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山东省中心医院简介山东省第六人民医院客服咨询Science and Technology LSD Acid tests科技 麦角酸二乙基酰胺 迷幻药之考验Research into hallucinogenic drugs begins to shake off decades of taboo迷幻药物的研究开始摆脱几十年来的禁忌THE psychedelic era of the 1960s is remembered for its music, its art and, of course, its drugs.20世纪60年代是一个让人产生迷幻的年代,这个时代因它的音乐,它的艺术,当然还有它的毒品而被人记得。Its science is somewhat further down the list.而那个时候的科学在某种程度上则不太被人们熟知。But before the rise of the counterculture, researchers had been studying LSD as a treatment for everything from alcoholism to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with promising results.不过在反传统文化兴趣之前,随着有价值的研究成果的出现,研究者们则正在研究LSD作为一种治疗从酗酒到强迫症(OCD)的方法。Timothy Leary, a psychologist at Harvard University, was one of the best-known workers in the field, but it was also he who was widely blamed for discrediting it, by his unconventional research methods and his lax handling of drugs.哈佛大学的心理学家蒂莫西?利瑞(Timothy Leary)就是该领域最为知名的人士之一,不过他也因为其非传统的研究方法和他对对药物不严格的处理而让这个药物声名狼藉,进而广受诟病。Now, the details of Learys research will be made public, with the recent purchase of his papers by the New York Public Library.现在,随着纽约公共图书馆购买他的论文,利瑞研究的细节部分将公之于众。These papers will be interesting not only culturally, but also scientifically, as they reflect what happened between the early medical promise of hallucinogens and their subsequent blacklisting by authorities around the world.这些论文不仅在文化方面将会很有引人注意,在科学上也同样如此,它们反应了从早期迷幻剂的医疗承诺到它们随后进入全球各地政府黑名单的之间的所发生的事情。American researchers began experimenting with LSD in 1949, at first using it to simulate mental illness.美国的研究人员研究LSD始于1949年,那时他们第一次用这个化合物来模拟精神病。Once its psychedelic effects were realised, they then tried it in psychotherapy and as a treatment for alcoholism, for which it became known at the time as a miracle cure.迷幻效果一被发现,他们接着就在心理治疗方面尝试用它,它也同样作为一个酗酒的治疗方法,因为在当时这个化合物以作为一个奇迹的治愈而得名。By 1965 over 1,000 papers had been published describing positive results for LSD therapy. It, and its close chemical relative psilocybin, isolated from hallucinogenic mushrooms, were reported as having potential for treating anxiety disorders, OCD, depression, bereavement and even sexual dysfunction.到1965年时,已经有一千多篇关于LSD治疗的积极结果的论文发表。LSD以及与它相关的化合物裸盖菇素,后者是从迷幻蘑菇中分离出来的一种物质,这二者都被报道有治疗焦虑症,强迫症,抑郁症,丧亲之痛甚至是性功能障碍的潜质。Unfortunately, most of the studies that came to these conclusions were flawed: many results were anecdotal, and control groups were not established to take account of the placebo effect.不幸的是,这些结论大多数都是有缺陷的:许多的结果都是道听途说的,并没有设立相应的对照组以用来考虑安慰剂的影响。Still, the field was ripe for further study.尽管如此,但这个领域进一步研究的时机已经成熟了。But alongside growing public fear of LSD, Learys leadership had become a liability.不过与之相关的公众对于LSD的恐惧也在与日俱增,不过利瑞的领军地位已经成了坏事。He was seen less and less as a disinterested researcher, and more and more as a propagandist.他被视为一个越来越缺少公正的研究员,而越多地被人视作是一个宣传员。In 1962, amid wide publicity, the Harvard Psilocybin Project was shut down.1962年,就在其大肆宣扬过程中,哈佛的裸盖菇素项目被撤销了。Leary took his research to an estate in upstate New York, where he also hosted a stream of drug parties.利瑞带着他的研究去了纽约北部的一个庄园,在那里他还组织了一系列的毒品聚会。Eventually both LSD and psilocybin were proscribed.最终LSD和裸盖菇素都被禁止了。Which was a pity because, like many other drugs the authorities have taken against as a result of their recreational uses, hallucinogens have medical applications as well.这就是一个遗憾,因为与其他官方反对药物的用途一样,迷幻剂也有同样的医疗应用。But time heals all wounds and now, cautiously, study of the medical use of hallucinogens is returning.不过时间已经抚平了所有的创伤,现在对于迷幻剂的医疗研究应还是谨慎地归来了。Psilocybin has shown promise in treating forms of OCD that are resistant to other therapies, in relieving cluster headaches (a common form of chronic headache) and in alleviating the anxiety experienced by terminally ill cancer patients.在对其他治疗方案都有抵触的强迫症形式,缓解头痛(一种常见的慢性头痛花形式)以及减轻晚期癌症病人所历经的焦虑方面,裸盖菇素显示出了希望的苗头。The first clinical study of LSD in over 35 years, also on terminally ill patients, is expected to finish this summer.LSD的第一个临床研究和在身患绝症的病人方面的研究超过了35年了,预计会在这个夏季结束。Peter Gasser, the Swiss doctor leading the experiment, says that a combination of LSD and psychotherapy reduced anxiety levels of all 12 participants in the study, though the statistical significance of the data has yet to be analysed.领导这个实验的瑞士医生彼得?加塞(Peter Gasser)说LSD和心理治疗的结合缓解了12名参与者的焦虑程度,虽然该实验的统计意义还有待于分析。Research into LSD is not confined to medicine.对于LSD的研究并不局限于药物方面。Franz Vollenweider, of the Heffter Research Institute in Zurich, for example, is scanning peoples brains to try to understand how hallucinogenic drugs cause changes in consciousness.例如,海弗特研究学会(Heffter Research Institute)的弗朗茨?沃尔温德(Franz Vollenweider)正在扫描人的大脑,试图搞清楚迷幻药如何引起意识的变化。And biotechnology may lead to a new generation of hallucinogenic drugs.生物技术也可能会导致新一代迷幻药物的出现。Edwin Wintermute and his colleagues at Harvard have engineered yeast cells to carry out two of six steps in the pathway needed to make lysergic acid, the precursor of LSD.埃德温?温特姆特(Edwin Wintermute)和他在哈佛的同事已经通过基因工程改造了酵母细胞,在产生麦角酸——LSD的前体——的六步反应路径中已经实现了其中的两步。They hope to add the other four shortly.他们希望通过在短期内加入其他的四步反应。Once the pathway has been created, it can be tweaked.一旦这个路径打通,酵母就可以得到改良。That might result in LSD-like drugs that are better than the original.这或许就会产生类似于LSD药物并且比原来更好迷幻剂。Even if that does not happen, making lysergic acid in yeast is still a good idea.即便这种情况没有出现,不过在酵母中合成麦角酸依然是一个不错的构想。The chemical is used as the starting point for other drugs, including nicergoline, a treatment for senile dementia.这种化合物可以用于包括麦角溴烟酯(用于治疗老年性痴呆的治疗药物)在内其他药物的起点。The current process for manufacturing it is a rather messy one involving ergot, a parasite of rye.目前制造麦角溴烟酯的工艺仍然相当复杂,它要用到麦角菌——一种寄生在黑麦中细菌。It may, of course, be that LSD has no clinical uses.当然,LSD或许没有临床用途。Even when no stigma attaches to the drugs involved, most clinical trials end in failure.即使这种药物没有任何不光的地陷,那么大多数的临床实验还将会以失败告终。But it is worth seeing whether LSD might fulfil its early promise.此外,对于LSD能否履行其早期的承诺还值得一看。And if the publication of Learys archive speeds that process up by exorcising a ghost that still haunts LSD research, then the New York Public Library will have done the world a service.如果利瑞的档案能够加速驱除困扰着LSD研究的鬼魂,那么纽约公共图书馆将是务了整个世界。 /201211/211146山东中医药大学附属医院妇科专家大夫 济南省医院贵吗

济军总医院在那个区Science and Technology Military camouflage That old razzle dazzle科技 军事伪装 旧式迷魂战术How to confuse the enemy about how quickly you are travelling如何让敌方无法判断己方的前行速度IN THE second world war, many Allied ships were painted with dark and light stripes, and other contrasting shapes, making them look a bit like zebra.二战期间,许多盟军军舰船身都被喷涂了黑白条纹及其它迷图案,这让它们看上去有些象斑马。The idea was to distort an enemy submarine commanders perception of the ships size, shape, range, heading and speed, so as to make it harder to hit with the non-homing torpedoes of the period.这样做的目的是为了迷惑敌军潜水艇指挥官,使其无法判断盟军船舰的尺寸,形状,距离,航向和速度。由于当时的鱼雷还不具备制导系统,因此想要击中目标愈加困难。These had to be pointed not at the target directly but, rather, at the place where the commander thought the target would be when the torpedo arrived.因此敌军指挥官不再让鱼雷直接对准目标发射,而是将它们发射到他认为盟军军舰可能会驶向的位置。At the time, though, it was only an educated guess that this so-called dazzle camouflage would work.当时, 对于这种所谓的迷伪装术的有效性判断还只是基于经验上的考量。Now someone has actually tested it and the short answer is that it does work—but not in the way that Allied navies thought it did. Ships move too slowly for dazzle camouflage to be effective.而如今已经有人对此进行了真实测试,结果验这种迷伪装的确有效——但并不是按照盟军海军所设想的那种方式发挥作用。However, it might well have a role in protecting faster-moving vehicles, such as military Land Rovers.迷伪装无法保护航行速度过慢的船艇。但它对于军用路虎这样快速行驶的车辆却能起到很好的保护作用。Nicholas Scott-Samuel, of the University of Bristol, and his colleagues, came to this conclusion by asking volunteers to watch patterned rectangles cross a computer screen.以上结论是由布里斯托尔大学的Nicholas Scott-Samuel和他的同事通过实验得出的。Some of the rectangles had horizontal stripes inside them. Some had vertical stripes. Some had zigzags. And some had checks.他们让志愿者观察在电脑屏幕内横向移动的长方形物体,这些物体内部被喷涂了不同图案,图案形式有横纹,竖纹,锯齿纹和方格纹。Others, acting as controls, had no internal patterns.而作为参照的物体则未喷涂任何图案。Each test involved a jazzy rectangle crossing the screen either before or after a plain one. Volunteers had to estimate which of the two was travelling faster.每次实验志愿者在观看了迷图案的长方形横过电脑屏幕之前或之后,还被要求观看一个没有条纹图案的物体横过屏幕,之后志愿者需要估计这两个物体哪个移动速度较快。In fact, in all cases, the two rectangles travelled at the same speed.实际上,在所有实验中,这两个长方形物体移动的速度都相同。But the researchers varied the conditions in other ways, without telling the participants.但研究人员通过其它方式改变了实验条件,志愿者对此却一无所知。Sometimes both rectangles travelled slowly, at just over 3o of arc a second from the observers point of view, as a ship might. Sometimes they travelled much faster, at 20o a second, mimicking the way a land vehicle moves.有时两个长方形物体移动速度都很慢,从志愿者的观察角度看,就象一艘船以每秒驶过3度的距离在航行,有时它们都模仿陆地车辆行驶方式以每秒走过20度的距离快速移动。The jazzy rectangles also came in different flavours. Some were low-contrast (ie, not very jazzy at all) and some high-contrast.长方形物体的迷图案也不尽相同,有些图案对比度不强烈(看起来不那么花哨),有些图案的对比度则很强。The upshot, as Dr Scott-Samuel reports in the Public Library of Science, was that participants were not fooled by slow-moving rectangles, nor by low-contrast ones.实验结果如同Scott-Samuel 士在公共科学图书馆报告所说,志愿者对慢速移动或图案对比度不强的物体移动速度判断较准确。Fast-moving, high-contrast shapes, however, did befuddle them.而对于快速移动和图案对比度强烈的物体,他们的判断常常出错。On average, an observer reckoned that such a fast, jazzy rectangle was going 7% slower than was actually the case.志愿者对于有迷图案和快速移动的正方形物体的速度估计要比它们的实际速度平均低了7%。Ships, therefore, travel too slowly for dazzle camouflage to work.因此喷涂迷伪装的军舰航行速度过于缓慢是起不到迷惑敌军作用的。In any case, modern torpedoes and missiles are guided to their target electronically.在任何情况下,现代的鱼雷和导弹都采用了电子制导来跟踪目标。But 20o a second corresponds to the perceived movement of a vehicle 70 metres away that is travelling at 90kph.但是从视觉角度看,每秒20度的移动速度相当于在70米外看到一部车辆在以90公里/小时行驶。That is precisely the sort of distance from which an unguided rocket-propelled grenade might be fired at a lightly armoured military vehicle, and just the sort of speed such a vehicle might be travelling at.在与此相同的距离和速度条件下,一个非制导火箭推进榴弹能够击中一辆轻型装甲军车。Perhaps the answer, then, is for modern armies to buy their Land Rovers second-hand from game parks, which often paint them in zebra stripes for effect.如果果真如此,那么现代军队可以考虑在狩猎公园买个涂有斑马条纹的二手路虎车了。Whether real zebra got their own jazzy stripes to confuse predators has yet to be determined.至于斑马身上的条纹能否让其躲过掠食动物的捕杀则还有待实。 /201212/212722济南阳光妇科地址 Business.商业。British law firms.英国律师事务所。Taking the magic abroad.进军梦幻般的国外市场。Londons big law firms are expanding their global footprints.伦敦的大型律师事务所正在进行全球扩张。LAWYERS are cautious folk. So the recent collapse of Dewey amp; Leboeuf, a big American law firm, has scared them. Dewey failed because it tried to grow too fast, by borrowing too much money. Other firms still want to grow, but they are doing so slowly and carefully.律师是十分谨慎的人群。因此,最近美国大型律师事务所Dewey amp; Leboeuf的倒闭已经吓坏了他们。Dewey律师事务所(后文简称Dewey)之所以倒闭,是因为急切扩张,借贷了大量贷款。其他事务所仍然寻求发展,但他们做的比较缓慢和小心。Consider Londons top five law firms, known as the ;magic circle;. Allen amp; Overy and Clifford Chance released results early this week, and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer and Linklaters were expected to do so later. (Slaughter and May does not release public results.) Allen amp; Overy had a good year, with its revenues growing by 6% and its profits by 7%. Clifford Chance, the biggest, did even better, with revenues up by 7% and profits up by 13%.以伦敦最大的五家律师事务所为例,他们被称为;梦幻集团;。Allen amp; Overy和Clifford Chance在周初发布了他们的业绩报告,Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer 和 Linklaters随后也将发布业绩报告。(Slaughter and May没有发布公开的业绩报告。)Allen amp; Overy事务所的收益不错,总收入增长6%,利润增长7%。最大的Clifford Chance事务所表现的更好,总收入增长7%,利润增长13%。Emerging markets are where the growth is. Allen amp; Overy now gets 22% of its revenue from such places, up from 15% a few years ago. It opened an office in Vietnam a month ago and another in Jakarta 17 months previously. As for China, so many Western firms have piled in that they have competed each others fees down, but Wim Dejonghe, Allen amp; Overys (Belgian) boss, is still optimistic: the centre of gravity has moved from Shanghai to Beijing, he says, as the focus has shifted from inbound mergers and investment to Chinese money flowing out.这种增长来自于新兴市场。Allen amp; Overy事务所来自于新兴市场的收入从几年前的15%增长到22%。它一个月前在越南开了一个营业处,17个月前在雅加达同样开了另一个(营业处)。对于中国,涌入了如此多的事务所以至于他们相互低价竞争。但Allen amp; Overy的比利时老板Wim Dejonghe仍然很乐观,他表示:市场的中心已经从上海转移到北京,因为焦点已经从入境兼并和投资转移到中国资金的外流。David Childs, the boss of Clifford Chance, is also bullish on China. His firm cut partners during the recession, but not in Asia, the Middle East or Brazil. As for downward pressure on fees, Mr Childs says, slowly, ;They are very careful buyers…in Asia,; before insisting that his firm has no trouble with pricing there. The firms revenues grew by 28% in Asia this year, thanks in part to a push into Australia. Next year will be tougher: though bank regulatory work and dispute resolution are providing steady fees, ;Id much rather have healthy transaction flows.;Clifford Chance的老板David Childs同样看好中国市场。在经济萧条期间他的公司削减了合作伙伴,但不是在亚洲,中东和巴西。就收费走低的压力的问题,Childs先生缓缓地说:;亚洲人是很谨慎的买家。;随后他坚持,在亚洲他的公司没有定价方面的困扰。今年公司在亚洲地区的收入增长了28%,部分是得益于进入澳大利亚市场。明年的形式可能会困难一些:尽管监管工作和调解纠纷在提供稳定的酬金,我更希望拥有可观的交易佣金收入。The magic circle may be getting a new competitor. Herbert Smith, a second-tier firm, announced a merger with Freehills, one of Australias biggest, on June 28th. With revenues of over billion, the merged firm will be bigger than Slaughter and May. It will push for work related to Austrialias commodity boom and Asian capital markets. But David Willis, Herbert Smiths boss, is keen to stress the firms un-Dewey-like gradualism: ;Were not expecting a huge increase in earnings in year one. Thats not why were doing this.;梦幻集团可能会有一个新的竞争者。6月28日,位于行业第二集团的Herbert Smith事务所宣布与Freehills事务所进行合并,后者是澳大利亚最大的律师事务所之一。合并后的事务所将以10亿美元的收入超过Slaughter and May事务所。它将推进与澳大利亚商品市场和亚洲资本市场等相关的工作的发展。但Herbert Smith的老板David Willis着重强调公司不同于Dewey的增长模式:;我们不期望在一年之内实现收入的大幅增长。这不是我们进行合并的原因。; /201209/198873滨州市做无痛人流需要多少钱

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