coffee drinks,” Dr. Maughan said. “When we are thirsty, drinking normal tea, coffee or cola helps to rehydrate us. The exceptions are very strong coffee drinks or strong alcoholic drinks like distilled spirits.” “咖啡因确实具备利尿效果,但大部分咖啡饮料都达不到那么高的浓度,”莫恩士说道。“当我们口渴的时候,饮用普通的茶、咖啡和可乐一样能够补水,除非饮用的是高浓度咖啡或是蒸馏酒那样烈性酒。”The hydration index could prove useful when making decisions about what beverages to consume and when. For example, if you’re going on a long drive and won’t have access to fluids (or to bathrooms), you’d be smarter to drink milk with its high hydration index rather than water or iced coffee. But don’t forget that milk has many more calories than water, so don’t overdo it, either. 补水指数对于决定何时饮用何种饮料或许大有用处。例如当你驾驶长途车,且有很长时间都不方便饮水(或是上厕所)时,饮用牛奶(补水指数高于水和冰咖啡)才是个明智之选。但别忘了牛奶比水含有更多的卡路里,喝奶虽好,可不要贪杯噢。While severe dehydration is rare except in heavy exercise, extreme environments and disease, studies have shown that heat and dehydration can contribute to increased mortality rates during hot weather. “Mortality increases sharply during heat waves, mostly because people don’t drink enough to compensate for their increased fluid losses,” Dr. Maughan said. 虽说除了剧烈运动、极端环境或是患病时,人们一般不会严重缺水,但研究显示,炎热天气下的高温脱水会提高死亡率。“在热浪袭来时,死亡率往往会急剧攀升,这主要是因为人们没有及时补充他们流失掉的水分。”莫恩士说道。Dr. Armstrong noted that in hot weather, it’s important to monitor your hydration status throughout the day. He suggested paying attention to your thirst, and drinking when necessary. Also, if your urine color is a dark yellow, it’s time for a refreshing drink. 莫恩士指出,在高温天气下,人们非常有必要全天注意体内的含水状况。他建议人们多注意自身的口渴状况,必要时补充水分。此外,若是你的尿液已经呈现深黄色,是时候补充水分了。 /201607/454756。

  People d changes – be they big or small – but changes are not as horrible as many believe. Regardless of what happened in your life, even the most drastic change can turn your life upside down.人们都害怕改变-使他们变好或变坏-但是改变不是像许多人认为的那样可怕。不管你的生活中发生了什么改变,哪怕是最重大的改变都会对你的生活产生影响。Change the quality of life改变生活质量Your quality of life can either drop or increase – it all depends on you. While some people let depression rule their lives, others fight with it. Statistics show many people ruined their lives by getting into bad habits like smoking, drinking, antidepressants and drugs.They use bad habits to calm their pains, but all they do is slowly destroying their lives.你的生活质量将变好还是变坏——完全取决于你自己。然而有些人用消极的态度来对待自己的生活现状,另外一些人却为了改善自己的生活现状而不断奋斗。统计资料显示许多人由于养成了一些坏习惯例如抽烟、喝酒、用抗抑郁药和毒品而毁掉了自己的生活。他们利用这些坏习惯来麻痹自己的伤痛,但是他们做的这一切是在慢慢地摧毁他们的生活。Remember we have only one life? Take advantage of a drastic change to improve your quality of life. I found a better job that has improved my finances and reduced my stress level. If I was not fired, I would not solve my financial problems. It was all for the best.记得吗我们只有一次生命?利用一次重大改变中的有利条件来改善你的生活质量。我找到了一份更好的工作,这份工作改善了我的经济状况同时减轻了我的压力。如果我没有被解雇,我就不会去想办法解决我的收入问题。现在一切都比过去好。Declutter your life and reduce stress调整你的生活以及减轻压力We have too many people and things that drain our energy, destroy our dreams, affect every facet of our lives and make us miserable. A drastic change can help you declutter your life and get rid of anything and anyone that bring stress and misery into your life.It is a hard process and sometimes it seems impossible to remove those you have known for ages from your life for good.在我们的生活中会遇到很多人和事,他们会消耗我们的精力,破坏我们的梦想,影响我们生活的方方面面以及让我们很痛苦。一个重大的改变能够帮你调整自己的生活状态同时让你摆脱任何给你生活带来压力和痛苦的人和事。那是一个艰难的过程,有时让你永远地忘记那些你认识了很久的人似乎是不可能的。Drastic changes leave you no choice. If you had to move to another country (or continent) that might be a sign that you need new people in your life. If he broke up with you right before your big day, it might be better for you. Embrace any change in your life and look on the brightest side in any complicated situation. A positive attitude is one the best cures here. It is a lot easier to overcome a drastic change when you believe in a positive outcome. Just as George Bernard Shaw stated, “Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.”重大的改变让你不能选择。如果你迁居到了另一个国家(或者大洲)那可能是个信号意味着在你的生活中需要认识一些新的朋友。如果在你有重大活动的日子之前他和你分手了,那样可能对你更好。去拥抱你生命中所有的改变,面对任何复杂的情形都要去看最好的一面。积极的态度是解决问题最好的方式。当你相信结果会是很乐观的时候,战胜一次重大的改变将会更加容易。正如萧伯纳所说:“没有改变,不可能进步。那些无法改变自己想法的人,什么事情也改变不了。”译文属 /201607/453379

  GIVE ME AN LOAN!给我贷款!Owen#39;s life became way easier after he began living according to the ;What would a 3-year-old do?;rule欧文的生活变得容易了当他根据“一个3岁的孩子会怎么办?”的规则开始生活后 /201607/451691

  Song of the Fisherman (1934)《渔光曲》(1934)The story took place in a village near Shanghai. A wife whose husband was a poor fisherman, named Xufu struggled with her twins—a son, little Hou (Monkey), and a daughter, little Mao (Cat). After her husband#39;s death in a storm, she had to become the wet nurse of He Ziying, son of the owner of many fishing boats, let her twins along.影片故事发生在上海附近的一个村子,穷苦渔民徐福和妻子有一对孪生子女小猴、小猫。一场暴风雨夺去了徐福的生命,徐妻只得撇下刚生下的儿女,只身到了船王何家做了何家少爷子英的奶妈。Ten years later, Ziying, little Hou and little Mao grew up together and they became friends and playmates with each other. After eight years, the twins became fishermen like their father, renting he#39;s fishers and living on fishing while Ziying travels abroad to study new techniques which would modernize his father#39;s (later his own) fishing company. After that, fishermen and their mother still lives poorly, and Xu#39;s mum became totally blind. The twins immigrated to Shanghai with their mother to see their uncle, but they could only made their living by singing on the street with the poor uncle.十年后,何家少爷子英和小猫、小猴都长大,由于三人从小在一起长大的,所以相互非常要好。又过了八年,小猫、小猴继承父业,租了何家的渔船,以为生。 何家少爷子英出国留学,主攻渔业,表示将来回国后要出力改良父亲(后来他自己的)的渔业。在此之后,渔民的生活很不平静,徐家生活依旧十分贫困,徐妈双目失明。小猫和小猴只得带着母亲到上海投奔舅舅,然而也只能与舅舅一起在街头卖唱为生。One day, Ziying happened to meet Mao and Hou and gave them some money. But after being discovered in possession of such an unusually large sum, Mao and Hou were arrested in suspicion of theft. When they were released, they came back home only to find their home were accidentally burned, and their mother and uncle were killed in the fire. Mao and Hou were homeless and Ziying hoped they could live with his family. But they also learned that Ziying#39;s father was completely ruined by his mistress and commited suicide. Ziying gave up his plan for reforming fishing industry and decided to restart their fishing business together. Unfortunately, Hou was seriously wounded in fishing and died...一天,回国的子英碰巧在上海遇到了小猫、小猴并给他们一些钱,没想到 这些钱反倒让他们被怀疑是抢劫而得的,因而被捕人狱。他们出狱后,家里发生了火灾,徐妈和舅舅葬身火海。小猫、小猴无家可归。何子英希望小猫、小猴到何家去,但父亲的渔业公司也因他的情妇而破产自杀了。子英放弃了他改良渔业的计划,决定跟着小猫、小猴一起到海上重振业。不幸的是,小猴因受重伤致死…In 1934, as a successful film, Song of the Fishermen was a stir in filmdom because of its profound meaning and strong artistic appeal. The film was shown in the hot summer and attracted waves of audience. It played for 84 straight days in Shanghai and created the highest box-office of Chinese film. Its theme song became one of the household popular songs. In addition, it was notable as being the first Chinese film to win a prize, Honor Award, in the Moscow International 1935. It was not only welcomed by the audience but also gained the admiration of the representatives from the world filmdom.1934年,影片《渔光曲》以其深刻的思想内容和强烈的艺术感染力轰动影坛。 该片上映时值盛暑,观众如潮,在上海连映84天,创造了当时国产影片最髙上座纪录。影片的主题歌,也成为家喻户晓的流行歌曲之一。本片在1935年莫斯科国际电影节上获得“荣誉奖”,成为中国第一部在国际上获奖的影片。它不仅获得广大 观众的喜爱,也受到世界影坛人士的赞赏。 /201605/443497

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