北湖区治疗早泄多少钱时空网

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原标题: 北湖区治疗早泄多少钱妙手大全

Finance and Economics;Canadas pension funds财经;加拿大的养老基金;Canadas public pension funds are changing the deal-making landscape;加拿大养老基金变更投资布局;They own assets all over the world, including property in Manhattan, utilities in Chile, international airports and the high-speed railway connecting London to the Channel tunnel. They have taken part in six of the top 100 leveraged buy-outs in history. They have won the attention both of Wall Street firms, which consider them rivals, and institutional investors, which aspire to be like them.他们所拥有的财产遍布全球,这包括在曼哈顿的房产,智利的公共设施,国际机场以及将伦敦与外界连通的高铁海底隧道。历史上最有影响的100宗负债收购他们就占了6宗.无论是华尔街的竞争对手还是渴望像他们一样的公共机构的投资者,都对他们青睐有加。These giants are Canadas largest public pension-fund groups. They manage around C640 billion dollar(643 billion dollar) between them. Of the 40 largest public pension funds in the world, four are Canadian, according to Preqin, a research firm (see table). America aside, no other country has more on the list. But size is not what marks them out. Their approach to investment is intriguing.这些巨头就是加拿大最大的几家公共养老基金集团。他们管理着大约6400亿加元(约合6430亿美元)。据一家名为Preqin的研究机构的调查表明,在全球最大的40家公共养老基金中,加拿大就占了4家。除了美国之外,没有其它哪个国家有如此之多的机构榜上有名。但引人注目的不是他们的规模,而是他们的投资手法。Unlike those in charge of public pension funds elsewhere, the Canadians prefer to run their portfolios internally and invest directly. They put more of their money into buy-outs, infrastructure and property, believing that these produce higher returns than publicly traded stocks and bonds. They are in some ways like depoliticised sovereign-wealth funds. Jim Leech, the boss of Ontario Teachers Pension Plan, calls them a “new brand of financial institution”. And as public pensions around the world cope with painfully low yields on their assets, many see them as a template. Michael Bloomberg, New York Citys mayor, is among the models admirers.和其它掌管公共养老基金的机构不同的是,加拿大人更喜欢在内部经营他们的投资组合以及直接投资。他们把资金大量投在并购,基础设施和房地产领域。因为他们坚信这些领域方面的投资回报大于公共股票与债券方面的投资回报。他们有点类似于去政治化的主权财富基金。安大略省教师养老金计划负责人Jim Leech把它称为“金融机构的新品牌”。世界上其它为之收益甚少而头疼的养老基金把加拿大养老基金视为榜样。纽约市长Michael Bloomberg正是这种模式的推崇者之一。Ontario Teachers pioneered this style of investing in the 1990s when it brought more of its investments in-house. Other large funds soon followed suit, building up teams to handle deals on their own. The Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS) wants to have 90% of its assets managed internally by the end of 2012,leaving some room for allocations to external managers in specific areas.安大略教师养老基金于上世纪九十年代开创了这种投资模式,那时它便开始采用多元化的内部化投资方式了。其它大的投资基金很快纷纷效仿,并建立起自己的团队来管理。到2012年底,安大略省市政雇员退休体系计划把90%的资产用于内部经营,仅留少部分供外聘经理人投资到其它地方。The funds will do smaller deals alone but often act as “co-sponsors” with leading private-equity firms on bigger transactions. This allows them to have more control over the investment and to save on fees. CPP Investment Board and PSP Investments, for example, worked with Apax, a buy-out firm, to acquire Kinetic Concepts, an American medical-devices company, for 6.1 billion dollar. It was one of the biggest buy-out deals in 2011.基金会将会单独处理小笔交易,但更多的时候它是扮演着“共同赞助者”的角色,与大的私募股权公司一起处理大宗交易。这使得基金会能更好地控制投资并节省交易费用。例如CPP投资委员会和PSP投资,和一家名叫Apax的并购公司合作,以61亿美元的价格收购了美国的Kinetic Concepts医疗器械公司。这是2011年大宗并购交易之一。The main draw of the Canadian model is cost savings. Running operations directly helps plug “the incredible leakage that goes out through fees” to pricey external managers, says Gordon Fyfe, the boss of PSP Investments, a large fund. In private equity, for example, many managers charge a fee equal to 2% of assets and 20% of profits. Hiring staff and building up internal capabilities costs far less. Keith Ambachtsheer of KPA Advisory Services, a pensions consultancy, says running assets internally costs a tenth of what it would if they were outsourced.加拿大模式最引人注目的地方是成本低廉。一家名为PSP的大型投资基金的老板Gordon Fyfe指出,直接管理业务能够节省本该付给外聘经理的高昂费用。例如,对私募股权来说,多数经理人的佣金相当于资产的2%和利润的20%。雇用员工和打造内部能力的成本远远低于经理人的费用。KPA咨询公司的养老金顾问Keith Ambachtsheer认为,与外购相比,资产的内部化运营成本仅为外购成本的十分之一.There are other advantages. Public pension funds have a longer investment horizon than private-equity firms, so the Canadian behemoths can choose to sell when the time is right, mitigating some of the risks of investing in illiquid assets. In December, for example, Ontario Teachers announced it would sell its majority stake in Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment, a large Canadian sports business, for around C1.3 billion dollar. They had been invested in Maple Leaf since 1994, far longer than a private-equity firms typical five-year horizon, and are expected to get a return of five times their money.此外其它的有利因素是公共养老基金的投资期限和范围比私募股权公司大得多,因此加拿大这个庞大的公共养老基金集团可以在时机合适时将其出售,从而减小投资非现金资产的风险。例如,在十二月安大略省教师养老基金就宣布出售其在加拿大最大的体育产业之一的枫叶体育和的大部分股份,约13亿加元。这个养老基金自从1994年起就一直投资枫叶体育,远比私募股权通常五年的投资期限长得多。而且预期可得到初始投资五倍的回报。Because they are saving so much on fees and only need to meet the liabilities of scheme-members pensions, moreover, the Canadian funds feel less pressure to chase the high returns that leading buy-out firms do. They can pursue investments with less risk and leverage. “Because returns dont have to be as good, they can bid more for companies,” says one buy-out boss. It sounds like a losers lament.因为节省了大笔费用,而且仅须满足付养老金计划所覆盖的人群,此外,加拿大养老基金不像并购公司那样面临追求高额回报的压力。他们能够通过低风险和杠杆作用来经营投资。“因为收益不必太高,所以他们比其它公司更有竞争力”,一位并购公司的老板如此评价。这听起来就像是失败者的悲鸣。So far the funds strategy has paid off. Over the past ten years Ontario Teachers has had the highest total returns of the biggest 330 public and private pension funds in the world. Some of this outperformance stems from the relative strength of Canadian stockmarkets and property, to which Canadian pension funds have higher allocations than others. But not all of it. In 2010 OMERS returned 25 dollar on every dollar spent on internal management, for instance, compared to only 10 dollar for every dollar spent on external managers fees.迄今为止,养老基金的战略已初见成效。在过去的十多年时间里,安大略省教师养老基金在全球330家最大的公共及私人养老金中它的收益回报是最高的。这个骄人业绩部分是得益于加拿大股票及房地产市场的繁荣,这使得加拿大养老基金在房地产方面的投资高于在其它行业的投资。但这不是全部原因。例如,2010年安大略省市政雇员退休体系在内部管理上的花费中,每一美元得到25美元的回报。相比之下,在外聘经理的花销中,每一美元的花销得到的收益仅有10美元。Those seeking to understand how Canadians have pulled it off are given two answers: governance and pay. There is little political interference in the funds operations. They attract people with backgrounds in business and finance to sit on their boards, unlike American public pension funds, which are stuffed with politicians, cronies and union hacks.那些试图理解加拿大人如何完成这一经营的人得到两个,一是监管,二是付。在基金运营过程中仅有一点点政治方面的干涉。与美国公共养老基金充斥着政客、亲信和工会黑客不同的是,加拿大养老基金则能够吸引拥有商业和金融背景的人们加入董事会。Just as important is their approach to compensation. In order to recruit the best executives, Canadian pension funds have ensured their pay is competitive with Bay Street, Torontos version of Wall Street. They pay a base salary, annual bonus and long-term performance award (which many pension funds elsewhere do not) to make their employees take a long-term view of investments. Mr Leech of Ontario Teachers made over C3.9m dollar in 2010; 51% of that was a long-term performance award, 36% his annual bonus and only 13% of his base salary. He would doubtless earn more on Wall Street, but this is a huge pay packet by public-pension standards. Anne Stausboll, the boss of CalPERS, the largest American public pension fund, made around 380,000 dollar in the year to June 30th 2011, including a 96,638 dollar bonus.同样重要的是他们的薪酬体系。为了招募到最优秀的高管,加拿大养老基金保他们付的薪酬在Bay Street(加拿大的华尔街)是最具竞争力的。他们付的薪酬包括基本工资,年终红利以及长期绩效奖金(这是其它养老基金没有的薪酬制度)来让它的雇员从长远来考虑它们的投资。安大略省教师养老基金的Leech先生2010年拿到了390万加元。其中长期绩效奖金为51%,年终红利占了36%,基本工资仅占了13%。在华尔街他无疑会赚的更多,但是按照公共养老金标准来看,这已经是巨额薪酬了。。最大的美国公共养老基金CalPERS的老板Anne Stausboll在2011年上半年拿到了38万美元,其中包括96,638美元的红利。Such disparity may hinder the Canadian models sp. Joe Dear, the chief investment officer of CalPERS, has said it is “not politically feasible” to set up this sort of compensation structure. For politicians, not to mention voters, multi-million-dollar salaries are not going to be popular.薪酬体系上的差距阻碍了加拿大模式的推广。CalPERS的首席投资官Joe Dear认为建立这种薪酬体系没有政治上的可行性。对政客来讲,更不用说选民,拿百万年薪的人毕竟是少数。Many officials at American public pension funds would not want to copy the model anyway. If a big deal were to go south, they might be sued. But Mr Ambachtsheer says board members also have a fiduciary duty to consider how fees are eroding assets. If they have an option to pay 90% less, they should try to take it.不管怎样,多数美国公共养老基金的官员并不想照搬加拿大模式。如果大宗交易失败的话,他们可能会被起诉。但Ambachtsheer先生认为董事会的成员基于信用责任,应该仔细考虑这些费用是如何侵蚀资产的。如果他们可以选择少花90%的钱,那他们应该试着去接受。Another obstacle to the adoption of Canadian ways is scale. A fund needs to be a certain size to buy companies and invest in infrastructure projects, and to swallow the upfront costs of building internal teams. Smaller Canadian funds have been unable to follow suit, for example. Sometimes the large funds will syndicate their deals and give the minnows a chance to take part. In OMERS won approval to manage assets of smaller pension funds in Canada.采用加拿大模式的另一个障碍是规模问题。基金要有一定的规模,以便用来收购公司和投资基础设施工程,而且要为团队建设付出先期成本。小规模的加拿大养老基金根本不可能依样画瓢。例如,有时大型基金将它们的交易联合组成辛迪加,让小规模的基金也加入进来。在年,安大略省市政雇员退休体系被批准经营加拿大小规模养老基金资产。The giants face problems of their own. One, paradoxically, is the growth of assets: CPP, for example, expects to manage C275 billion dollar by 2020 and C1 trillion dollar by 2050. Getting bigger makes it harder for each investment to make a difference to overall returns. “How we can scale our direct investing so it continues to be meaningful in a fund thats doubled its size is a challenge,” says David Denison, CPPs boss.这个基金巨人自身也面临不少问题。第一个,也是自相矛盾的就是其资产的增长:例如CPP期望到2020年能管理2750亿加元,到2050年其管理的资产能达到1万亿加元。资产的增加使得每一项投资回报对总体收益的影响越来越小。“我们如何才能扩大我们的直接投资,使它在增加了一倍的基金里仍然举足轻重,这是一个挑战。”CPP的老板David Denison说道。Another challenge is handling expansion into more volatile emerging markets. To find good deals, funds need people on the ground. But as they become global, they may sp themselves too thinly. The Canadian model assumes that diversification is not as important as deep knowledge: the funds are likely to be better at doing deals in Montreal than Moscow. Some funds have opened foreign offices, but Mr Fyfe of PSP Investments is wary: “These people are going to be sitting there telling you to do a deal, so theyre not irrelevant.”另一项挑战就是在变化多端的新兴市场中不断扩大市场份额。为了拓展业务,基金会需要员工辛勤工作。但是随着他们的业务扩展到全球,他们有点疲于应付(应付不过来)。加拿大模式认为多样化不及专业化重要:蒙特利尔的业务比莫斯科开展得好。一些基金开设了海外办事处,但Fyfe先生对此持谨慎态度:“一些业务员乐于坐在那里来告诉你如何做业务,因此他们也不是事不关己。”Even so, Canadian pensions are primed to do well in these dismal times. Some are planning to do more in credit, since banks are lending less. Cash-strapped governments are also lining up a huge number of infrastructure-asset sales. Politicians find the Canadians cuddlier partners than many others. According to Michael Sabia, the boss of Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec, another pension-fund group: “If theyre faced with the consortium of ‘Bonfire of the Vanities from New York versus a consortium of large public institutions who are long-term investors… I think I know who theyre going to pick.”即便如此,加拿大养老基金在大萧条时期仍有望蒸蒸日上。他们计划在贷款方面拓展业务,因为贷款在不断减少。政府也面临现金短缺的问题,因此他们正在计划出售一大批基础设施资产。政客们认为加拿大人是最佳人选。另一家名为Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec养老基金老板Michael Sabia认为,“如果他们面临在虚荣的篝火式的财团与长期投资者组成的公共慈善机构式的财团之间作出抉择的话,我想我应该知道哪种方案能胜出。” /201307/247518

The results are spectacular.结果非常惊人。Thanks to their super-nutritious diet, queen bees grow up to one and a half times larger than regular bees, live forty times longer than normal bees, and lay up to two thousand eggs per day.由于超有营养的饮食,蜂王长大后的身体比工蜂长1/3,寿命是工蜂的40倍,每天产卵2000个左右。Inevitably, entrepreneurs have attempted to capitalize on royal jelly by creating jelly-infused dietary supplements that supposedly make people stronger and more virile.必然地,企业家们试图利用蜂王浆牟利。他们大量制作注入浆状物的营养保健品,大概能使人的身体更强壮和更有男子气概。But dont go sping royal jelly on your toast just yet.但别马上把蜂王浆涂到烤面包上。Although it does the trick for bees, theres no solid proof that the stuff will make you king or queen for even a day.尽管它对蜜蜂管用,但并没有确凿的据明它能够让你成为哪怕一天的国王或女王。 201312/267980Id like to look into your past, and predict the future.我想看看你的过去,预测未来。I bet that the last time you went to the beach, the wind was blowing in off the water.我敢打赌,你最后一次去海滩的时候,海风正从水面吹来。Maybe it was just a pleasant breeze, maybe something a little stronger.或许是令人愉快的微风,也或许是更强一点的风。But it was definitely coming in off the water.但是它的确来自于水面,Whats more, a breeze will be coming in off the water the next time you go to the beach.更重要的是,你下次去海滩的时候微风又会徐徐吹来。How do I know? Easy.我为什么会知道?很简单。Wind is caused by differences in the temperature of air.风是由空气的温差引起的。If you have a lot of hot air in one location and a lot of cold air next to it, the line where they meet will be windy.如果一个地方有大量的热空气,它的旁边又有大量的冷空气,那么冷热空气相交的地方就会形成风。Thats because the hot air is rising and the cold air is rushing in to fill the space left behind. Whoosh!因为热空气上升,冷空气就会迅速冲到热空气留下的位置里并填满整个空间。Now, here we are at the beach.现在我们站在海滩上。What do you notice?你注意到了什么?Well, the sand under your feet retains heat pretty effectively.你脚下的沙子能够有效的保持热量。Once it is hot, it stays hot.一旦它变热了,它就会维持热度。Not so for ocean water, which is much harder to heat.可是海水却很难变热。Think of how cold the water feels when you step into it off a hot beach.想想当你从水中踏入炙热的沙滩时,会发现海水是多么的寒冷啊!This distinction is true of land and sea in general.总的来说,这就是陆地和海洋的真实区别。On a sunny, summer day, the land gets hotter, and stays hotter, than the sea.阳光明媚的日子,陆地比海洋要热很多,That means the air over the beach will be hotter than the air over the water.那意味着海滩上空的空气将会比水面上空的空气热,And that means the air will be rising over the beach.也就是说海滩上的热气将会上升。As the hot beach air rises up, the relatively cooler air over the water moves in to take its place.随着海滩上空热空气的上升,水面上相对寒冷的空气就会流动过来代替热空气的位置。The result? A sunny day in summer creates its own breeze.结果是什么呢?在夏天一个阳光灿烂的日子里有微风吹过。 201401/272696

Heres a neat question you may have never thought to ask. How far away is the horizon?你可能从未思考过这个简单的问题,地平线有多远?Think about it.想想这个问题,The Earth seems flat from our viewpoint, and if you are in a desert or out at sea you get a sense that the earth extends indefinitely in every direction.从我们的视角看来,地球似乎是平的,但是要是你待在沙漠里或是在海上的话,你会感觉地球在向四面八方无限地延伸。This isnt correct, though; the planet is round, so at some point the ground must drop away.然而这是不正确的,地球是圆的,因此陆地在某一点必下沉 。When it drops below your angle of vision, you cant see it any more, and thats what we call the horizon.当地面下沉到你的视角之下时,你就无法再看到,这就是我们所说的地平线。So how far can you see before the planet curves away?那么在地球发生弯曲之前,你可以看多远呢?If youre six feet tall, the answer is about three miles. Surprised?如果你有六尺高的话,你可以看差不多三英里远。震惊吗?You arent alone.可是并不是只有你一个人感到震惊。Try asking a friend next time youre at the beach on a clear day to guess how far out across the ocean you are looking.尝试着下次问下你朋友这个问题:在一个晴天,你站在一个沙滩上,猜猜你可以看到多远的海面。Shes more likely to say twenty or fifty miles than just three.她很有可能会说二十或五十英里,而不是三英里。Now that were thinking about horizons, heres another cool thing to think about.既然我们在思考关于地平线的问题,我们要思考另一个很酷的问题。The horizon is three miles away on earth. But elsewhere in the solar system its closer or farther, depending on the size of the body youre standing on!地平线在地球上的三英里之外,但是在太阳系的其他星球上地平线是更近还是更远呢,这取决于你所站立的星球的体积大小。Take the moon.以月球为例,The moon is two thousand, one hundred and sixty miles in diameter, only about one quarter the size of the earth.月球直径为2160英里,只有地球的四分之一。So the curvature at its surface is much more noticeable, and the horizon is much closer. Its only about 1.5 miles away.因此,月球表面的曲率更明显,地平线也更近,只有大约1.5英里远。One cool result?这是不是一个很酷的?The surface bends so quickly on the moon that its possible to stand inside some of the largest impact craters and not know youre in one.在月球上,地表弯曲得很快,因此当你站在一个撞击坑中,很可能身处其中而不自知,The walls of the crater are below the horizon on all sides!因为撞击坑的岩壁处在地平线以下。 /201401/272695Is marijuanna legal in Norway?Uh...no...在挪威吸大麻是合法的吗 开什么玩笑当然不是的The fun fact is that marijuanna you know is actualy called ,in Norwegian,is the Norwegian word for fox.不过有趣的是大麻 在挪威语里也被称为狐狸So if you take like a smoke thats called taking a fox actually. yeah,taking a fox.所以如果你抽一口大麻 也可以叫做抽一口狐狸 是的 抽一口狐狸Now it makes sense. Now make sense. Now it all makes sense.现在说得通了 说得通了 终于能说得通了Youve answered my question. yeah, alright,so I would like to know what the fox says.你们解答了我的疑惑 是啊 我很想知道狐狸到底是怎么叫的I would like to sing with you if thats okay.如果可以我想和你们一块儿唱This would be like the biggest joy in the world.那一定乐翻天了Do you know...do you know the lyrics?你记得歌词吗I do. do you know how to do it?我记得 你知道要怎么唱吗I dont know how to pronouce them exactly.我不太知道具体要怎么发音Most people they the lyrics and they go like ringeringedingeding大多数人看到歌词都是这样唱的 仍个叮个叮个叮But you have to...you know, if you gonna perform you really have to put a lot of...hows it go? Its like...但是如果要表演的话 需要注意许多细节 该怎么唱 像这样Ring-ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding.Gering--ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮 咯仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮Ring--ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding. No,not the ring...咯仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮 不 不是ringNo,you have to use then. You know.Yeah,thats good. Thats better.你必须发后鼻音‘n’ 你懂的 唱的不错 好多了All right. And the second is...Wa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pow很好 然后是 哗啪啪啪啪啪咆Wa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pow. Yeah, thats great.哗啪啪啪啪啪咆 对 就是那样Yeah,you have to... we-pa-pa...你必须 哗啪啪Yeah,thats good. Its like... were all set. Alright. There are your mics.很棒 我们可以开始了 好的 这是你们的麦And I have a very special silver one.我的是独特的银色麦And lets go. tell everybody what the fox says.让我们为大家演示一下狐狸怎么叫的I think they know the lyrics too,so...okay.他们肯定都熟悉歌词了 所以 好的Here we go. Should we go over here? Thats exciting.我们开始吧 要到这边来吗 好兴奋注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201311/265088

A bigger can?一个更大的罐头?By the end of 2010, Dr Potti had resigned from Duke,到2010年底,Potti士已经从杜克大学辞职,the university had stopped the three trials for good,学校永久停止了那三项临床试验,scientists from elsewhere had claimed that Dr Potti had stolen their data for inclusion in his paper in the New England Journal,另有科学家称Potti士在其在新英格兰杂志发表的文章中窃取了他们的数据,and officials at Duke had started the process of retracting three prominent papers, including the one in Nature Medicine.杜克大学方面也开始撤回他那三篇出名的文章,《自然-医学》的那篇也包括在内。At this point, the NCI and officials at Duke asked the Institute of Medicine, a board of experts that advises the American government, to investigate.到了这时候,国家癌症研究所和杜克大学都请求负责向美国政府提出建议的美国医学协会对此事进行调查。Since then, a committee of the institute, appointed for the task, has been trying to find out what was happening at Duke that allowed the problems to continue undetected for so long,之后,协会的一个专为此事成立的委员会就一直在努力查清是什么使得杜克大学长时间对问题不管不问,and to recommend minimum standards that must be met before this sort of work can be used to guide clinical trials in the future.并建议在今后碰到此类可供指导临床试验的研究时,需要其达到一个最低标准。At the committees first meeting, in December 2010, Dr McShane stunned observers by revealing her previously unpublished investigation of the Duke work.在2010年12月举行的该委员会的第一次会议上,McShane士披露了此前未发表的她关于杜克大学事件的调查,Subsequently, the committees members interviewed Dr Baggerly about the problems he had encountered trying to sort the data.这些材料震撼了在场的学者。结果,委员会的成员询问了Baggerly士关于他在尝试整理那些数据时遇到的问题。He noted that in addition to a lack of unfettered access to the computer code and consistent raw data on which the work was based,他指出,那些急于出版Potti士的论文的杂志不仅没有获得研究结果所涉及的计算机程序代码和可信的原始数据,journals that had ily published Dr Pottis papers were reluctant to publish his letters critical of the work.甚至还不情愿刊登他对于该成果质疑的文章。Nature Medicine published one letter, with a rebuttal from the team at Duke, but rejected further comments when problems continued.《自然-医学》杂志刊登了一篇文章,并附上了来自杜克大学研究组的辩驳,可是当问题继续存在时就拒绝了进一步的。Other journals that had carried subsequent high-profile papers from Dr Potti behaved in similar ways.其他刊载了来自Potti士的高曝光文章的杂志也采取了相似的态度。Eventually, the two researchers resorted to publishing their criticisms in a statistical journal, which would be unlikely to reach the same audience as a medical journal.最后,两位研究员只好把他们的文章发到了一个统计杂志,这就很难被医学杂志的读者群看到了。Two s ubsequent sessions of the committee have included Dukes point of view.委员会接下来的两次会议都包含了杜克方面的观点。At one of these, in March 2011, Dr Nevins admitted that some of the data in the papers had been “corrupted”.在2011年3月的一次会议中,Nevins士承认文章中的一些数据被“玷污”了。He continued, though, to claim ignorance of the problems identified by Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes until the Rhodes scandal broke,但他声称直到Rhodes丑闻被揭发才得知Baggerly士和Coombes士指出的问题,and to support the overall methods used in the papers—though he could not explain why he had not detected the problems even when alerted to anomalies.而且虽然他没法解释为什么他没能在被指出异常时发现问题,但是他仍然在总体上持文章中采用的方法。At its fourth, and most recent meeting, on August 22nd, the committee questioned eight scientists and administrators from Duke.在第四次,也就是在8月22号举行的最近一次会议上,委员会质问了8位科学家和杜克大学的管理人员。Rob Califf, a vice-chancellor in charge of clinical research, asserted that what had happened was a case of the “Swiss-cheese effect” in which 15 different things had to go awry to let the problems slip through unheeded.Rob Califf, 一位负责临床研究的的副校长,称该事件是一个“瑞士奶酪效应”的例子,它需要15件不同的事都出了错才有可能让问题不被察觉。Asked by The Economist to comment on what was happening,当被《经济学人》的记者问到他关于这件事的评价时,he said, “As we evaluated the issues, we had the chance to review our systems and we believe we have identified, and are implementing, an improved approach.”他说“对这些问题的评估,使得我们有机会重新审视我们的体系,而且我们相信我们已经确认并且在采取改进后的方式了。”The universitys lapses and errors included being slow to deal with potential financial conflicts of interest declared by Dr Potti,校方的过失和错误包括在处理潜在利益冲突时反应迟缓。Dr Nevins and other investigators, including involvement in Expression Analysis Inc and CancerGuide DX, two firms to which the university also had ties.这些冲突方包括Potti士和Nevins士,其他的调查者,还有两家与大学有关系的公司Expression Analysis和CancerGuide DX。Moreover, Dr Califf and other senior administrators acknowledged that once questions arose about the work, they gave too much weight to Dr Nevins and his judgment.除此之外,Califf士和其他高级管理者承认,当出现有关于研究成果的质疑时,他们过分地看重了Nevins士和他的判断。That led them, for example, to withhold Dr Baggerlys criticisms from the external-review committee in .这导致了年他们把Baggerly士的挡在外部评审委员会之外。They also noted that the internal committees responsible for protecting patients and overseeing clinical trials lacked the expertise to review the complex, statistics-heavy methods and data produced by experiments involving gene expression.他们还提到了,负责保护病人和监督临床试验的内部委员会缺乏专业知识来评审由涉及基因表达的实验产生的复杂、侧重统计的方法和数据。That is a theme the investigating committee has heard repeatedly.这是一个调查委员会反复听到的说法。The process of peer review relies on the goodwill of workers in the field, who have jobs of their own and frequently cannot spend the time needed to check other peoples papers in a suitably thorough manner.同行审查制度依靠着内行人的善意,大家都有自己的工作,所以常常不能花足够的时间来对其他人的论文进行恰当细致的检查。Moreover, the methods sections of papers are supposed to provide enough information for others to replicate an experiment, but often do not.而且,文章的介绍实验方法的部分本应该为其他人提供重现实验结果所需的信息,但事实经常不是这样。Dodgy work will out eventually, as it is found not to fit in with other, more reliable discoveries.掺假的研究结果最终会被淘汰,因为它们不能与其他更加可靠的发现相兼容。But that all takes time and money.但是,这些都需要时间和金钱。The Institute of Medicine expects to complete its report, and its recommendations, in the middle of next year.美国医学协会计划在明年年中完成这个报告和相关的建议。In the meantime, more retractions are coming, according to Dr Califf.在此期间,据Califf士说将会有更多论文撤回。The results of a misconduct investigation are expected in the next few months and legal suits from patients who believe they were recruited into clinical trials under false pretences will probably follow.关于此次学术不端的的调查结果预计将在未来几个月内获得,而认为自己被欺诈进入临床试验的病人则可能会在之后提起诉讼。The whole thing, then, is a mess.整件事就是一团糟。Who will carry the can remains to be seen.谁将会承担责任目前还不清楚。But the episode does serve as a timely reminder of one thing that is sometimes forgotten.但是这一连串事件的确及时地提醒了我们一件常常被忽略的事实:Scientists are human, too.科学家也是人。 /201305/242083

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