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2019年09月20日 19:06:49 | 作者:养心诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Say what? Big cities affect the trees in the countryside?你说什么?大都市的环境污染对农村的树有影响?You got it! According to a study conducted by Jillian Gregg,who now works at the EPAs western-ecology division in Oregon, Eastern Cottonwood trees grew twice as big inside the Bronx as they did growing in small towns on Long Island.没错!一项由Jillian Gregg发起的研究表明,在布朗克斯生长的美洲黑杨比小镇纽约长岛的高大两倍,Jillian Greg在美国环保署西部生态分署的俄勒冈州工作。But that just seems backwards.我怎么觉得好像说反了,Cities are where all pollution, should that hamper the growth ofthe trees?城市污染严重,就会影响到农村树木的生长吗?Cities are full of pollution, and it does have a detrimental effect on plant life–to say nothing of people life!城市的环境污染确实有害植物生长,更不要说人的生活了。But that doesnt mean, unfortunately, that the converse is true-that once you get outside of the city, the environment is clean.但是不幸的是,这并不能说明相反的是对的:远离城市的环境就是无污染的。Regions can suffer from pollution that blows in from the cities and then lingers around the countryside.城市的污染会从城市扩散到农村,In particular, ozone does this.Second-hand ozone?特别是污染农村的新鲜空气。“二手”新鲜空气?Indeed, Greggs study, along with others, are fingering ozone as the factor that most significantly affects plant growth.事实上,Greg和其他人的研究都指出影响植物生长的就是空气被污染了。So Cities make the pollution but it blows over the countryside and hurts trees there instead.That seems so unfair.也就是说城市是污染的源头,又扩散到农村,还不利农村树木的生长,听起来太不公平了。Its just another warning about the surprising effects of pollution-and how we all suffer from it,even when we think its someone elses problem.这可能是另一个有关环境污染出人意料的影响:虽然我们认为环境污染不是自己的问题,但是我们都承受着其带来的不良后果。 201501/351765Bacteria break down the trapped sediment and other organic material, helping create tons and tons of sticky mud, a whole new home for wild life.细菌分解掉这些沉积物和其他有机物质,最后一起变成成吨的淤泥,淤泥成就了又一个全新的栖息地。In a perfect world mud should be thick and glutinous and as rich as dark chocolate, and it should also stink to high heaven, but this is extremely important stuff to the great barrier reef, one teaspoon full of this mud contains 10 million bacteria.在正常情况下,这些淤泥极为粘稠,粘稠得就像黑巧克力一样,味道也臭得熏天。正是这些淤泥对大堡礁起着极其重要的作用。每茶勺的淤泥里都含有千万计的细菌。All those bacteria are potential food, and although they are many species that eat mud directly, those that do operating in large numbers, legions of creatures perform the unglamorous but crucial task of breaking down the globe, mud welks and fiddler crabs both eat the mud, and their waste is the vital product and spoons an entire food chain.而这些细菌正是一种潜在的食物。虽然地球上以泥为食的生物不是很多,而那些以泥为食的都以庞大的群体数量现身。这个生物军团的任务单调乏味,但却是分解粘土的关键步骤。泥螺和招潮蟹都是吃泥高手,它们的排泄物是形成整个食品链的重要产品。Once its in the water, clouds of shrimp devour it, the nutrients that start in the mud are now swimming around in small easy to catch parcels.涨潮后,水中的粪便就成为虾群的食物。原本淤泥中的养分,现在变成四处游动的小且好抓的虾形养料包。 201504/371810City officials around the country are trying to figure out how to make changes in their communities to adapt to climate change.Researchers from the University of Michigan and the University of North Carolina looked at 44 of these climate adaptation plans, and found they were a mixed bag.Missy Stults is a Ph.D. candidate at U of M in the Urban and Regional Planning Program and the School of Natural Resources and Environment.She says in the Great Lakes region, city officials are mainly concerned about excessive rainfall events.;Heavy precipitation events leading to localized flooding, storm water overflows. Those are really the main issues, at least in the Midwest,; she says.Stults says they examined stand-alone climate adaptation plans.;What that means is these 44 communities created a plan solely focused on understanding how theyre vulnerable to climate change, both existing impacts as well as future impacts, and then they created a plan focused on solutions to those different impacts,; she says.She says there are a lot of other ways communities can plan for climate change, so this group of plans from 44 cities is just a small subset.Strengths and weaknessesStults says there were strengths in some of the plans.;They do a really great job of drawing on different fact bases. What I mean by that is theyre pulling reports from the U.S. federal government or local universities. Theyre also doing a really good job at selecting a wide array of strategies to prepare.;That could mean changing infrastructure in a city to make it better able to withstand heavy wind or flood events, or creating green rooftops or permeable pavement that allows storm water to soak in instead of running off into a drain.;So thats great, theyre thinking about lots of different things they can do within their powers to become more resilient; were excited about that,; she says.But theres a flip side.;We dont see a lot of detail about how theyre going to implement these strategies. So theyre putting these great ideas forward, but theyre not substantiating that with detail about whos responsible for implementing, how theyre going to fund these strategies, how theyre going to evaluate whether these strategies are effective,; says Stults. ;So that leaves us really questioning whether these plans are going to translate into actions on the ground that are going to create more resilient communities.;There are barriers to putting these plans in place.She says funding, of course, is a big one.;We just dont have the amount of capital needed to really invest at scale in climate adaptation. And there are a lot of discussions that are happening within philanthropy, at the private scale, at the federal government, to really try to figure this out.;And she says a lot of local governments have had to cut staff in recent years.;The Great Recession hit local governments really hard, so they laid off a lot of staff. And now youve got people that are, really in my eyes, theyre kind of heroes at the local level that are fighting the fight to make sure you have your trash being picked up, that youve got good drinking water thats coming out of your faucet, but then theyre also responsible for planning for climate change, this big issue,; she says.And so theyre basically doing the job of two and a half to three people, so theres just not a lot of capacity to take on more work. So weve got to overcome a lot of hurdles in that space.;But Stults says they also found that local officials acknowledge climate change is real.;Stakeholders believe its happening, and that belief is really strong at the local level, because its where you see the impacts: because you flood ... and you need to prepare for a flood. Or its hot, and you have to prepare for heat,; she says.The study was published in the journal Nature Climate Change.201605/441075

So, what did you do with that money?I donated it back to my school.那你是怎么处理这笔钱的 我把它捐给了我的学校You gave all the money back to you school. -Yeah.你把钱全部捐给了学校 -是的So,My, youre, I mean, youre struggling to pay your own bills.那 天呐 你 你自己都入不敷出And you gave all of that money, you didnt keep a little bit of it.你却把所有的钱都捐了 你一点儿都没留You gave it all to the school. -No.My kids are just amazing.你全部捐给了学校 -对 我的学生们都很棒I, they are hardworking and loving,and everyday they come to school,他们勤奋 有爱 每天他们来上学they give me hundred percent of themselves.都百分百投入You know 90% of our kids are low-income,Um, some of them are homeless,我们九成的孩子都来自低收入家庭 甚至有一些孩子无家可归They just have such challenge and adversities.and they deserve so much.他们有太多的艰辛和不幸 他们理应获得更多And this is just like a little bit what I could give them.这只是我所能给他们的一点点帮助But you, you, you are not even, en.thats not where you stop但是 你 你并不仅仅 你做的远远不止这些So there is a little boy who was acting out in class, right?有个小男孩在班上捣乱 对吧And, you say, um, tell everyone what you did.然后 你说 告诉大家你做了什么So I have a little who was little misbehaving,我班上有个小男孩有点淘气So I kind of bribed him, um,and said, you know, if you have a couple good weeks,所以我就贿赂他说 如果你连续几周表现良好and of your good behavior and Ill take you out to dinner.我就请你吃晚饭奖励你 /201512/418822

Bello贝洛A political FUTbol政治足球 智利税改Michelle Bachelets struggle to combine equity and growth in ChileMichelle Bachelet致力于在智利经济增长的同时促进公平“CHILE has only one great enemy and its called inequality,” declared Michelle Bachelet on March 11th as she returned to La Moneda, the presidential palace, just four years after leaving it. Following an interlude of rule by the centre-right, Ms Bachelet won by a landslide in last years presidential election on the most left-wing programme the country has seen since the ill-fated Marxist government of Salvador Allende more than 40 years ago. She argued that for all Chiles economic success of the past three decades, unless the state intervenes to foster a fairer and better-educated society, the country will moulder in what economists call “the middle-income trap”, never making the leap to developed status.3月11日,时隔四年重返拉莫内达总统府的Michelle Bachelet表示“智利仅有的强劲对手叫不平等。”在经历了中右翼的统治之后,去年在这个被大多数左翼控制的国家,Bachelet以压倒性的优势赢得总统选举。该国的总统选举从40多年前命途多舛的Salvador Allende马克思主义政府统治结束之后开始。她认为尽管智利在过去三十年间在经济上取得了成功,但除非建立一个更公平教育普及率更高的社会,否则国家将会陷入经济学家所说的“中等收入陷阱”,再也不会有飞跃性的发展。Her campaign platform contained three big proposals. The first was an education reform inspired by the notion that the state should offer free and equal education to all. Second was a new constitution to replace the existing one, which, though much amended, dates back to the dictatorship of General Pinochet. And the third proposal was a tax reform aimed both at raising revenue to pay for the education reform and at making the tax system fairer.她的竞选纲领包括三大目标。首先是以国家为所有人平等提供免费教育为理念的教育改革。其二,出台新宪法以取代自Pinochet将军独裁统治时期时推出的旧宪法(虽然该宪法已经过多次修订)。第三大目标就是进行以增加税收持教育改革并促进税收公平为目的的税务改革。Ms Bachelet is no mad populist. Chile is not Venezuela, nor even Argentina. In the humdrum reality of a Latin American liberal democracy, achieving the magical combination of greater fairness and greater prosperity means marrying political imperatives with complex technicalities.Bachelet并不是狂热的平民主义论者。智利不是委内瑞拉,甚至不是阿根廷。基于拉美自由民主程度不高的事实,要在增长的同时促进公平意味着将政治命令与复杂的技术相结合。The first test will be the tax-reform bill, which the president sent to Congress this week. It aims to raise an extra .2 billion (or almost 3% of GDP). It contains some sensible measures, including fuel taxes and one on sugary drinks. It proposes a gradual rise in corporate-income tax from 20% to 25% and a corresponding reduction in the top rate of personal-income tax from 40% to 35%. Chile has an integrated tax system in which shareholders receive a credit for corporate-tax payments; aligning the two rates more closely is intended to discourage individuals from setting up shell companies.首先试水的是税务改革,相关提案已经在本周由总统提交至国会。该局旨在额外增加82亿美元的税收收入(约为GDP的3%)提案中含有包括收燃料税、含糖饮料税在内的敏感措施。它旨在将企业所得税由20%逐步增至25%与之相对的是将个人所得税的最高税率由40%降至35%。智利有着一体化的税收系统。股东在缴纳企业所得税之后可免交个人所得税,拉近企业所得税与个人所得税税率是为了阻止皮包公司的建立。The bill also abolishes a mechanism known as the Taxable Profits Fund (FUT), under which shareholders do not pay tax on reinvested company profits. The FUTs detractors complain, correctly, that the system has been abused, via corporate credit cards and shell companies in tax havens, to allow the rich to evade taxes on profits that have actually been used for personal consumption—the skiing holidays and Ferraris of urban legend in Santiago. But the FUTs defenders point out, equally correctly, that the system has been a key factor behind Chiles investment-led economic growth.改提案同时废除了应税利润基金机制(FUT)。在该机制下股东无需为公司利润再投资纳税。FUT的反对者抱怨着公司行用卡和皮包公司的漏洞让富人可以用利润再投资的名义逃税,而实际上这些钱都用在了滑雪度假圣地亚哥的法拉利都市传奇等私人消费上。这的确是事实。但FUT的持者指出该体制是智利投资带动经济增长的关键因素,这也是事实。As compensation for abolishing the FUT, the bill allows instant depreciation of machinery and equipment. That may help miners and manufacturers, but not service businesses. Unless it is amended, the bill is likely to have two bad outcomes. Retained earnings are a big source of financing for corporate investment in Chile: companies may now have to rely on more borrowing, which for small firms costs up to 15% a year. Second, shareholders will now be taxed on profits they do not receive as dividends.作为对废除FUT的修正,提案允许机器设备的即时折旧。这可能有利于矿产主与工厂主,但对务业却没什么意义。除非它被再次修改。该提案可能会带来两种坏影响。留存盈余是智利公司经行投资的主要资金来源:但现在公司可能更多依靠借贷,这对小公司来说每年成本会增加15%。第二,股东分红之外的收益可能会被征税。It would be remarkable if the tax changes did not prompt some reduction in investment and share prices. The fact that the bill envisages ending the FUT only in 2018 suggests Ms Bachelets economic team realises this. To make matters worse, Chiles economy is now slowing sharply in tandem with a falling copper price (this weeks offshore earthquake, which killed at least six people, seems to have spared local mines). More government spending could give the economy a boost, but not if it comes at the expense of private investment.如果税收改革并没有使投资减少或股价降低,这将会意义重大。该提案仅设想了FUT在2008年被废除,Bachelet的经济团队需要意识到这一事实。更糟的是,智利经济增速在铜价下跌的影响下迅速放缓(本周发生在海岸附近的地震造成了至少6人死亡,当地矿产似乎得以幸免)。更多的政府投资能够促进经济繁荣,但缺少了私人投资繁荣很难真正到来。The new government could have chosen to close the loopholes in the FUT, rather than abolish it. That it didnt says much about the way politics is now conducted in Ms Bachelets coalition, whose main parties governed Chile from 1990 to 2010. Abolishing the FUT was proposed by a rival of Ms Bachelets in last years coalition primary election, and the policy was instantly adopted by all the parties in the grouping. In the past party leaders would have heeded their technical experts on such matters. In Chiles more populist political climate, that is no longer so.新政府本应弥补FUT的漏洞而不是废除该体制。这与Bachelet(其主要政党在1990年到2010年间执掌该国)的联合政府的施政方式并没有多大关系。废除FUT由Bachelet去年联盟初选时的竞争对手提议,然后该政策被联盟中的所有政党迅速接受。过去,政党首领需要在此类问题上参考技术性专家的意见。但现在,智利平民主义论盛行,这显然不可能了。The tax reform is simple compared with the governments plans for education. As for the task of replacing the constitution, no wonder the president has kicked this issue forward until later in the year. Ms Bachelet is right that Chile is in many ways an unfair country that needs to change. But she will need all her considerable political skills if she is not to sacrifice sound public policy on the altar of populism.税改被简单地与政府的教育计划对比。至于重新制定宪法,在今年的早些时候显然是不大会有进展了。智利在很多方面存在不公,这需要被改变。就这一点Bachelet是正确的,但是如果她不就关于名粹主义公共政策作出牺牲,那她就需要发挥巨大的政治才能 译者:严晓晴 译文属译生译世 /201601/423619

Lets start by reviewing the ways in which the surface of our lips is different from the surface of the skin on the rest of our bodies.我们首先看下嘴唇表面与我们的身体其余部分皮肤的不同。Basically, our lips are made of the same mucus membrane that coats the inside of our mouths.基本而言,我们的嘴唇由保护我们嘴部的相同粘液膜组成。This means two things.这意味着两件事。First, our lips dont have the same protective outer layer as the skin elsewhere on our bodies.首先,我们的嘴唇没有同身体相同的外层保护皮肤。This layer is part of the barrier to evaporation, and its absence means our lip skin retains less fluid.这一层能够抵挡水分蒸发,而它的缺乏意味着我们的嘴唇皮肤只能留存较少的液体。Second, our lips dont have the same glands and pigments as ordinary skin.第二,我们的嘴唇没有普通的皮肤所具有的腺体和色素。For example, lips dont have oil glands, which also help keep moisture from evaporating, and they contain less melanin, the pigment that helps protect our skin from sunburn.比如嘴唇没有也有助于防止水分蒸发的油腺,而且嘴唇含有更少的黑色素,这种色素能够帮助保护皮肤免受太阳灼伤。201502/361399

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