时间:2019年09月22日 02:19:22

China’s public servants are in no mood to be festive this lunar new year. They dare not take bribes, but that is just the half of it.中国的公职人员在今年春节前夕的心情可不怎么样。他们不敢收受贿赂,但这还只是心情不好的一部分原因。Plenty of the more innocent perks of the season have also been quashed: no more taxpayer-funded office feasts or galas; no more #173;lavish new year raffles.很多比较无伤大雅的节日福利也被撤销:不再有由纳税人买单的办公室盛宴或节日晚会,也不再有奢华的新年抽奖。Even the most insignificant treats – from fruit baskets to sunflower seeds, calendars to cooking oil – have been curbed in the name of the new leaner, cleaner, more abstemious China.即便是最微不足道的待遇——从果篮到瓜子,从挂历到食用油——也在更精简、更清洁、更节制的新名义下受到遏制。Lunar new year has been the high point of work life in China for decades. But last year many government departments and state-owned enterprises cancelled year-end office parties after a flurry of edicts from Beijing. This year, the January 31 celebrations are taking frugality further.几十年来,春节一直是中国人职场生活中比较令人兴奋的时刻。但去年许多政府部门和国有企业在接到高层的一连串指示后,取消了年底的办公室聚会。今年,在1月31日的农历新年到来前夕,各单位的节俭程度进一步提高。“We aly moved our nianhui (new year office party) from a five-star hotel ballroom to our canteen, where the food is terrible. But what I hate the most is, they cancelled the prize-giving,” says a disgruntled employee of state-owned China Mobile in Guangzhou, who would not give their name. “They kept the traditional lottery as a kind of game, but whoever wins it gets no gift!”“我们已经把年会(新年办公室聚会)的地点从一家五星级酒店的宴会厅改到了我们的食堂,食堂的东西很难吃。但最讨厌的是,他们取消了发奖。”国有的中国移动(China Mobile)在广州的一名不满的员工(此人要求匿名)表示,“他们保留了传统的抽奖作为一种游戏,但者将得不到任何礼物!”Some also complain of the cancellation of traditional year-end subsidies, sometimes in the form of grocery gift cards used to defray the expenses of celebrating the spring festival at home.还有人抱怨传统的年终补贴被取消,这种补贴有时以超市购物卡形式发放,用于贴补家里过年的花销。“I understand that the higher levels of government worry that, once they loosen their grip, people under them will find a loophole. But to cancel such nianhui hurts department cohesiveness,” says a junior civil servant in Shanghai.“据我所知,政府高层担心,一旦他们放松规定,下面的人就会找到漏洞。但是撤销这种年会不利于部门凝聚力,”上海一名初级公务员表示。But little things irk: “We planned to have a tea party in our own canteen with sunflower seeds, candies, singing and games, but our superiors wouldn’t approve it,” says one staff member at a state oil company.令人心烦的是,“小意思”也往往遭到否决:“我们计划在自己的食堂开个茶话会,提供瓜子、糖果,唱唱歌、做做游戏,可我们的上级竟然不批准,”某国有石油公司的一名职员表示。An employee in a state-owned financial services company says a ban on the printing of calendars bothers him most. Another told the Beijing News his state-owned company replaced new year gifts such as iPads with toothpaste.某国有金融务公司的一名雇员表示,禁止印刷挂历的规定最让他心烦。另一名人士告诉《新京报》,他所在的国企将新年礼物从往年的iPad降格为牙膏。But some public servants say there is a silver lining.但是,一些公职人员表示,他们看到了一些积极的方面。The employee whose planned canteen party was not authorised says: “I was half wishing that they would not approve it, because it’s not really fun. I actually felt relieved.” Some say they are also relieved to avoid the heavy drinking at government banquets.食堂茶话会计划未获批准的那名职员表示:“我本来就暗地里希望他们不会批准,因为这真的没什么意思。我其实松了一口气。”有些人说,不用在政府宴会上豪饮,也让他们松了一口气。The ministries of public security, civil affairs and culture must live without their own new year galas screened on China Central Television this year, according to Xinhua. Even spending public funds on firework displays, the most traditional new year activity, has been banned.据新华社报道,公安、民政、文化等部今年不得举办在中国中央电视台播放的春节晚会。放烟花爆竹是过年时最传统的活动,但今年就连用公款购买烟花爆竹也被禁止。 /201401/273670

Over the coming weeks, a few Volvo cars will begin a historic journey from southwestern China to the US. The Swedish company’s S60L sedans will be transported by truck to Shanghai’s port, loaded on to car carriers for shipment across the Pacific, and finally rolled off in Los Angeles.在接下来的几周时间,一批沃尔沃(Volvo)汽车将从中国西南部运往美国,展开一段历史性旅程。这家瑞典公司的S60L轿车将先用卡车运到上海港口,再装载到汽车运输船上横跨太平洋,最终在洛杉矶卸载。Manufactured at Volvo’s new plant in Chengdu, the first made-in-China passenger cars purpose-built for export to the US are a reminder of how far the country — like Japan and South Korea — has come in global manufacturing.这批汽车产自沃尔沃的成都新工厂,是首批中国制造的专为出口美国订制的乘用车,它们提醒了我们中国(就像日本和韩国)在全球制造业已走出了多远。China has evolved from a supplier of low-cost, labour-intensive products to an exporter of what Ralf Speth, chief executive of Jaguar Land Rover, calls “the most complex consumer product on earth”.中国已经从低成本、劳动密集型产品供应国,发展成施韦德(Ralf Speth)所称的“地球上最复杂消费产品”的出口国。施韦德是捷豹路虎(Jaguar Land Rover)首席执行官。“China will probably follow the path we have seen with Japan and Korea but will do it faster,” H#229;kan Samuelsson, Volvo’s chief executive, said at this week’s Auto Shanghai, one of China’s two annual premier car shows. “I would say 2020 is realistic to see Chinese cars on the global market.”沃尔沃首席执行官霍坎#8226;萨穆埃尔松(H#229;kan Samuelsson)在本周开幕的上海国际车展上表示:“中国很可能将踏上我们见过的日本和韩国的发展道路,但是会发展得更快。我想2020年中国汽车出现在全球市场上是现实的。”上海国际车展是中国两大年度车展之一。Unlike Volvo, a unit of Chinese carmaker Geely, most multinational car executives are reluctant to talk about China as a possible future export platform for their companies.与隶属中国车企吉利(Geely)的沃尔沃不同,多数跨国车企高管都不愿谈论以中国作为其公司可能的未来出口平台。That is in part because they do not want to compete against sister units overseas and would also have to share their export earnings with their Chinese joint venture partners. Chinese government rules cap foreign ownership of automotive factories at 50 per cent.有部分是因为他们不想与海外兄弟公司竞争,另外他们还得与中方合资伙伴分享出口收入。中国政府规定汽车企业外资持股上限为50%。But with huge capacity investments in China coming on line just as annual economic growth falls to a “new normal” of below 7 per cent, the question about whether that capacity should be used for exports is not going away.但中国经济年增长正滑向低于7%的“新常态”,即将在中国投资的巨大产能就产生了一个挥之不去的问题:这一产能是否应该用于出口?Jacques Daniel, head of Renault’s China business, says his overseas colleagues raise the export issue frequently. “The question is often asked by our colleagues at Renault because they are afraid we are going to export,” Mr Daniel says. “But with such a big market here, all our energy should be focused on China.”雷诺汽车(Renault)中国业务负责人达业(Jacques Daniel)表示,他的海外同僚常常提到出口问题,他说:“雷诺的同事之所以会经常问这一问题,是因为他们担心我们要出口。但这儿有这么大市场,我们所有的精力都该集中在中国。”Renault is a late-comer to China, the world’s largest car market with more than 20m units sold last year. The French company will not open its first factory in the country until early 2016. The joint venture with Dongfeng Motor in Wuhan will have an initial capacity of just 150,000 units.中国去年汽车销量超过2000万辆,是全球最大汽车市场。雷诺在中国市场是个后来者,这家法国公司到2016年初才会在中国开第一家工厂。雷诺与东风汽车(Dongfeng Motor)在武汉的合资公司初始产能将仅为15万辆。GM and Volkswagen, the top two automakers in China, will have a combined manufacturing capacity of almost 10m units in their most important market by 2018. GM is in the midst of a five-year bn China investment drive that will increase capacity 25 per cent this year alone. Both companies believe that even such huge capacity increases can be absorbed by China alone.通用汽车(GM)和大众汽车(Volkswagen)在中国是最大的两家汽车制造商,到2018年,在中国这个最重要的市场上,两家公司的总产能将达到近1000万辆。通用汽车对华投资140亿美元的5年计划正在进行中,仅今年其产能就将提高25%。这两家公司都认为即使产能增加如此巨大,单靠中国市场就能吸收。“We want to build where we sell,” Mary Barra, GM’s chief executive, said at an Auto Shanghai briefing. “It’s still important to make sure we have the capacity for the domestic market.”通用汽车首席执行官玛丽#8226;巴拉(Mary Barra)在上海国际车展的发布会上表示:“我们希望在哪儿销售,就在哪儿建造产能。确保我们的产能满足中国市场仍然重要。” /201504/372022

JINGHONG, China — In the farming village of Tuanjie, in the hills above Jinghong, in southwest Yunnan Province, nearly every family lives in a two- or three-story concrete house, testament to a prosperity built during the boom years for natural rubber production.中国景洪——在中国西南地区云南省景洪市的山丘上,有一座务农的村庄叫团结村,村里几乎每户人家都住在两三层高的水泥楼房里。这一栋栋房屋见了当年因出产天然橡胶而带来的繁荣景象。Sitting in a gleaming new kitchen larger than the thatched hut that once stood on the same spot, Wang Guiying, 51, recalled hunting wild animals to survive and growing cotton to make her own clothes in the days before her family in 1983 became the first in the village to plant rubber trees. “Our lives then just got better and better,” she said.51岁的王桂英(Wang Guiying,音)坐在亮堂堂的簇新厨房里。想当年,她家的整幢茅草屋还没有如今这间厨房大。当时不但得猎杀野味谋生,还得自己种植棉花制衣,直到1983年,她们家在村里率先种起橡胶树。“从此以后,日子过得越来越好,”她说。By 2011, the Wangs were earning nearly ,000 a year from their four-acre farm, while neighbors with larger plots earned close to six-figure incomes. Family members built their two-story home, bought a car and a flat screen television and went on group tours to distant Beijing and nearby Vietnam.到了2011年,王家每年可从自家的4英亩田里赚8万元人民币,而有地较多的邻居甚至能赚进六位数字。当地人家开始建造两层楼房、购买汽车和平面电视,并参加去北京的长途旅行团,或是到邻近的越南游玩。This year, because of the drop in oil prices, which set the price for natural as well as synthetic rubber, they predict they will make only about ,600.然而今年油价跌落,与之挂钩的天然橡胶和合成橡胶的价格也应声下降。王家预计今年只能挣到1万元人民币。“We don’t know why the price went down, but we have nothing else to depend on,” said Ms. Wang’s son-in-law, Jie Er, 32.“我们也不明白怎么会跌价,但除了橡胶,我们没有别的指望了,”王桂英32岁的女婿介洱(Jie Er,音)说。Recognizing that, environmental officials just outside Jinghong, the region’s major city, have been testing a plantation model that they hope will become the blueprint for a more sustainable and economically stable rubber industry.鉴于橡胶价格的下跌,该地区中心城市景洪城郊的环境官员测试起全新的开垦模式,希望借此打造出能够持续发展且经济效益更为稳定的橡胶产业。On approximately 165 acres of land, workers have interspersed the rubber trees with cacao, coffee and macadamia trees, as well as high-value timber species. The mix, promoted as “environmentally friendly rubber,” is intended to decrease soil erosion, improve water quality and increase biodiversity, among other benefits.在占地约165英亩的田地上,农民们交错种上了橡胶、可可、咖啡和澳大利亚坚果,以及具备高经济价值的木材树种。官方将这种间作方式称为“环境友好型橡胶种植”,目的在于减少水土流失、改善水质并提升生物多样性等。Rubber plantations first appeared in this tropical region in the mid-1950s as state farms run by the centrally planned economy. Mile after mile, the uniform rows of rubber trees fan out across the valleys where Asian elephants and white-cheeked gibbons once roamed. From afar, they meld into an unnaturally even carpet of single-shade green, a stark contrast to patches of remaining natural forest.橡胶种植最早于上世纪50年代中期以国营农场的形式出现在云南。这片热带地区原先是亚洲象及白颊长臂猿的栖息地。当时中国推行中央计划经济,整齐划一的橡胶树在山谷间绵延不绝地生长。从远处望过来,这片绿色的橡胶林地呈现人工的单一色块,和邻近的原始森林形成强烈对比。The transition to a free-market economy combined with rising rubber prices led to the rapid expansion of plantations beginning in the late 1990s. These days, over a fifth of all land in the Xishuangbanna prefecture of Yunnan Province is devoted to rubber production, an area of cultivation that tripled in size between 2002 and 2010. Natural forest coverage, in turn, has fallen to less than 50 percent in 2003 from nearly 70 percent in the late 1970s, snuffing out wildlife in a corner of China renowned as one of its most biologically diverse.到了90年代晚期,中国向自由市场经济转型,又恰逢橡胶价格上扬,因此种植规模开始迅速扩张。到了现在,西双版纳州超过五分之一的土地都用来出产橡胶,仅是2002至2010年间的种植面积就增长了两倍。在70年代晚期,云南仍保有将近70%的原始森林,而到了2003年,原始森林的覆盖率跌落至不及50%的水平。这里是全中国生物多样性最丰富的地区之一,如今野生动物日渐稀少。Li Qingyou, director of the Bio-Industrial Crops Office, the governmental body that is seeking to convert nearly a fourth of the region’s rubber-growing areas to this new more eco-friendly model by 2020, stood next to his Jeep facing a view of new high-rises and the Mekong River beyond, feet planted on the slope separating a row of coffee trees from rubber trees.州政府旗下的发展生物产业办公室希望,在2020年以前,把该地区近四分之一的橡胶林地,变为更有助于生态发展的这种新种植模式。发展生物产业办公室主任李庆友站在吉普车旁,眺望新的高楼及远方的澜沧江,脚下的斜坡将一排咖啡树和其他的橡胶树分隔开来。“We used to be so focused on developing the economy that we planted rubber and ignored the environmental impact,” he said, “but now we realize that this isn’t good for us, and it isn’t good for the economy either.”“以往为了全力发展经济而种植橡胶,却忽略了对环境造成的影响,”他表示,“如今我们了解到这对我们不利,也无益于经济发展。”Last year, the prefecture-level government spent .6 million to convert nearly 21,500 acres of existing rubber plantations into environmentally balanced ones. According to officials, an additional 16,000 or so acres are in the pipeline for this year. With rubber prices at a 10-year low and farmers panicked over sinking incomes, officials say they have a rare opportunity to promote their ideas, which include introducing new products that make farmers less dependent on a single revenue stream.去年,州政府花费千万元人民币来将近2.15万英亩的既有橡胶林改造为生态平衡林地。根据官员的说法,今年还将把1.6万英亩左右的林地纳入规划。由于橡胶价格创10年新低,农民也因收入下跌而恐慌,官员表示他们有难得的机会推行这个理念,其中也包括引进新物产,让农户不至于太依赖单一收入来源。“When rubber prices were very high, it simply wasn’t easy to get anything done,” said Pan Yuwen, 48, a technical adviser in a government department specially created to assist farmers with following the new practices.“橡胶价格还很高的时候,根本推行不了任何事情,”政府部门的技术顾问、58岁的潘育文(Pan Yuwen,音)表示。这个部门的创建,就是为了协助农民学习新的栽种模式。There is no official consensus as to what exactly “environmentally friendly rubber” ought to be; researchers are divided as to what intercropping species and planting practices would best balance economic needs against purely environmental concerns.对于“环境友好型橡胶种植”的定义,目前并没有一致的权威说法。科研人员在间作作物的种类与栽种方法上存在分歧,争论的内容是何者能够在经济需求与单纯的环境关怀之间达到平衡。The current program includes measures like the distribution of free seedlings — some 500,000 in 2014 — and the discouragement of planting rubber trees on steep slopes or in areas over 2,600 feet in elevation, where soil erosion and other environmental damage are much worse and yields proportionately lower.目前的计划包括发放免费幼苗——在2014年发放了50万株——之类的措施,以及阻止农民在陡坡或海拔超过800米的地方种植橡胶树,因为那么做会造成更严重的土壤侵蚀等环境损害,并相应减少产量。Though rubber farmers typically engage in intercropping while the trees are still young and have not yet developed full canopies, it is uncommon for farmers to integrate other species into mature plantations. Yet, tea, cacao, coffee and a number of Chinese medicinal plants can grow even in the midst of a rubber forest, as can valuable, slow-growing trees like teak.胶农通常在橡胶树较为年幼、尚未长成完整的树冠时进行间作,在已成熟的橡胶林之间整合其他作物的做法并不常见。不过,茶、可可、咖啡与几样中药药草可以在橡胶树之间存活,还有一些价值高但成长缓慢的树种亦是如此,例如柚木。Mr. Jie said he was intrigued by the seedling distribution program, though he would never cut down his rubber trees, which take seven years to mature. “We’re wondering if we should also start planting macadamia nuts or Aquilaria trees,” tall evergreens that produce resinous agarwood, which is used in perfumes and is one of the world’s most expensive raw materials.介洱说他对分发幼苗的计划感到好奇,但他不会砍掉自家那些需要七年才能长成的橡胶树。“我们在想,要不要也种些澳大利亚坚果或是沉香树。”沉香树是一种高大的常绿乔木,可以生产富含树脂的沉香木,用于生产香水,是世界上最昂贵的原材料之一。Many others in Tuanjie spoke of plans to leave and take jobs as day laborers in Jinghong to make ends meet.团结村还有许多人谈到,要为了生计离开此地,到景洪市打短工。Critics of the government’s rubber program say it lacks clear environmental standards as well as incentives that could get local farmers to participate. And the vast majority of rubber plantations now belong to individual small holders like the Wang family who own long-term rights to use of the land and make their own economic decisions.批评政府橡胶计划的人指出,该计划缺乏明确的环境标准,也缺乏明确的奖励措施吸引当地农民参与。绝大多数的橡胶树农是像王家这样拥有长期土地使用权、并可以自己做出经济决策的个体小农。“The government has no power to effectively push this program out, because at a policy level they have no way to stop villagers with no idea of what it means to be environmentally friendly from doing whatever they want,” said Chen Jin, director of the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden Research Center, which helped develop the Jinghong model site. The process of educating villagers would be slow, he added, “like brewing tea with cold water.”“政府没有力量有效推广这个计划,因为在政策层面上,他们无法阻止不懂环境保护意义的村民为所欲为,”西双版纳热带植物园主任陈进表示。该机构曾协助开发了景洪市的示范区。他还说,教导村民的进展很慢,“就像用冷水泡茶。”He dismissed the government’s progress indicators and targets as inflated to the point of being “simply impossible.”他不认同政府的进度指标与目标,认为它们被夸大到了“根本不可能”达到的程度。Mr. Li of the Bio-Industrial Crops Office acknowledged that the targets were somewhat fanciful but said they were devised to show just how serious the government is about changing the status quo. “Otherwise, people will lack enthusiasm,” he said.发展生物产业办公室的李主任承认目标有些不现实,但表示设置这些目标是为了显示政府有改变现状的决心。他说,“否则,民众会缺乏热情。” /201506/378083

As snowy Davos becomes engulfed in the hustle and bustle of another World Economic Forum, Microsoft (MSFT) founder Bill Gates took the opportunity to deliver an upbeat message in his annual newsletter. The 25-page report, written by Gates and his wife Melinda, who are co-chairs of the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, argued that the world is a better place than it has ever been before. Gates predicted that by 2035, there would be almost no poor countries left in the world, using today#39;s World Bank classification of low-income countries — even after adjusting for inflation.微软创始人、世界首富比尔·盖茨近日在接受采访时表示,到2035年世界上将几乎没有贫穷的国家,那些贫穷的国家将会从富裕的邻国伙伴们的创新受益。 “到那个时候几乎所有的国家将会成为中低收入国家或者更为富有的国家。贫穷的国家会从周围最具生产力的邻国身上学习经验,并且受益于他们的创新,比如新的疫苗、优质的种子以及数字变革。而他们本身的廉价的劳动力、鼓励政策以及逐步普及的教育都会吸引更多的投资者。到2035年绝大多数的国家都会比现在中国的人均收入要高。”;Poor countries are not doomed to stay poor. Some of the so-called developing nations have aly developed,; he said in his annual note, published on Tuesday. ;I am optimistic enough about this that I am willing to make a prediction. By 2035, there will be almost no poor countries left in the world.; Gates — who remains a part-time chairman of Microsoft — added that by this point in time, almost all countries will be ;lower-middle income; or richer. Countries will learn from their most productive neighbors and benefit from innovations like new vaccines, better seeds, and the digital revolution, he said. ;By almost any measure, the world is better than it has ever been. People are living longer, healthier lives. Extreme poverty rates have been cut in half in the past 25 years. Child mortality is plunging. Many nations that were aid recipients are now self-sufficient,; he said.“到时候将会有超过70%的国家的人均收入超过现在的中国人民的人均收入,而接近90%的国家的人均收入会赶上并超过现在的印度人民的人均收入。”盖茨说富裕国家和贫穷国家之间的差距将会慢慢地由中国、印度、巴西等一些国家填补。从1960开始,中国的人均收入翻了8倍,印度的升了4倍,巴西也几乎上涨了5倍。比尔·盖茨还称当前存在三大误区阻碍了全球发展:穷国将永远穷下去;外国援助是极大的浪费;拯救生命会导致人口过剩。The three biggest myths, according to Gates, are that poor countries are doomed to stay poor, that foreign aid is a big waste and that saving lives leads to overpopulation.Using data from academics, the World Bank and the ed Nations, he makes the opposite case — arguing that the world is getting better.“那些认为世界正变得越来越糟糕,我们不能解决贫穷以及疾病问题都是误解,并且有很大的危害,”盖茨写道。;不管通过什么标准衡量,世界都在不断地变好。很明显在接下来的二十年里也会变得更好。; /201401/274165

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