当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2019年06月19日 11:56:05    日报  参与评论()人

宾县引产多少钱通河县做人流多少钱;Almost all other animals are clearly observed to partake in sleep, whether they are aquatic, aerial, or terrestrial,; wrote Aristotle in his work On Sleep and Sleeplessness. But do other animals dream? On that the Greek philosopher also had an opinion. In The History of Animals, he wrote: ;It would appear that not only do men dream, but horses also, and dogs, and oxen; aye, and sheep, and goats, and all viviparous quadrupeds; and dogs show their dreaming by barking in their sleep.; His research methods may lack sophistication, but Aristotle may not have been too far off the mark.亚里士多德在文章《论睡和醒》中写道:“人们清楚地观察到,几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,不论是水生、陆生还是在空中飞翔的动物。”但是动物会做梦吗?在这个问题上,这个希腊哲学家也有自己的看法。在专著《动物志》中,他写道:“看来不只人会做梦,马、、牛也都会做梦;同样,绵羊、山羊以及所有的胎生四足动物也都会做梦;并且,在睡眠中吠叫就是做梦的表现。”亚里士多德的研究方法也许不够完善成熟,但和事实或许也已经相去不远了。We certainly can#39;t ask animals if they dream, but we can at least observe the evidence that they might. There are two ways in which scientists have gone about this seemingly impossible task. One is to look at their physical behaviour during the various phases of the sleep cycle. The second is to see whether their sleeping brains work similarly to our own sleeping brains.我们当然不能直接问动物它们是否做梦,但我们至少可以观察到它们可能做梦的据。对于这个看似不可能的任务,科学家们已经尝试了两种方法。一种是观察动物在睡眠周期各个阶段中的身体行为,另一种是观测动物和人类在睡眠时的大脑状态是否相似。The story of how we worked out how to peer into the minds of sleeping animals begins in the 1960s. Back then, scattered reports began to appear in medical journals describing people acting out movements in their dreams. This was curious, because during so-called REM sleep (rapid eye movement), our muscles are usually paralysed.人们从上世纪60年代开始研究如何窥探动物睡眠时的大脑活动。那时,医学杂志上开始零星出现描述人在睡梦中“表演”动作的报告。这在当时是很新奇的,因为在所谓的REM(rapid eye movement快速眼球运动)* 睡眠中,我们的肌肉通常是处于麻痹状态的。Researchers realised that inducing a similar state in animals could allow them to probe how they dream. In 1965, French scientists Michel Jouvet and J F Delorme found that removing a part of the brainstem, called the pons, from a cat#39;s brain prevented it becoming paralysed when in REM. The researchers called the condition ;REM without atonia; or REM-A. Instead of lying still, the cats walked around and behaved aggressively.研究者们意识到,如果能引导动物产生和人类相似的状态,那么他们就可以探查动物是如何做梦的了。在1965年,法国科学家米歇尔·朱费(Michel Jouvet)和J·F·德罗尔姆(J F Delorme)发现,如果把猫脑中脑干的脑桥部分移除,就可以防止其在REM睡眠中出现麻痹状态。研究者把这种情况称作“REM肌张力缺失现象消失(REM without atonia)”或REM-A。在这种情况下,猫不会静静地躺着,反而会四处走动并表现出攻击性。This hinted they were dreaming of activities from their waking hours. And studies since have revealed similar behaviour. According to veterinary neurologist Adrian Morrison, who has written a review of this research, cats in REM-A will move their heads as if following stimuli. Some cats also show behaviour identical to predatory attacks, as if they were chasing mice in their dreams. Similar dream activity has been seen in dogs.这表明,猫正在做醒时活动的梦。自那以后的研究也都揭示了相似的行为表现。根据兽神经学家阿德里安·莫里森(Adrian Morrison)对这项研究的评述,处于REM-A状态中的猫会像有刺激物一样摇晃脑袋。一些猫还会表现出等同于捕食性攻击的行为,就像它们在梦境中追逐老鼠一样。而也表现出了相似的梦中活动。Some humans have been found to ‘act out’ their dreams too – if they suffer from a condition called REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. ;Punching, kicking, leaping, and running from the bed during attempted dream enactment are frequent manifestations and usually correlate with the reported imagery,; according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Injuries are common among these people and those sleeping with them, the ICSD adds.一些人类也被发现有“表演”梦境的行为——如果它们患上了“REM睡眠行为障碍”。根据国际睡眠障碍分类(ICSD)描述,“这种情况的常见表现是表演出梦境中的行为,如拳打脚踢、跳跃奔跑,并且通常能与报告中描绘的画面对应。”ICSD还补充道,这些人常会自伤或伤及同床者。Physical movement is not the only way of peering into dreams, though. Researchers can now humanely peer into the electrical and chemical activities of brain cells in animals while they sleep. In 2007, MIT scientists Kenway Louise and Matthew Wilson recorded the activity of neurons in a part of the rat brain called the hippocampus, a structure known to be involved in the formation and encoding of memories. They first recorded the activity of those brain cells while the rats ran in their mazes. Then they looked at the activity of the very same neurons while they slept. Louise and Wilson discovered identical patterns of firing during running and during REM. In other words, it was as if the rats were running the maze in their minds while they were snoozing. The results were so clear that the researchers could infer the rats#39; precise location within their mental dream mazes and map them to actual spots within the actual maze.然而,身体行为并不是窥探梦境的唯一方法。现在,研究者们可以在不伤害动物的情况下探查其睡眠时脑细胞内的电流和化学活动。2007年,麻省理工大学的科学家肯威·路易斯(Kenway Louise)和马修·威尔森(Matthew Wilson)记录下了老鼠脑内“海马体”部位的神经细胞活动,而“海马体”是与记忆的形成转换有关的结构。当老鼠在迷宫里奔跑时,他们第一次记录下了它们脑细胞内的活动。之后在老鼠睡眠时,他们又观察相同神经细胞的活动。路易斯和威尔森发现,在奔跑和睡眠时,老鼠脑细胞内的活动模式是相同的。也就是说,当老鼠在酣睡时,它们脑内活动就像还在迷宫里奔跑一样。结果是如此明确,以至于研究者们可以推测出老鼠在脑内梦中迷宫里的准确位置,并且能在现实迷宫中把它们的实际位置标出来。University of Chicago biologists Amish Dave and Daniel Margoliash looked into the brains of zebra finches and discovered something similar. These birds are not born with the melodies of their songs hardwired into the brains; instead, they have to learn to sing their songs. When they#39;re awake, the neurons in part of the finches#39; forebrain called the robutus archistriatalis fire following their singing of particular notes. Researchers can determine which note was sung based on the firing patterns of those neurons. By piecing together the electrical patterns in those neurons over time, Dave and Margoliash can reconstruct the entire song from start to finish.芝加哥大学的生物学家阿米什·戴夫(Amish Dave)和丹尼尔·马格赖许(Daniel Margoliash)观察了斑胸草雀的大脑,并有了类似的发现。这些鸟并不是天生脑子里就有歌曲的旋律,相反,它们要通过学习才能唱歌。当斑胸草雀醒着的时候,在它们唱到某些特定音符时,其前脑中古纹状体粗核部位的神经细胞就会开始活动。研究者们基于这些神经细胞的活动模式就可以判定斑胸草雀唱到了哪个音符。通过把这些神经细胞中的电流模式拼合,戴夫和马格赖许就能把整首歌从头到尾地重现了。Later, when the birds were asleep, Dave and Margoliash looked again at the electrical activity in that part of their brains. The firing of those neurons wasn#39;t entirely random. Instead, the neurons fired in order, as if the bird was audibly singing the song, note for note. It might be said that the zebra finches were practising their songs while they slumbered.随后,在这些鸟睡眠时,戴夫和马格赖许再一次观察其脑内相同部位的电流活动。这些神经细胞的活动并不是完全随机的。相反,这些神经细胞在有秩序地活动,就像这些鸟把歌曲一个音符一个音符地唱出声来一样。这可能说明,斑胸草雀在睡眠中也在练习唱歌。Does the behaviour of cats in science experiments actually qualify as dreaming? Do rats have any subjective awareness that they#39;re running their mazes in their minds while they nap? Do the songbirds realise that they#39;re singing in their sleep? These questions are as hard to answer as the question of consciousness. It#39;s tricky. We humans do not usually realise we#39;re dreaming while we#39;re dreaming, but it becomes clear as soon as we wake up. Do zebra finches remember their dreams as dreams when they#39;re shaken out of their sleep? Can they distinguish the real world from the one in their dreams? We can say with a reasonable amount of certainty that the physiological and behavioural features of dreaming in humans have now been observed in cats, rats, birds, and other animals. Yet what it’s actually like to experience a dream if you’re not human remains a mystery.科学实验中猫的行为表现是否可看作是真正在做梦呢?对于睡眠时脑内在迷宫中奔跑的状态,老鼠自身有客观意识吗?这些唱歌的鸟又是否意识到自己在睡眠中唱歌呢?这些问题和与意识相关的问题一样难以回答。这很棘手。我们人类在做梦时通常都不能意识到自己是在做梦,但是在醒来后就能马上清楚地意识到这件事。那么,斑胸草雀从梦中醒来后是否记得自己的梦呢?它们能把现实世界和梦境区分开吗?我们可以非常确定地说,如今在猫、鼠、鸟等动物中都能观察到与人类相同的做梦时的身体行为特征。然而,非人类在做梦时是怎样的感觉,这依然是个谜。 /201404/292970黑龙江省医院挂号预约 In countries like the US and UK, where political correctness and gender equality are a big deal, it’s often difficult to describe women. If you don’t pay close attention, you can come off as impolite, or even worse — if you are a man — a sexist jerk.在英美等国,政治正确与性别平等都是头等大事。用正确的词汇描述女性并非易事,如果你不够谨慎,轻者将被视为无礼,重者(如果你是男性)则会被当做歧视女性的蠢货。Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg’s “ban bossy” campaign intends to show people that it is unfair to use the word “bossy” to describe women who aspire to take up leadership roles at work.Facebook首席运营官谢丽尔#8226;桑德格就发起了“禁用‘bossy’(独断专横)”的运动,因为用这个词来形容有领导能力的女性并不公平。In and outside of work life, there are many other words that have sexist undertones. One of these words is “feisty”.不论是在工作中,还是在生活里,还有很多英文单词隐含性别歧视的意味,“feisty(好争辩)”就是其中之一。“Feisty” is often used to describe a lively woman with the implication that she is aggressive and gets on people’s nerves.“Feisty”常用来形容活力四射的女性,但暗含“强势、令人心烦”之意。UK actress Daisy Lewis plays an out-spoken feminist teacher in the hit TV series Downton Abbey. While Lewis admits her character is courageous and unconventional, she does not want to be described as “feisty”.英国演员黛西#8226;刘易斯在热剧《唐顿庄园》中饰演了一位心直口快的女教师,刘易斯认为自己的角色颇具胆量,并颠覆了传统观念,但她并不喜欢用“feisty”来形容这一角色。In a recent interview with UK newspaper Daily Mail, she said: “Feisty? My least favorite word. Have you heard a male character described as feisty? I think not.”在最近接受英国《每日邮报》的采访时,刘易斯说:“‘feisty’是我最不喜欢听到的词。你有听说过哪个男人的性格被形容为‘feisty’么?我猜没有吧”Kudos to Lewis who “has uncovered yet another word that shows the vocabulary gender divide and a wider level of everyday sexism,” says a column from UK newspaper The Telegraph.英国《每日电讯报》在一篇专栏文章中称赞道:刘易斯又发现了一个带有性别歧视的词汇。Feisty争强好胜“Feisty”, like “bossy”, is one of these words that once had the same meaning for both men and women, but evolved to mean something usually negative when applied to women. The Telegraph column lists a few of them.和“bossy”一样,“feisty”曾同时用于形容男性和女性,含义并无差别,但随着它更多用于女性之后就含有了贬义。《每日电讯报》的专栏文章还列出了其他一些与之类似的词语:Ambitious野心勃勃When applied to men, the word describes a positive trait. But when describing a woman, it becomes a dirty word. Even Madonna, in an interview with Harper’s Bazaar, has said she felt “being openly ambitious [is] frowned upon”.这个词用在男性身上时,多含褒义。但用于形容女性时,却成了难听的字眼。就连麦当娜在一次接受《时尚芭莎》的采访时都表示,她认为“‘野心满满’很让人反感。”Emotional情绪化Every human being has emotions. While “emotional” can be applied to men, “the word is commonly thrown at any woman who dares mention how she feels, or raises her voice,” says The Telegraph column.是人都有感情,因此“emotional”也可用来形容男性,但正如《每日电讯报》在专栏文章中所写,“这个词通常用来形容女性,只要她们稍微提及自己的感受或是说话声音大一些(就会被称为‘emotional’)”。The word, together with “moody” and “hysterical”, often appear in the “crazy woman” stereotype, says a Time magazine article.而《时代》周刊的一篇文章也写道:这个词还与“喜怒无常”以及“歇斯底里”连用,是形容“疯女人”的典型词汇。Being a woman, it is impossible to avoid the “crazy” label, says the Time article: “What even is crazy? A woman who expresses opinions? Am I crazy if I yell? Am I crazy if I act like a leader? Whatever it is, it usually doesn’t refer to any kind of real life mental illness.”女人似乎总是逃不开“疯子”这个词,可是什么叫“发疯”?女人发表个观点?还是她大叫一声?或者表现得像个领导?不管是哪一种,反正都和现实中的精神病相去甚远。High-maintenance金贵难养The “high-maintenance girlfriend” with her manicures and love of shopping is a modern day trope firmly rooted in sexism, says The Telegraph column. A guy may be demanding, but he is never “high-maintenance”.《每日电讯报》在其专栏文章中写道:做美甲、爱逛街的女孩子被称为“难养的女朋友”,这正体现出当今时代仍然根深蒂固的性别歧视。男孩子也可能有很多花钱的需求,但是他从来不会被形容成“High-maintenance”。Pushy爱出风头Closely related to “ambitious” and “bossy”, “pushy” is another word that sums up gender inequality in the workplace.与“ambitious”和“bossy”相似,“Pushy”也是一个在工作场合带有性别歧视的词汇。 /201409/327696大庆市人民医院官网

黑龙江省阳光妇儿医院做人流怎么样?黑龙江省第五医院预约挂号 BEIJING: Snaps of a meat pie seller in central China have gone viral because ofhis resemblance to Xi Jinping, the Communist nation#39;s all powerfulpresident.北京:中国中部某肉饼店老板的照片在网络上被疯传,原因是其长相酷似中华人民共和国习主席。 /201407/313176哈尔滨道里妇产医院挂号预约

哈尔滨市儿童医院能做人流吗 阿城区人工受孕黑龙江省阳光女子医院四维彩超预约



哈尔滨阴唇切除多少钱 哈尔滨市道里区妇幼保健所治疗子宫肌瘤好吗养心门户 [详细]
哈市妇儿医院医术怎么样 哈尔滨第十人民医院是市级吗 [详细]
哈尔滨部队医院网上预约电话 京东生活哈尔滨武警总队医院咨询电话百科专家 [详细]
中华时讯哈尔滨怎么医治非特异阴道炎 黑龙江哈市阳光妇科医院的营业时间京东常识黑龙江省哈尔滨市十院在哪儿 [详细]