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苏仙区人民中妇幼保健医院尿科郴州第四医院男科医生Business.商业。African entrepreneurs.非洲企业家。Parallel players.同舞者。Why many of Africas budding businessfolk are jacks-of-all-trades.为何许多非洲的新兴企业家杂而不精。ONE of the many terms Silicon Valley has bequeathed to the business world is ;serial entrepreneur;, a label for those restless souls who start one business after another. Perhaps Africa can now contribute another expression: the ;parallel entrepreneur;. More than in any other part of the developing world, the continents budding business folk create networks of several firms across a number of different sectors of the economy, according to research by IMANI, a think-tank based in Ghana. The 189 successful entrepreneurs it surveyed in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya own, on average, six businesses each. One boasted more than 60. What explains this entrepreneurial hyperactivity?硅谷留给商界的众多术语之一是;连续企业家;,指的是那些接连创业的不安分的人。也许非洲正在提供另一种表述;并行企业家;。根据加纳智库IMANI的研究,与世界任何发展中的地区相比,更多非洲大陆的新兴企业家创造了横跨不同经济领域的系列公司网络。在参与调查的加纳,尼日尔和肯尼亚的189个成功企业家中,他们人均拥有6家企业,其中一位拥有超过60家企业。如何解释这种企业家的极度活跃现象?One reason for it is simply the wealth of opportunity, says Cyril Allen II, a well-connected businessman in Liberias capital, Monrovia. He and his family farm cocoa and coffee, run a cleaning business, lease out property and manage logistics for international companies. ;The civil war here ended less than a decade ago.;利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚一家实力雄厚的家族式企业家,Cyril Allen 二世表示,大量的机会是造成这种现象的原因之一。他和他的家族种植可可树和咖啡树,经营一家清洁公司,财产租赁以及为跨国公司提供物流管理务。他还表示;内战已经结束将近十年了;。Once a firm has established a degree of trust among its customers, that can in turn spawn new businesses, particularly when many other firms are unreliable. ;We work based on relationships, so if I have a good relationship with a client, they might ask for another service,; explains Njeri Rionge, an entrepreneur in Kenya whose interests extend from an internet provider to a management consultancy.公司一旦在客户群中建立了一定的信用度,这就可以育出新的公司,尤其是在其他企业没有信用的情况下。肯尼亚企业家Njeri Rionge的业务涉及网络接入到管理咨询务等领域,他解释说:;我们的工作基于关系网,这样如果我与客户维系一个良好的关系,客户就有可能会要求提供其他务;。Necessity can also give rise to the creation of more than one company. UT Holdings, in Ghana, started out in 1997 granting loans. But Prince Kofi Amoabeng, its founder, soon discovered that he needed to provide additional services to make the loans business work. He first added a debt-collection company, then security firms. ;We found existing companies wanting,; says Mr Amoabeng. He keeps expanding his business portfolio, which now includes a life-insurance firm.需求会导致更多公司的创建。位于加纳的UT Holdings创建于1997年,提供贷款务。但创建者Kofi Amoabeng王子很快发现他需要提供额外的务来维持贷款业务的运行。他首先创立一家债务收缴公司,然后是劵公司。他说:;我们发现已有公司的需求;。他不断的扩展公司的业务组合,目前还包括了一家人寿保险公司。Certain characteristics of African economies also make it more profitable to keep starting new firms rather than build a single big one. Key resources are scarce. Mid-level managers are in sufficient supply, but few are capable of running large businesses, which is why they often apply their talents in several firms simultaneously. Financing is hard to come by (in many countries loans are granted for as little as 20 months); entrepreneurs find it easier to get several small loans for each business rather than a large chunk of money.非洲经济的特性同样使得创建新企业比建立一个大型企业更加有利可图。关键资源非常稀少,中型企业的管理者可以获得充足的供应,但很少人有能力运行一家大型企业,这也是他们使人才同时从事不同企业的原因。融资非常困难(在很多国家需要20个月才能拿到贷款),而企业家发现为几个企业单独申请小额贷款比一宗大笔贷款更加容易。But the most crucial factor may be bureaucracy. Its unpredictability deters businessmen from putting all their resources into one basket-out of fear that the market could be the target of onerous regulation. Separate companies are often used to lower tax payments, says Bright Simons, an entrepreneur in Accra, Ghanas capital, who also works as a business analyst. A second firm might be formed to supply materials to the first, he explains, allowing the owner to adjust the prices and profits. And once an entrepreneur has learned how to navigate the red tape, why not apply this valuable skill to other undertakings?但是最关键的因素应该是政府。它们不可预知的阻碍商人将所有资源集中到一起——由于担心市场会被麻烦的监管条例所限制。Bright Simons是加纳首都阿克拉的企业家,同时也是一名商业分析师。他解释说,单独的公司通常缴纳较低的税金,而第二个公司为第一个提供原材料,这使得企业家可以调整产品的价格和利润。如果一个企业家学会了如何驾驭这些政府的繁杂手续,为何不将这种有价值的技术应用于其他的企业中呢?Critics of Africas parallel entrepreneurs worry that jacks-of-all-trades cannot become masters of any. And some investors are wary of putting money into African firms because of their often labyrinthine ownership structures. But multitasking has its good sides, argues Ms Rionge, who in one of her parallel activities mentors young entrepreneurs. ;It makes African business leaders agile and adaptable—both good skills that are absent in many developed economies.;针对非洲;并行企业家;的批评家担心,这种杂而不精的方式会使企业变得没有专长。一些投资者由于非洲企业错综复杂的所有权结构而采取非常谨慎的投资行为。但在自己的并行企业中培训青年企业家的Rionge女士认为,这种多企业的并行方式有着自身的优点,它培养了非洲企业领导人的灵活性和适应性,而这两种优秀技巧正是许多发达经济体中所欠缺的。 /201209/200062郴州市妇幼保健院医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱 Got a job in your searching for another one? You are not alone. A new study from career builder found that 69% of full-time workers regularly search for a new job and 30% say they shop around every week. So why the constant job hunt? Well, there’s easy access online posting other resources. We spoke to Caroline, she’s a career coach with six figure start. Caroline suggests subtly pushing your online profile, put your Linkedin page in your email signature that way youre effectively sending out your resume without the actual attachment. Also doing online search for yourself. You need to be aware what employers can and cant see about you. And if facebook once being the first thing that pops up, you may wanna think about adjusting your privacy settings. Also go ahead and set up an alert that way when your name is mentioned, youll be the first to know it. And finally check out the job boards but look beyond those postings even if a posting is out of date, it can great for research, use requirements listed to tweet your resume and write a stronger cover letter. For top tips, Im Alison Kosik in New York.已经有一份工作,你还在找一个更逞心如意的工作?你并不孤单,有许多人在此行列。一个职业构建组织的新的研究表明,69%的全职工作的工人都在定期寻找新工作,并且30%的人称他们每周也都会在人才市场转一圈。那么为什么要不停地四处奔波找工作呢?网上求职比其他方式都更加简单方便。让我们和卡洛琳来沟通一下,她是一名职业教练,起薪6位数字。她的建议是,有技巧地提高你的网络形象,将Linkedin网页放在你的邮件签名中,这样,你将有效地发送你的邮件,而不需要任何实际的附件。同时,你自己也可以做网上调查。你需要知道,什么样的老板会看或者不会看你的邮件。如果你的Facebook马上就火了起来,你可能得考虑调整一下私人设置。同样,你得进一步注意网民是如何、何时提到你的,你应该是第一个知道这些反馈信息的人。最后你不要检查一下工作公告信息,但是还要看一下过期的公告,也很有必要研究一下,利用其中的要求完善你的简历,并附上一封更有说力的附信,以上便是一些诀窍。我是纽约的Alison Kosik。 201211/208877郴州市中心人民医院男科专家

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郴州哪家男科医院好点Finance and Economics;Spain and the markets;The Spanish patient;财经;西班牙及市场;西班牙患者;A full bail-out of the euro areas fourth-largest economy is looming;对欧元区第四大经济体的全面纾困正在逼近;If Spain were a patient, the mood in the hospital ward would be tense. Every attempt by local specialists advised by renowned European consultants to treat the sickness brings no more than temporary relief. Even more worrying, the relapses after each dose are happening sooner and sooner. Spains chances of avoiding intensive care—a full bail-out—are receding to near vanishing-point.如果西班牙是一名患者,那么在医院病房里的气氛是非常紧张的。由欧洲著名顾问建议,并由当地专家所实施的为治疗疾病所做的每个努力都只带来了短暂的缓解。更令人担忧的是,每次药后病情的复发一次比一次提前。如此看来,西班牙想要避免重病特别护理——一次全面的纾困——的希望开始变得遥不可及。The symptoms of Spanish sickness are manifest in ten-year government bond yields touching 7.75% on July 25th; previous bail-outs of Greece, Ireland and Portugal occurred not long after rates had surpassed 7%. Even more perturbing, two-year yields also briefly went above 7%, in effect foreclosing the governments ability to borrow at anything but short maturities.西班牙的症状主要表现为10年期的政府债券收益率在7月25日达到了7.75%;而先前对希腊,爱尔兰和葡萄牙的的纾困正是在债券收益率超过了7%后不久发生的。更令人感到不安的是,2年期的收益率也曾在短时期内突破了7%,这就实际上排除了政府有能力发行长期债券的可能而只能发行短期债券。No isolation ward is possible in the financially integrated euro area and Spains sickness quickly infected other countries. The Italian ten-year bond yield went above 6.5%, its highest since January. European stockmarkets retreated and Italys fell to a euro-era low. Sentiment was further soured by a report from Moodys, a ratings agency, saying that Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands might lose their cherished triple-A status. The prognosis was based in part on fears about the public-debt burden that northern countries might have to assume if bail-outs sp.在金融一体化的欧元区是没有隔离病房的,于是西班牙的病情很快就感染了其它国家。意大利10年期的债券收益权超过了6.5%,为1月以来最高。欧洲股市回落,意大利股市降到了欧元区的最低点。一份来自穆迪公司——一家评级机构的报告说,德国、卢森堡和荷兰有可能会失去它们宝贵的AAA评级地位,这就使得股市更加敏感。这种预测部分是根据人们对于公共债务负担的恐惧——人们担心一旦纾困蔓延开来,北欧国家可能需要承担责任。The market funk was the more troubling since a Spanish government with a lot going for it had appeared to be getting a grip. Public debt is rising fast, but at 69% of GDP last year was far lower than Italys 120%—and less even than Germanys 81%. The budget deficit is high (8.9% of GDP in 2011), but only a week before the market panic Mariano Rajoy, the prime minister, announced more tough austerity measures. And on July 20th European finance ministers sanctioned the first tranche of a partial bail-out worth up to EURO100 billion (Dollor121 billion) for Spanish banks.由于仍需努力的西班牙政府似乎开始掌控局面,这种市场恐惧就更令人感到不安了。公共债务快速上升,但去年西班牙公共债务占GDP的69%这一比例远远低于意大利的120%——甚至还低于德国的81%。预算赤字居高不下(2011年占GDP的8.9%),但就在市场恐慌一周前,西班牙总理马里亚诺.拉霍伊还宣布了更多严厉的紧缩措施。7月20日,欧洲财政部长批准为西班牙提供价值1000亿欧元(1210亿美元)的第一批纾困资金。So why are investors in such a cold sweat about Spain? One reason is that Mr Rajoy flunked hard choices at the outset, notably the cleansing of the banks. Despite a low starting-point for public debt, deficit overshoots have revealed insufficient central control over the 17 regions that are responsible for a big chunk of spending. Investors fret that more regions may follow Valencia, which applied for aid on July 20th. They are in any case sceptical that Spain can meet its targets for cutting the deficit in the teeth of a recession that is harsher than expected.那为什么投资者对西班牙市场感到如此惶恐不安?原因之一是拉霍伊总理在一开始的艰难抉择中就失败了,尤其是在清理方面。尽管公共债务一开始很低,但赤字的快速上升表明了中央政府对17个地区的管理不足,这些地区占据了出的很大一部分。巴伦西亚于7月20日申请了救助,而投资者担心会有更多的地区跟随巴伦西亚的步伐。他们怀疑西班牙能否面对超出想象的经济衰退,达成削减赤字的目标。The biggest worry is Spains external debt. Spain ran hefty current-account deficits in the first decade of the euro. As a result, its liabilities to foreign investors exceeded the assets that its residents own abroad by 92% of GDP last year, among the highest in the euro area. The problem for Spain is that foreign capital has been fleeing over the past year. That has weakened the banks and the economy and left the Spanish government shunned by foreign investors for its own financing needs.人们最大的担忧是西班牙的外债。西班牙进入欧元区的第一个十年就背负了大量的往来账户赤字,其结果是去年西班牙的外债超过其居民在国外拥有的资产,其差额相当于GDP的92%,这位于欧元区前列。西班牙的问题是在过去的一年中,外国资本在不断外流,这就使得和经济情况不断恶化,并使得西班牙政府在融资方面吸引不了外国投资者。The European summit in late June offered a flicker of hope but it is guttering. Euro-area leaders agreed that the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), their new permanent rescue fund, would be able to inject funds directly into banks rather than via loans to the government. That perked markets up since it promised to sever the link between weak banks and weak sovereigns. But before long the deal looked less solid: the ESM cannot come into force until September, when Germanys constitutional court will rule on its legality. Assuming it passes that test, the ESM cannot be used for direct bank recapitalisation until a European supervisor is put in charge.六月底的欧洲峰会为人们带来了一丝希望,但这个希望却正在逐渐破灭。欧元区领导人同意欧洲稳定机制(ESM)—— 新的永久救助基金,可以直接为各注入资金而无需通过政府。这个消息让市场振奋不已,因为它承诺断开脆弱的和脆弱的国家之间的联系。但没过多久这个协议便看起来不那么可靠:欧洲稳定机制直到九月才生效,到时德国宪法法庭会对其合法性进行裁决。即使这个机制通过了考验,在欧洲监督机构成立之前,它依然不能直接用来对进行资金重组。Spain may yet be able to fend off a bail-out for some time. It has some cash reserves and can still borrow at short maturities. The euro area also has its temporary rescue fund, which will lend the Spanish government the initial sum of money for the banks. But even if Spain survives a hot summer, the markets are signalling that it will need a full bail-out later this year.西班牙可能仍可抵挡纾困计划一段时间,它还有一些现金并能发行短期债券。欧元区也有临时救助资金,它可以把首批贷款借给西班牙政府以对其进行重组。但即使西班牙能安然度过这个夏天,市场表明其在年底依然需要一次全面纾困。That would be a nightmare, and not just for Spain. The Spanish government must borrow EURO385 billion until the end of 2014 to cover its budget deficit and other needs such as bond redemptions, according to economists at Credit Suisse. Even if the IMF chips in a third as in previous bail-outs, European lenders would have to find EURO250 billion or so. They have aly committed EURO100 billion to rescuing Spanish banks, so for other emergencies they would have only EURO150 billion of the EURO500 billion now in their rescue kitties.这将是一场噩梦,不仅仅对于西班牙来说。瑞士信贷的经济学家们称,在2014年底之前,西班牙政府必须借入3850亿欧元来填补其预算赤字以及满足其它一些需要,如债务偿还。即使国际货币基金组织能和之前的纾困中一样提供三分之一救助资金,欧洲领导人也依然需要筹集2500亿欧元左右。他们已经承诺用1000亿欧元来拯救西班牙,那么一旦出现其它状况,5000亿欧元的救助资金中他们便只剩1500亿欧元来应对。The course of events is eerily similar to what happened a year ago. Then European leaders appeared to have secured their summer holidays with a “breakthrough” summit. But things soon fell apart. Nerves about Italy and Spain were calmed only when the European Central Bank (ECB) started buying their bonds. The central bank was never keen on this and it has not been buying bonds for several months. Even if the ECB were to resume purchases they might be less effective than before, because its refusal to share in the pain of the Greek debt restructuring in March frightened bondholders elsewhere.事件的发展过程和去年的极为诡异地相似。欧洲领导人似乎以“突破性”的峰会保住了他们的暑期,但事情很快又分崩离析。只有在欧洲中央开始购买意大利和西班牙的债券后人们的紧张情绪才得以缓解。中央从未对此如此热情并且已多月未购买债券。但即使欧洲中央重新开始购买债券,效果也大不如从前了,因为3月份希腊债务进行重组时,欧洲中央拒绝承担其债务,这让其它国家的许多债券持有人感到恐慌。The awkward truth is that the Spanish government is not alone in flunking hard choices. The plight of Spain and the danger of its sickness sping to Italy call for a decisive countermove by Germany and the ECB. One being discussed would be to give the ESM a banking licence, which would magnify its resources by allowing it to borrow from the central bank. The graver the euro crisis gets, the bigger the response has to be—and the harder it is to sell to sceptical northern electorates.令人尴尬的事实是,西班牙政府并不是唯一一个在艰难抉择中不及格的政府,西班牙的困境及病情已扩散到意大利,这就需要德国和欧洲中央采取果断应对措施。已经讨论过的措施之一是给欧洲稳定机制发一个执照,允许它从中央贷款,从而扩大其资源。欧元危机一旦变得更加严重,所需做出的回应也更大—— 想要说持怀疑态度的北欧选民也就更加困难。 /201301/222738 安仁县看男科医院郴州永兴县人民医院妇幼保健不孕不育科

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