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福建省泉州鲤城区激光脱毛哪里好When driving these days, do you look at the prices every time you pass a gas station? Do you notice yourself paying more attention to the prices of everything you buy? You are not alone. Consumers everywhere are more price aware. People who've been indifferent to price increases for years are suddenly amazed at what things now cost. How can marketers cope not just with inflation but with consumer sticker shock?1.Understand Your Customers. There are at least four ways in which customers can respond to higher gas prices: downgrade from premium to regular; take fewer trips by car, consolidate errands, switch to public transportation; take the same number of trips but reduce the miles driven per trip by, for example, vacationing closer to home; drive more economically and less aggressively to improve miles per gallon; and buy a specific dollar amount of gas rather than filling up every time, even though this may mean more visits to the pump. Some consumers may even trade in (at a loss) the SUV for a hybrid, an example of how price inflation on one product can cause demand shifts in a second, related, category.2.Invest in Market Research. You must discard your existing customer segmentation assumptions and segment consumers around product usage behavior and price sensitivity. You must get out into the marketplace yourself and talk to consumers directly to understand their pain points and how they are changing attitudes and behaviors in response to price inflation. You must then quantify these shifts and develop product and pricing strategies that balance the need to maintain both profitability and market share.3.Redefine Value. Customers buying soft drinks can think about price in three ways: the absolute cost per can or bottle, the cost per ounce, and, less common in this category, the monthly consumption cost. Customers short on cash will focus much more on the absolute price. They'll go for the 99 cent soft drink rather than the .29 container with 50 percent more volume. To motivate cash-poor consumers, marketers must reverse engineer products and packaging to hit key retail price points. This may mean downsizing package sizes, something the candy industry always does in response to inflation.4.Use Promotions. If you've always passed through raw material price increases to the end consumer, you don't necessarily need to change that policy. However, lagging competitors in passing on price increases can have the same effect as a temporary price promotion. More customers than usual will be looking out for price promotions, but don't give away the store to those who don't need the discount, and cut prices not across the board but only on items selected as your inflation-busters. For cash poor consumers, these promotions should hit the key price points on small pack sizes. For cash rich consumers, encourage multi-unit purchases ahead of the inevitable next price increase.5.Unbundle. Customers who previously welcomed the convenience of buying product, options, and services rolled into one may now ask for a detailed price breakdown. Make it easy for your more price-sensitive customers to better cherry-pick the options and services that they truly need by giving them an unbundled of options.6.Monitor Trade Terms. Beware of powerful distributors paying you more slowly than they turn the inventory they buy from you. In an inflationary environment, they're making money on the float by stretching their payables. Manage your inventory on a last-in, first-out basis to insure that increases in your realized selling prices do not trail the increases in your input costs.7.Increase Relevance. You need to persuade customers to cut back their expenditures on other products, not on yours. In tough times, consumers more than ever need and deserve the occasional treat. So, if you are Haagen Dazs, tell the consumer to substitute private label peas for the name brand but to not forego the comfort of curling up on the sofa with a tub of her favorite ice cream. Strong brands can hold consumer loyalty while increasing retail price points. Weaker brands risk private label and generic substitution. 最近这些天开车经过加油站的时候,你有没有注意油价?你有没有留意自己买任何东西,都比以前更在意价格?不是你一个人这样的.每个消费 者现在都比以前更关注商品的价格.就连之前几年对价格上涨没有感觉的人们也突然对买东西的出数额感到吃惊了.那么,市场上的企业用什么办法才能不仅应对 通货膨胀问题而且也能照顾到消费者的感受呢?1、要理解顾客.汽油价格上涨,消费者至少 有以下四种反应:不再使用优质油转而购买普通油;减少开车出行,把事情统一起来做,选择公共交通工具;或者仍旧开车出行但是缩短每次出行的里程,比如说, 在离家近一些的地方渡假,同时更注重车子的燃油经济性,这样每加仑汽油就能跑更多的里程;消费者还可以一次性购买一定数量的汽油,而不是一次又一次地去油 站加油,尽管这样做要使用油泵.甚至会有消费者宁愿赔钱去把SUV型车换成混合动力型车,这同时也是一个可以说明一种商品价格的上涨如何引起对其他相关商 品需求变化的例子.2、做市场调查.企业这个时候必须抛开已有的消费者细分的假定并根据 消费者的产品使用行为和对价格的敏感程度对其重新细分,企业必须亲自深入市场,直接和消费者对话,了解消费者的切身利益,以及他们在通货膨胀的时候,购买 商品的行为和态度有什么变化.接下来,企业必须对消费者的这些变化进行量化分析并且制定产品和价格策略来平衡商品需求,以维持盈利和市场份额.3、重新定义"价值".购 买软饮料的消费者会从三个方面来考虑价格:首先,一罐或者一瓶饮料的绝对价格,其次是每盎司饮料的价格,还有就是比较少见的,每个月购买饮料的总价格.现 金短缺的消费者会更在意绝对价格,他们会购买定价0.99美元的软饮料却不会购买定价1.29美元同时量也增加了一半的饮料.因此,为了刺激现金短缺的消 费者,企业就必须逆向设计开发产品和包装来配合商品的零售价格,这样的措施一般都是缩小包装规格,糖果行业常常会这么做去应对价格上涨.4、利用促销.如 果企业总是将原材料成本的增加转嫁给最终消费者,那么就没有必要去改变政策.然而,把成本的增加转嫁给消费者的速度放慢就会起到和临时价格促销一样的效 果.消费者大部分都想要打折商品,都在密切地关注着价格促销活动.企业不需要通过董事局决议降价,而只需要降低消费者购买的具体商品的价格就可.对于现金 短缺的消费者来说,这些促销活动会使小规格包装的商品价格正好在他们可以接受的水平上,而对于不存在现金短缺的消费者来说,则可以在下一次不可避免的价格 上涨来临之前,鼓励他们购买多种包装规格的产品.5、分别计价.涨价之前,消费者为了方便希望有多种选择,会把产品和相关的务一起购买,涨价之后,消费者则可能会需要了解它们各自的价格.所以,为了让那些对价格特别敏感的消费者更好地在他们真正需要的多种选择和务之中做出最佳决策,企业就要提供各种购买选择的单独定价单.6、修正交易条款.如果实力强大的分销商偿付货款的周期比他们购买产品的周期长的情况出现,企业要警惕!在通货膨胀的环境下,分销商通过延迟应付账款的时间而获利.企业可以采取后进先出法来管理存货,以保销售额的增加不低于存货成本的增加.7、强调商品的实用性. 企业要劝说消费者减少在其他商品而不是本企业商品的开.在经济环境严峻时期,消费者比以前更需要同时也应该得到特殊的待遇.所以,像哈根达斯,就可以告 诉消费者用名牌豌豆代替私人品牌的豌豆,但同时也告诉消费者不要放弃吃着自己最喜欢的冰淇淋蜷在沙发上的惬意舒适.影响力强的品牌提高零售价格会保住消费 者的忠诚度,而知名度不高的品牌则会有被代替的风险. /200807/44204泉州惠安县腿部吸脂医院 Baby boys are more sensitive to stress in the womb子宫中的男婴对压力更敏感May explain why maternal stress and disorders such as autism and schizophrenia are more common in boys因受母体的压力和精神失常因素影响,所以,如自闭症和精神分裂症在男孩中较常见A pregnant women can transmit the damaging effects of stress to her unborn child through the placenta, say researchers.研究人员说,妇压力经胎盘对未出生婴儿有破坏性影响。Scientists believe it could explain known links between maternal stress and disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which are more common and serious in male offspring.科学家认为因受母体的压力和精神失常这些因素影响,所以,如自闭症和精神分裂症在男孩中较常见较严重。#39;Almost everything experienced by a woman during a pregnancy has to interact with the placenta in order to transmit to the foetus,#39; said lead researcher Dr Tracy Bale, from the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine in the U.S.几乎女性怀期间所经历的一切都会经胎盘传递给婴儿,美国宾夕法尼亚大学兽医学学院负责此项研究的特雷西·贝尔说。#39;Now we have a marker that appears to signal to the foetus that its mother has experienced stress.#39;现在我们研究发现胎儿的表现信号与母亲所经历的压力因素有关。The researchers studied female mice that were exposed to mild stresses such as the smell of foxes or unfamiliar noises during the first week of pregnancy. They identified an enzyme called OGT that was present at lower levels in the placentas of stressed mice than in unstressed mice.经研究人员鉴定有压力的小白鼠比没有压力的小白鼠胎盘内的一种称为转移酶(OGT)的这种酶含量低。Male offspring placentas also had lower natural levels of OGT than those attached to female offspring.男性胎盘的转移酶也比女性胎盘的转移酶含量低。Further research showed that cutting levels of OGT triggered changes in more than 370 genes in the brains of unborn mice.进一步研究发现转移酶含量降低引起了未出生小白鼠大脑中370个基因发生变化。Many of these genes play a role in functions critical to neurological development, such as energy use, protein regulation and creating nerve cell connections.这些基因对神经发育功能起到关键作用,如精神状态、蛋白质调节、造神经细胞、连接神经细胞。Analysis of human placentas discarded after the birth of male babies showed evidence of reduced OGT levels.分析男婴出生后的胎盘,结果表明转移酶的含量降低了。The results suggest that OGT may protect the brain during pregnancy. Males have less of the protein to begin with, placing them at greater risk if their mothers are stressed.结果表明怀期间转移酶可保护大脑,最开始男性蛋白质较少,如果母亲有压力就会对男婴构成较大风险。#39;We want to get to the point where we can predict the occurrence of neurodevelopmental disease,#39; said Dr Bale.贝尔士说,重点在于我们能预知神经发育疾病。#39;If we have a marker for exposure, we can meld that with what we know about the genetic profiles that predispose individuals to these conditions and keep a close eye on children who have increased risks.#39;如果我们发现这一迹象,再加上我们对基因结构的了解,预测个人对这些条件的了解并密切关注孩子们的风险增加情况。 /201303/229075泉州激光去皱

泉州自体脂肪填充苹果肌多少钱Why do boys get diagnosed with autism four times as often as girls?为什么男孩被诊断出患有自闭症的几率是女孩的四倍?New research, including some of the latest data from the International Society for Autism Research annual conference last week, addresses this question, one of the biggest mysteries in this field. A growing consensus is arguing that sex differences exist in genetic susceptibility, brain development and social learning in autism -- and they are meaningful to our understanding of the disorder and how it will be treated.新近的一项研究对自闭症领域中这个最大的谜团之一进行了论,该研究涵括了来自2013年国际自闭症研究协会(International Society for Autism Research)年度会议的一些最新数据。一个日益达成的共识是,在自闭症患者的遗传易感性、大脑发育和社会学习这些方面都存在着性别差异,这对我们了解自闭症、该如何对症下药意义深远。Yale University researchers presented results showing that being female appears to provide genetic protection against autism. Meanwhile, scientists at Emory University showed in preliminary work that boys and girls with autism learn social information differently, which leads to divergent success in interactions with other people.耶鲁大学(Yale University)研究人员展示的结果显示,女性自身似乎会针对自闭症提供一种基因上的防护。与此同时,埃默里大学(Emory University)的科学家在初期研究中发现,患有自闭症的男孩和女孩在了解社会信息方面的表现并不相同,这就导致了他们在与他人互动的效果上也会有差别。The new data, together with previously published studies, suggest that sex should be taken into account in diagnosing and in creating individualized treatment plans, according to experts.专家们称,最新的数据与之前发表的研究都表明,在自闭症诊断和制定个性化治疗方案时,性别差异这一因素都应该考虑进去。Autism, a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social skills and repetitive behaviors, affects more than 1% of the population. It has long been known to be diagnosed more often in boys.自闭症是一种发育障碍性疾病,其症状是存在社交技巧障碍及重复刻板的行为方式。全球有超过1%的人患有自闭症。长期以来,人们认为这种病在男孩身上更为常见。Yet girls often appear to have more severe autism. The ratio, about four boys to every one girl overall, becomes even more lopsided when intelligence is taken into account. At higher intelligence levels, boys with autism often outnumber girls eight or 10 to one, say researchers.然而,患有自闭症的女孩其症状一般较男孩更为严重。全球来看,自闭症患者的男女比例约为四比一,若将智力因素考虑进去,该比值将会更失衡。研究人员称,在智力水平较高的年龄层中,这个比例通常为八比一到十比一。Why this ratio exists and how much it is skewed by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis in girls isn#39;t clear. More and more, however, scientists think the sex distribution is meaningful.为什么会有这样的比例存在?有多少女孩是被误诊了或是医生未能作出全面的诊断?这些问题目前都不得而知。尽管如此,还是有越来越多的科学家认为,这种性别分布意义重大。#39;It#39;s such an important biological clue -- why do we have this excess in boys?#39; said Geraldine Dawson, the chief science officer of Autism Speaks, a research funding and advocacy group.研究基金和倡导组织自闭症之声(Autism Speaks)的首席科学长杰拉尔丁#8226;道森(Geraldine Dawson)说:“这是一个非常重要的生物学线索──为什么男孩的患病率会超出女孩这么多?”Sex differences in autism and related disorders were relatively ignored until recently and still aren#39;t well understood. The small number of girls who have the disorder meant that studies often didn#39;t include enough girls to be able to reliably examine sex differences. Often, girls were excluded from studies altogether.表现在自闭症及相关疾病上的性别差异相对而言一直被人忽略,直到最近才得到关注,但人们仍未透彻地了解它。患有此病的女孩数量如此之少,这意味着众多研究一般没有囊括足够多的女孩,其在性别差异方面的分析也就不太可信。通常情况下,这些研究都将女孩完全排除在外。Understanding sex differences is important to getting the right diagnosis and treatment, said Christopher Gillberg, a child and adolescent psychiatry professor at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. Because experts#39; understanding of the typical features of the condition is primarily based on research with boys, girls may be missed or misdiagnosed, he said. Some evidence suggests that girls are diagnosed, on average, later than boys.瑞典哥德堡大学(University of Gothenburg)儿童与青少年精神病学教授克里斯托弗#8226;吉尔伯格(Christopher Gillberg)说,了解性别差异对作出正确的诊断和治疗至关重要。他说,因为专家们对该病典型特征的了解主要基于对男孩们的研究,女孩可能就会被漏诊或误诊。一些据表明,女孩比男孩的平均确诊时间要晚一些。In addition, the clinical picture for children with an autism-spectrum disorder is often complex. Most have other conditions as well, like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, sleep problems or epilepsy, which may affect their functioning, Dr. Gillberg said.吉尔伯格士称,除此之外,患有自闭症谱系障碍的儿童,其临床现象通常也比较复杂。大多数孩子还患有其他疾病,像注意力缺陷多动症、睡眠问题或癫痫症,这些都可能影响他们的身体机能。He and his colleagues evaluated 100 girls between the ages of 3 and 18 who had social or attention deficits. Forty-seven were diagnosed with autism. As well, 80% of those with autism also could be diagnosed with ADHD. Virtually all the girls had depression, anxiety and family relationship problems.吉尔伯格和他的同事对100名存在社交障碍或注意力障碍的三到18岁女孩进行了检查。有47名女孩被诊断出患有自闭症,她们中又有80%的人可能同时患有注意力缺陷多动症。几乎所有的女孩都有抑郁症、焦虑症和家庭关系问题。Understanding sex differences also has implications for elucidating the condition more broadly. Experts speculated that perhaps boys were somehow more vulnerable to autism because of, for instance, genes, hormones or different ways their brains are wired.了解性别差异还能给人带来一些启示,以便从更广泛的层面上去阐述自闭症。专家推测,男孩可能会更容易患上自闭症,这也许是基因、激素使然,也可能是他们的脑部构造方式不同。From a genetic standpoint, however, there is growing evidence that boys aren#39;t more susceptible to autism, but rather girls are more protected from it. Yale researchers added to this thinking with new findings presented last week in which they looked at the DNA of several thousand children with autism.尽管如此,从基因的角度来看,越来越多的据表明,并不是说男孩比女孩更易染上自闭症,而是女孩受到了更多的保护,使其免于自闭症的侵扰。耶鲁大学的研究人员在查看了几千名自闭症儿童的DNA后于近期得出的新发现也进一步实了上述说法。They found that girls actually had substantially more high-risk genetic mutations associated with autism than boys, on average twice as many. Yet, because girls develop autistic features less often, something about being female is protective against the condition, said Stephan Sanders, a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University who presented the work.他们发现,事实上,与男孩子相比,女孩子大体上拥有更多与自闭症相关的高危基因突变,其平均值是男孩的两倍。进行展示的耶鲁大学士后斯蒂芬#8226;桑德斯(Stephan Sanders)说,尽管如此,女孩子却不太会表现出自闭症症状,这是因为一些与女性性别相关的东西会使其免受该疾病的侵扰。The Yale scientists then wondered if the males and females might actually be experiencing two distinct disorders at the genetic level. But further research led them to conclude that boys and girls appear to be suffering from the same ailment, Mr. Sanders said.接着,耶鲁大学的科研人员开始质疑会不会是男性和女性在基因层面上经历了两种截然不同的疾病。桑德斯说,但进一步的研究引领他们得出了这样的结论:男孩和女孩显然受到的是同一种疾病的困扰。There is also early evidence that even though boys and girls may have the same condition, the way they process information could lead to different outcomes. For instance, studies of social learning, the core process that appears affected in children with autism-spectrum disorders, have found differences between the two sexes.况且之前的据也表明,就算男孩和女孩患上的可能是同样一种病,他们处理信息的方式也可能会导致不同的结果产生。举例而言,有关社会学习的研究发现,社会学习──这一似乎是影响自闭症谱系障碍儿童的核心过程──在男性和女性身上的表现就并不相同。Kids with autism tend to look more at people#39;s mouths, while typically developing children look more at the eyes, Ami Klin, head of Emory University#39;s and Children#39;s Healthcare of Atlanta#39;s Marcus Autism Center, and others have found. The thinking was that eyes tend to provide a lot of social information, such as emotion or interest, and the kids with autism miss out on a lot of this information, which contributes to their social impairment in interactions with others.埃默里大学和亚特兰大儿童健康中心马库斯自闭症中心(Emory University#39;s and Children#39;s Healthcare of Atlanta#39;s Marcus Autism Center)的负责人亚美#8226;克林(Ami Klin)及其他工作人员发现,患有自闭症的孩子更倾向于看着人们的嘴巴,而正常发育中的儿童则会更多地关注人的眼睛。道理是这样的:眼睛更易提供大量的社会信息,比如情感或兴趣。而自闭症儿童却漏掉了这大把的信息,这也是他们在与他人互动时会出现社交障碍的原因之一。But in new work, Marcus researchers are comparing sex differences in eye gaze in typically developing children and those with autism, and have been surprised by the findings. The scientists showed six film clips involving social interactions, like boys playing baseball or kids chatting, to 52 boys and 18 girls with autism as well as to 26 and 36 typically developing boys and girls, respectively. Using eye-tracking technology, they were able to capture where on the screen children looked during the entire clip.在最新的工作中,马库斯的研究人员正在比较不同性别间发育正常的儿童和自闭症儿童的眼睛注视情况,结果却出人意料。科学家分别向患有自闭症的52名男孩、18名女孩和发育正常的26名男孩、36名女孩放映了六段涉及社交互动情节的电影片段,比如一群男孩在打棒球或是一群孩子在聊天。通过使用眼球追踪技术,科研人员能够捕捉到孩子们的目光在整个播放时段都停留在了屏幕上的哪个地方。Overall, both girls and boys with autism looked less often at the eyes compared with typically developing kids, consistent with previous studies. The amount of eye contact from the boys related directly to their overall level of social disability. Boys who looked less at the eyes were more socially disabled.总体来说,不论男女,与发育正常的孩子相比,自闭症儿童更少将目光停留在眼部,这与之前的诸多研究结果一致。男孩的眼神交流总量与他们的社会功能缺陷总体水平直接相关。那些更少看别人眼睛的男孩在社交方面也更为困难一些。Girls with autism, however, showed the opposite pattern: Those who focused relatively more to the eyes tended to experience worse social disability, said Jennifer Moriuchi, an Emory psychology graduate student.埃默里大学心理学研究生詹妮弗#8226;森内(Jennifer Moriuchi)说,但是患有自闭症的女孩却表现出一套相反的模式:那些相对更专注他人眼睛的女生,其社会功能缺陷一般更为严重。The team found significant differences in timing of when girls or boys would look at the eyes, suggesting they aren#39;t following the same cues.这个团队发现,男孩和女孩在看他人眼睛的时候,目光停留的时间有着显著的不同。这表明,他们并未依循同样的模式。The group is continuing with its work to understand these differences in engagement with the eyes, which highlights just how little is known about how autism manifests in girls, said Warren Jones, research head at the center.该中心研究负责人沃伦#8226;琼斯(Warren Jones)说,这个小组在继续探寻、理解男孩女孩在眼神交流方面的这些不同,而这又凸显出了我们在女孩自闭症病症上的无知。#39;We tended to assume that boys and girls [with autism] do the same thing when they adjust to everyday life,#39; Dr. Klin said. #39;There#39;s emerging evidence that it#39;s to the contrary.#39;克林士说:“我们过去倾向于假设(患有自闭症的)男孩和女孩在适应日常生活时应该会做相同的事。但现在新的据表明,情况正好相反。” /201307/247420 Men feel other men look better with a beard, but women prefer men sporting nothing more than heavy stubble, according to Australian researchers.男人们觉得留胡子都会显得更帅气,然而澳大利亚的研究人员指出,女人其实更喜欢留着浓密短胡茬的男人。Researchers from The University of New South Wales, Australia, quantified men and women#39;s judgments of attractiveness, health, masculinity and parenting abilities for photographs of men who were clean-shaven, lightly or heavily stubbled and fully bearded.来自澳大利亚新南威尔士大学的研究人员给出几种男人的照片:胡子刮得很干净的、留着淡淡胡茬的、留着浓密胡茬的和满脸大胡子的,让男人和女人从吸引力、健康水平、男子气概和育儿能力几个方面给照片中的男人作出评价,并对此进行量化研究。They also tested the effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive use on women#39;s ratings.他们还测试了月经周期和避药的使用对女性评分的影响。The results, reported in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior, showed that women judged faces with heavy stubble as most attractive and heavy beards, light stubble and clean-shaven faces as similarly less attractive.这一发表在《进化与人类行为》期刊上的研究结果显示,女人认为脸上留着浓密胡茬的男人最有魅力,大胡子、淡淡胡茬和脸刮得很干净的男人都没那么有吸引力。In contrast, men rated full beards and heavy stubble as most attractive, followed closely by clean-shaven and light stubble as least attractive.相比之下,男人认为大胡子和浓密胡茬最有魅力,其次是刮得很干净的脸,淡淡胡茬最缺少魅力。Men and women rated full beards highest for parenting ability and healthiness. Masculinity ratings increased linearly as facial hair increased, and this effect was more pronounced in women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, although attractiveness ratings did not differ according to fertility.男人和女人都认为大胡子男人的育儿能力和健康水平是最高的。男人脸上毛发越多,对其男子气概的评价也随之直线上升。处于排卵期的女性受这一影响最为显著,不过她们对男人魅力的评价并没有因为自己处于排卵期而有所变化。The findings confirm that beardedness affects judgments of male socio-sexual attributes and suggest that an intermediate level of beardedness is most attractive while full-bearded men may be perceived as better fathers who could protect and invest in offspring, the researchers concluded.研究人员得出结论说,这些研究结果实,胡子多少会影响人们对男性的社会属性和性特征的判断,研究也指出,胡子不多不少是最有魅力的,而大胡子男人被认为是更好的父亲,有能力保护小孩,会为小孩投入更多。 /201304/235299泉州儿童牙齿矫正价格福建省妇幼保健医院去痣多少钱



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