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Chinas family planning中国计划生育政策Illegal children will be confiscated违法生育就没收孩子The one-child policy is not just a human-rights abomination; it has also worsened a demographic problem独生子女政策不仅在人权方面广受诟病,它也使得人口问题雪上加霜Jul 21st 2011 | from the print edition“BEFORE 1997 they usually punished us by tearing down our houses for breaching the one-child policy…After 2000 they began to confiscate our children.” Thus Yuan Chaoren, a villager from Longhui county in Hunan province, describing in Caixin magazine the behaviour of family-planning bureaucrats. According to Caixin, local officials would take “illegal children” and pack them off to orphanages where they were put up for adoption. Foreign adoptive parents paid ,000-5,000 per child. The bureaucrats collected a kickback.“1997年以前,对违反独生子女政策的处罚是打烂房子…2000年以后,不砸房子了,没收小孩。”安徽省隆回县村民袁朝仁接受财新《新世纪》采访时,这样讲述了计生干部的所作所为。据财新报道,当地官员抓住“非法儿童”,把他们送到孤儿院(即社会福利院,译注),用来被人收养。外籍家庭收养一个孩子付3000至5000美元,官员们则收取提成。Stealing children is not an official part of Beijing’s one-child policy, but it is a consequence of rules that are a fundamental affront to the human rights of parents and would-be parents. The policy damages families and upsets the balance between generations. It is so hated that even within China it is now coming under political attack. For the first time a whole province, Guangdong, with a population of over 100m, is demanding exemptions (see article).盗抢孩子并不是中国政府独生子女政策的法定组成部分,但却是其恶果之一。这一政策侵犯父母和准父母的基本人权,破坏家庭,打乱代际平衡。人们如此厌恶它,即使在中国国内它也正成为一个政治问题而受到批评。人口过亿的广东省正请求放宽独生子女政策,这在省级层面尚属首次(参见文章)。A thousand-mile journey begins with a single step千里之行始于足下Chinese officials are fiercely attached to the one-child policy. They attribute to it almost every drop in fertility and every averted birth: some 400m more people, they claim, would have been born without it. This is patent nonsense. Chinese fertility was falling for decades before the one-child policy took effect in 1979. Fertility has gone down almost as far and as fast without coercion in neighbouring countries, including those with large Chinese populations. The sp of birth control and a desire for smaller families tend to accompany economic growth and development almost everywhere.中国官员们不遗余力地严格奉行独生子女政策。生育率有一点下降,出生人数有一点减少,他们都要归功于独生子女政策:他们宣称,要是不实行独生子女政策中国要多生出4亿人。这显然是无稽之谈。中国1979年实行计划生育前,生育率就已持续下降了几十年。中国的邻国,包括那些有大量华人的国家,没有采取过强制措施,生育率下降的速度及程度也和中国差不多。经济增长、社会发展与越来越多的人节制生育、希望家庭规模小些,二者之间通常是相关的,世界各地大体上一样。201107/146454Life after Olympic 奥运与名利 Decorated athlete Bruce Jenner talks about fame after Olympic. The average Olympian is so focused on wining an event, they are often ill-prepared for the morning after. Even Bruce Jenner knows what an Olympic hangover feels like. “I was devastated, what do I do tomorrow, my entire life had been revolving for the last 12 years of my life around this one moment.” The night after he won the Olympic decathlon in 1976, Jenner recalls pondering his future in a Montreal hotel suite, he had no idea. “I didn’t have a dinner reservation that night, I mean, I, I planned for nothing after it was over with.” Adding to his sense of unease, he says, were those around him. “Honestly, some of the people who knew me before, er, were very upset because they were thinking now I am a different person that they can’t really be your friend anymore, you are like on a different level. I mean, I didn’t change at all, but everybody around you does change quite a bit.”TV offers came his way, starting with Battle of the Network Stars. “And to Bruce Jenner….” Congratulation, first time up there, right down the middle”."That's right" “I never held a microphone before, I was fortunate that I was kind of the Michael Phelps, from the games in 1976, I was kind of the front guy that they put out there,” “Hi, I am Bruce Jenner, for Tropicana.”His Olympic profile helped Jenner do everything from endorsements to the feature film Can’t Stop The Music. “So let’s get gone, I gotta place to hit this afternoon right around here.” "Why can't see you?"With the village people."Why can't see you?" Now just another day, baby, It's another.day ,Michelle, Let's goNow Jenner is a regality TV fixture on Keeping Up With the Kardashian, stepfather to a clan that includes one woman boutiquier Kim Kardashian, it was a contract with Wheaties, that changed his life forever just three months after winning the gold. The guy goes, “congratulations, you are a millionaire.” "I was…me? I was living on 10,000 dollars a year, okay, I was living on 145 dollars a month apartment, okay, driving a 63-Volkswagen ,but I paid 175 dollars for it . Okay, and this guy was like, um, "give me that paper.”200811/55622

Islamists Take Over Ethiopian Bases in Mogadishu伊斯兰力量占领索马里首都基地  In Somalia, Islamist fighters loyal to the Islamic Courts Union have taken control of several bases vacated by Ethiopian troops in the Somali capital. Mogadishu remains tense amid fears that militant al-Shabab fighters could launch attacks against moderate Islamists and African Union peacekeepers for control of the city. 在索马里,效忠“伊斯兰法庭联盟”的伊斯兰武装人员占领了索马里首都几处埃塞俄比亚军队撤离之后留下的基地。索马里首都加迪沙的局势仍然紧张,人们担心激进的青年党武装为了控制加迪沙可能会对温和的伊斯兰派系以及非洲联盟维和部队发动进攻。Residents in the capital, Mogadishu, say the Islamic Courts Union militia have tightened security and are now in charge of most positions in the city. 加迪沙的居民说,伊斯兰法庭联盟的武装人员加强了安全控制,现在控制着加迪沙的大部分阵地。The ICU took over six bases on Thursday, as Ethiopia pulled the last of its forces out of the capital and ended its two year-long mission to protect the country's weak transitional federal government. The ICU was thrown out of power by Ethiopia in late 2006. 在埃塞俄比亚军队撤出最后的部队、结束了长达两年的保护索马里脆弱的过渡联邦政府任务之后,伊斯兰法庭联盟星期四攻占了6个基地。埃塞俄比亚军队在2006年推翻了伊斯兰法庭联盟的统治。Government troops are reportedly in charge of two former Ethiopian bases in the southern end of the capital and some 3,000 African Union peacekeepers from Uganda and Burundi are guarding the presidential palace, the city's airport and the seaport.  据报导,索马里政府军目前控制着首都南端的两个前埃塞俄比亚基地,来自乌干达和布隆迪的大约3000人的非盟维和部队守卫着总统府、加迪沙机场和加迪沙港。But Mogadishu remains far from settled, following threats by the al-Qaida-linked militant group al-Shabab to continue their attacks on the African Union mission known as AMISOM. Al-Shabab's spokesman Muktar Robow says his group sees no difference between Ethiopian troops and AMISOM peacekeepers.  不过,跟基地组织有关联的激进组织“青年党”威胁要继续袭击非盟维和部队,使加迪沙很不平静。“青年党”发言人穆克塔尔.罗伯奥说,“青年党”认为,埃塞俄比亚军队和非盟维和部队没有什么不同。Robow says al-Shabab fighters will now concentrate their attacks on peacekeepers unless AMISOM agrees to leave Somalia immediately.  罗伯奥说,青年党武装现在会重点袭击非盟维和部队,除非非盟维和部队同意立即撤离索马里。AMISOM spokesman, Ugandan army Major Barigye Ba-Hoku dismissed the threat, saying al-Shabab is trying to spoil an opportunity for Somalis to end the insurgency and achieve stability. 非盟维和部队发言人、乌干达陆军少校巴里吉耶.巴胡库驳斥了青年党的威胁,他说青年党想让索马里人丧失结束暴乱、实现稳定的机会。"Muktar Robow said that they are not interested in peace," he said. "They are going to continue fighting. Whom are they going to fight? Because, all along, the argument has been, 'We are fighting an occupation of force from Ethiopia.' AMISOM is not in any way, and will never be in any way, an occupation force." 巴胡库说:“罗伯奥说,他们对和平不感兴趣。他们准备继续战斗。他们想跟谁打仗呢?因为,从始至终他们提出的打仗理由就是‘我们为抵抗埃塞俄比亚军队的占领而战斗’。然而非盟维和部队不是埃塞俄比亚军队,也永远不会是占领军。”It is not known if the ICU militia in Mogadishu includes members of al-Shabab. The radical group, which has vowed to turn Somalia into a strict Islamic state, functioned as the military wing of the ICU before it split off in 2007. Al-Shabab and ICU fighters often fought side-by-side in the past two years. But they have recently emerged as rivals.  目前还不清楚在加迪沙的伊斯兰法庭联盟武装人员是否包括青年党成员。这个激进组织曾经是伊斯兰法庭联盟的军事组织,2007年从伊斯兰法庭联盟分裂出去。青年党坚决表示要把索马里变成一个严格的伊斯兰国家。在过去两年里,青年党和伊斯兰法庭联盟的武装人员经常并肩作战。不过,最近他们似乎相互成为敌人。With Ethiopians out of the capital, there have been indications that many Islamist insurgents, clerics, and residents want an end to the conflict, which has killed some 16,000 civilians and has left one-third of the country's population in need of food aid.  随着埃塞俄比亚军队撤离索马里首都,有迹象显示,许多伊斯兰暴乱分子、神职人员和当地居民都希望结束冲突。已经有大约1万6000平民在冲突中丧生,冲突还造成索马里三分之一的人口急需食品援助。Some clerics have publicly criticized al-Shabab's militant stance on AMISOM, highlighting a widening rift between moderate and hard-line Islamists on the way forward.  一些神职人员曾经公开批评青年党对非盟维和部队的立场,凸显了伊斯兰教徒中温和派跟强硬派之间在今后的道路上的分歧日益加深。Many moderates are leaning toward supporting a Djibouti-based Islamist opposition faction called the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia. The political alliance, led by former ICU leader Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed, was initially criticized for signing a U.N.-sponsored peace accord with the Ethiopia-backed government. Many Somalis did not believe Ethiopia would follow through on its promise to withdraw and allow a joint force of Islamist fighters and government troops to take over security. 许多温和派伊斯兰教徒倾向于持在吉布提的一个叫做“索马里再解放联盟”的伊斯兰反对派别。这个政治联盟由前伊斯兰法庭联盟领导人谢赫.艾哈迈德领导,该联盟跟受到埃塞俄比亚持的索马里政府签署了由联合国提出的和平协议,并且因此在当初受到指责。许多索马里人当时不相信埃塞俄比亚会履行诺言从索马里撤军,以便由伊斯兰武装人员和政府军组成的联合部队接管索马里的治安。But Al-Shabab and another hard-line Somali Islamist group, based in Asmara, Eritrea, have refused to participate in the peace process, prompting fears that a prolonged power struggle within the Islamist movement is yet to come. 不过,青年党和总部设在厄立特里亚阿斯马拉的另一个强硬派组织--索马里伊斯兰组织拒绝参加这一和平进程,从而让人们担心,伊斯兰运动内部的长期权力斗争即将到来。01/61163

Private businesses are being encouraged to assume a greater role in development efforts as part of the Obama administration's agricultural development initiative.Food prices are at record highs, and experts are sounding alarms about the potential for civil unrest. The Obama administration has made improving developing world food security an important foreign policy goal. 粮食价格达到创纪录高位,专家们发出关于可能发生社会动乱的警告。奥巴马政府把改善发展中国家粮食安全作为一项重要外交政策目标。But rather than relying solely on governments and civil society groups as in the past, the administration is highlighting the role the profit motive can play in economic development.Mozambique's poultry boomAt a recent congressional briefing, the growth of Mozambique's poultry industry was cited as one example. Until recently, domestic poultry farmers were unable to compete with imports. 莫桑比克饲养业主德雷克.艾克谢维尔说,本土肉禽业一直不能跟进口产品竞争,部分原因是业者们的家禽饲养方法。Mozambican poultry farmer Derek Xavier says part of the reason was the way farmers raised their birds. "We just used to have them at home," he says. "We had no medication, no vaccination. And obviously, with no good treatment, the chickens are always thin, and no good meat."他说:“我们以前只是在家饲养。没有药,没有疫苗。显而易见,饲养方法不好,鸡就很瘦,肉质不好。”It did not help that foreign producers were using Mozambique as a market of last resort to dump nearly spoiled chicken.外国生产商把莫桑比克作为最后的市场来倾销肉鸡,也无助于提高本地产品的竞争力。201102/126366

  Two Australian sisters have set an unofficial world record for continuous TV-watching after sitting through 87 hours of uninterrupted World Cup and football coverage.Football-mad Joanne and Alanah Argyrou, 22 and 24, outlasted two other contenders as they sat for some three-and-a-half days at Sydney's Star City Casino, beating Dutchman Efraim van Oeveren's 86 hours.The feat -- which awaits confirmation by Guinness World Records -- was monitored by a team of officials who ensured the sisters did not look away from the screen for more than five seconds.They were given one five-minute break per hour but were allowed no more than five cups of coffee a day. In between World Cup broadcasts, the women watched recorded matches and football documentaries.Australia’s hopes of reaching the knocking-out stages were badly dented after June 14’s 4-0 defeat by Germany. The country is bidding to host the tournament's 2022 edition.Vocabulary:casino: a public building or room where people play gambling games for money knocking-out stage:淘汰赛阶段dent: to damage somebody's confidence, reputation, etc. 损害,伤害,挫伤(信心、名誉等)背单词 — 装英语词汇201006/106693

  Romantic comedies affecting off-screen love livesRomantic comedies might provide 90 minutes of light-hearted fun but the happy-ever-after movies are also impacting people's real love lives, according to an Australian survey.A poll of 1,000 Australians found almost half said rom-coms with their inevitable happy endings have ruined their view of an ideal relationship.One in four Australians said they were now expected to know what their partner was thinking while one in five respondents said it made their partners expect gifts and flowers 'just because'."It seems our love of rom-coms is turning us into a nation of "happy-ever-after addicts." Yet the warm and fuzzy feeling they provide can adversely influence our view of real relationships," said Australian relationship counselor, Gabrielle Morrissey."Real relationships take work and true love requires more than fireworks."The survey was released by Warner Home Video to mark the movie "Valentine's Day" going to DVD.Vocabulary:light-hearted: 轻松愉快的happy-ever-after: 大团圆结局,幸福到老rom-com: 浪漫喜剧,romantic comedy的缩写just because: 不为什么,不需要解释背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/109636。

  Obama Urges Lawmakers to Act Quickly on Economic Legislation奥巴马促国会迅速通过刺激经济案 President-elect Barack Obama urged congressional leaders on Monday to act quickly to pass a huge stimulus package for the U.S. economy. Mr. Obama met with a bipartisan group of lawmakers on Capitol Hill. 美国当选总统总统奥巴马星期一敦促国会领导人迅速采取行动,通过一个大规模刺激美国经济的方案。奥巴马在国会山会见了两党国会议员。Obama met individually with Democratic and Republican House and Senate leaders and later spoke to a bipartisan leadership gathering. 奥巴马单独会见了民主党和共和党众议院和参议院领袖,随后在两党领导人共同参加的会议上讲了话。In comments to reporters early on Monday, he underscored the urgency of finalizing economic legislation. 奥巴马在星期一早些时候对记者们发表讲话时强调了通过经济立法的紧迫性。"We have got an extraordinary economic challenge ahead of us," Mr. Obama said. "We are expecting a sobering job[s] report at the end of the week. The Speaker [of the House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi] and her staff have been extraordinarily helpful in working with our team so that we can shape an economic recovery and reinvestment plan that starts putting people back to work." 他说:“我们面临的是一个极其特殊的经济挑战。即将在这个周末发表的就业报告将给我们带来严峻的消息。佩洛西议长和她的助手们在向我们的团队提供了不同寻常的帮助,这样我们才能着手经济复苏并展开重新投资计划,让民众再次获得工作机会。”Mr. Obama wants tax cuts for individual Americans and businesses to make up a significant portion of expected legislation. This could involve as much as 0 billion of a bill that is likely to exceed 0 billion and include aid to cash-poor U.S. states, and money for alternative energy and a range of infrastructure projects. 奥巴马希望把减少个人和公司税赋作为经济刺激计划的一个重要部分。在总额可能超过7千亿美元的一揽子方案中,这一部分可能会达到3千亿美元。这3千亿美元还包括援助现金短缺的州,为替代能源提供持,以及投资兴建一系列基础设施工程。Later, Mr. Obama said he expects to be able to sign legislation as soon as the end of this month, adding that quick action is necessary to "break the momentum of the U.S. recession". 奥巴马说,接下来他预计最早这个月底就能够在这个立法上签字,使之成为法律。他补充说,迅速采取行动打破美国经济衰退的势头是完全必要的。Emerging later from bipartisan talks with Mr. Obama, House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi said lawmakers discussed with the president-elect how to pass a stimulus package as quickly as possible. 和奥巴马会谈结束以后,众议院议长佩洛西说,国会议员们和当选总统讨论了怎样才能尽快通过这样一个经济刺激一揽子方案。"An economic recovery package that will create jobs immediately and will grow the economy and that is what we talked about today," said Nancy Pelosi. "How we could do this expeditiously, deliberatively and to act upon it soon." 她说:“一个可以立即创造工作机会、推动经济增长的经济复苏方案是我们今天讨论的议题。我们探讨了怎么才能加快速度、谨慎有序、就此计划尽早展开行动。”Just how soon that would be, Pelosi would not say. But the Majority Leader Steny Hoyer has said a measure could move in the House by the end of this month, sending it to the Senate, with the objective of passage in mid-February. 至于早到什么程度,佩洛西不愿透露,但是众议院多数党领袖霍耶表示,有关议案可能在本月下旬送到众议院,然后送达参议院,2月中旬就有望通过这一立法。How much support Democrats can obtain from Republicans will depend on the details. But the severity of the U.S. recession has created considerable bipartisan backing for quick action. 民主党人可以在多大程度上得到共和党人的持还将取决于某些细节。但是美国经济衰退的严重性已经使两党在采取迅速行动方面达成了相当大的共识。"There are investments that we need to make on behalf of the American people to turn around this economy," said Senate Majority Leader, Harry Reid. "I felt very good about the meeting; I am confident that we can do this and we have to do this." 参议院多数当领袖哈利.里德说:“我们要代表美国民众进行投资,以便扭转美国的经济。我对这次会面感到非常高兴,我有信心我们能够做好,我们必须做好。”Earlier, White House Press Secretary Dana Perino made this comment to reporters when asked about legislation shaping up on Capitol Hill. 此前,白宫发言人佩里诺在被问及国会有关立法的问题时对媒体发表说:"I think the best thing I can do is to decline to comment on what they are going to do going forward," she said. "Obviously, we think that tax cuts were the right way to help our economy get out of the recession that this president inherited and we know that tax cuts can spur innovation." “我认为,我最好不要对他们将要做的事情发表。显然我们认为减少税收是正确的方式,它能帮助我们摆脱经济衰退,我们知道减税能够刺激创新。”Asked by reporters how large the economic stimulus package might be, Senate Majority Leader Reid said President-elect Obama indicated that all but one of some 28 economists advising him had said it should range from 0 billion to .3 trillion. 在记者问到经济刺激一揽子方案的规模到底能有多大的时候,参议院多数党领袖里德说,当选总统奥巴马指出,他的28名经济顾问中除一名以外,都认为这一方案应该在8千亿到1万3千亿美元之间。01/60593

  Nearly two years after trying to adopt a child from the African nation of Malawi, Madonna is behind a new documentary focusing on the plight of orphans there.It's been nearly 2 years since Madonna first made headlines for trying to adopt a small child from the African nation of Malawi. And she's since become a voice for the more than 1 million children or orphans in that country and now she’s behind the film on that subject and Ann had a chance to catch up with her last night.I did that, Mary, in fact, Madonna hit the red carpet at New York City’s Tribeca Film Festival last evening where her new film debuted. It's called I Am Because We Are. It’s a documentary about the struggle of these children who have been orphaned by AIDS in Malawi. And afterwards I sat down with Madonna to talk about the film and why she felt the commitment to help those children. I am because we are.Something about their situation connected to me, and in a way I was going on my own journey and connecting to these children and wanting to in a way heal myself whilst helping them. And hearing about their suffering? Something opened to you?Yeah. I grew up as a motherless child. I had a roof over my head and I had food and I had a school to go to. And I still thought that my world was going to collapse on me, so how could it be for these children who, most of them, having lost both of their parents, having no roof over their head, no food to eat, how horrifying and frightening it must be for them! You know, I wonder how this revelation came to you, you know, this is going to be a thing, you know, for you. (Yes!) This is not how people see you.I think having children and having a family forces you to think about people besides yourself, I mean you don’t really have a choice, I think I just got to a point in my life. / I thought, you know, I have so much, and it’s a great tragedy if I don’t use what I have to make the world a better place. I know that sounds silly, or cheesy, or like a cliché, whatever but it’s the truth. If I was challenging people to open up their minds and their hearts, then I had to be willing to stand at the front of the line.I appreciate and understand how people could be cynical, that’s fine, I accept that.Why do you appreciate that people can be cynical?Because I think we live in a society, that, where people are naturally suspicious of acts of altruism or generosity. Or maybe they might be suspicious because they might think, well, you know, Madonna changes all the time, is this simply another fad, de jour, a trend, or just a new, is this something that is really core to Madonna.My re-inventions are part of my evolution and my growth as a person. They’re aspects of it that are full of lesson. They are aspects of it that are real. His name is David, I decided to try and adopt him. I don’t see how anybody who really understands how complicated it is to adopt a child could say that someone toasts to do that as a fad, it’s just too difficult, it’s too traumatic.It’s been hard then to adopt David.We have not even been granted the full adoption. It’s supposed to be happening in the next month. So for the last 18 months I have been a foster parent. I have been visited every 6 weeks by social workers who come into the house and make sure that you are being a good parent, and David’s health is thriving, and asking you all kinds of invasive questions, and you have to put up with it and endure it and you know, I have been fingerprinted about 20 times, and undergone psychological evaluations and I think everybody who goes through adoption has to do this, I am not alone and, but you know, I do it again.You would?Yeah.Why? Because David is amazing, because he’s brought so much joy to our lives and more than about him. And so, it was worthy. I think most people will suffer for the things they love. And now at this point in your life, it seems you’re opening, to some part of you, it's softening, something that is looking for wisdom, usefulness.Well, thank God. (What do you mean by that?) Well, thank God I am searching for wisdom and usefulness. Em, one hopes that one gets to that point in their lives sooner or later.Do you wish that you could just be anonymous?No, no, (No?) I mean, yeah, I have moments of it, but I don’t wanna wish that I am not me, I don’t wish I were someone else. What is it that you want to feel about your life?That my soul reached its true potential. And that I did everything that I was put on this Earth to do. Which is? Well, who knows. We are about to find out.And it’s part of that, she also spoke to me about possibly working with orphanages and other parts of the world beyond Malawi, places like Cambodia and the Palestinian territories and she also does not discount the idea of adopting again. (Very well~) So this seems to be a new sort of beginning for her, she says.01/60845Human evolution人类的进化You look familiar 你,似曾相识Another piece of humanity’s family tree is fitted into place确定另一人类谱系THE opening scene of Mel Brooks’s film “History of the World: Part One” dispenses with human origins in one line: “And the ape stood, and became man.” Would that it were that easy for palaeontologists to sort out. The transition to humanity is generally agreed to have occurred between Australopithecus, a genus of small-brained, bipedal primates whose most famous member is a fossil nicknamed “Lucy”, and the big-brained species Homo erectus. But pinning down when precisely this took place, and which of the various australopithecine species were involved, has been challenging. Now the most human-like australopithecine found to date is clarifying things—and staking a claim to be the species from which early humans evolved.梅尔布鲁克斯的电影“世界历史:第一部”一开场就用一句台词概括了人类的起源:“猿猴站立起来了,然后变成了人”。对古生物学家来说,(人类的起源)要是真能如此解释,那也未免太容易了。人们普遍认为,人类是在南猿(Australopithecus),(一种脑量小,靠两脚行走的灵长类动物。其最有名的成员是一个外号叫“露西”的化石)和直立猿人(Homo erectus)(一种脑量大的物种)之间完成人类进化过渡的。但至于这段过渡期确切发生在什么时候,又属于众多南猿物种的哪一分,人们众说纷纭。而目前发现的与人类长得最像的南猿,让一切变得清晰起来,同时,它也被确定是后来进化为早期人类的物种。Fossils of the new species, Australopithecus sediba, were discovered in 2008 in a cave in South Africa. Initial research, led by Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg, concluded that the species came too late in the fossil record to be the ancestor of the Homo lineage. This week, however, a range of new research into sediba, again led by Dr Berger, has been published in Science. These studies conclude that sediba did in fact predate Homo erectus and, moreover, that parts of its anatomy are surprisingly similar to modern man.新发现的物种化石---南猿源泉种(Australopithecus sediba)于2008年在南非一个山洞中被发现。约翰内斯堡的威特沃特斯兰德大学教授Lee Berger,带领的研究团队经初步研究发现,新物种是化石史上最接近猿人谱系(Homo lineage)的祖先。本周,科学杂志发表了 Berger士对源泉种的一系列新发现,称源泉种实际上要早于直立猿人,并且其结构的某些部分与现代人也极为相似。The fossils examined in the Science papers are of an adolescent boy and an adult woman. They are well preserved, and encased in sediments that allow uncommonly precise dating. They lived 1.977m years ago, predating the appearance of Homo erectus by 77,000 years. The period is an especially muddled one for palaeontology, being full of fragmentary fossils that are difficult to assign either to Homo or to Australopithecus. The sediba fossils, by contrast, have some of the most complete features in the early human record.“科学”杂志发表的论文研究的化石对象,一个是少年,一个是成年女子。这两具化石保存完好,由于是在沉积层出土,所以可以很精确的确定它们的年代。他们生活在197,7000年前,比直立猿人早出现7,7000年。这段时期令古生物学家一直很迷惑不解,因为所有的化石碎片很难确定到底是属于南猿还是直立猿人。相比较而言,源泉种化石具有部分早期人类最完整的特征。201109/153857At Beijing's flagship Apple Store they switched off the company's famous icon at midday. It was a tribute to Steve Jobs the visionary who had created a truly global brand. Flowers were laid at the entrance of the store. Some came to shop but others are gathered to pay tribute.Speaker 1 "I just found out this morning from the news that Mr Jobs has passed away, so this is why I came here. I wanted to buy some flowers myself but I couldn't find where."Speaker 2 "I'm kind of a diehard fan of Apple. It's really really sad to see that Steve Jobs passed away. This man I think really influenced the way I think, the way I observe the world. I really can't say how grateful I am to him." Many Apple products are made in China. But unlike other western brands Apple is a household name here. Its iPhones and iPads are snapped up by the growing middle class. More than 35 million Chinese internet users also tweeted about his death. Steve Jobs was a man who was idolised around the globe and many here say his vision helped connect the world.词语注释:flagship 旗舰icon 偶像a tribute(对死者的)致敬a visionary 有远见卓识者to pay tribute to 歌颂(某人)to pass away 逝世a diehard fan of (某人的)铁杆粉丝a household name 家喻户晓的名人to snap up 抢购to tweet 发微to idolise 崇拜(某人)201110/156427

  Google's answer to the iPhone The first Android-powered phone aims to take market share from Apple and boost Google's search ad revenue. Well, it’s official, the so-called Google-phone is coming to T-Mobile stores nationwide starting Oct.22ndHere is what it is. The phone is actually isn’t manufactured by Google’s going to be made by a company called HTC, but it does run on an operating system that was developed by Google called Engerroom. This is an open operating system which means that it makes very easy for developer secret all sorts of mobile applications for the device.It’s called G1, not just the Google phone any more, and it is going to sell for 179 dollars through T-Mobile, with the 2-year service plan, of course. It’s a smart phone, it’s, it’s also got a touch screen, whether plug keyboard for typing, and it’s going to have bilten wire file, builten GPS, a lot of this in the features that is becoming pretty standard smart phones these days. But the real question on everybody’s minds here is how does the G1 stock up to be iphone? A lot of comparisons are aly being made between the two, and although they have a lot of common, they also have a lot of differences. For example, Google’s device G1 is an open platform and applications are going to be very easy for developers to get. To consumers, they do not have to go to any kind of review process with Google was the Iphone developers have to firstly approved by Apple to get their applications out there. Apple also takes a cut of all the revenues where Google does not, with its applications. But beyond the similarities and differences, their, their strategies are not the same here. Em, Apple’s really been pushing this one device Iphone was Google’s pushing a platform which it hopes to go around the cross, thousands of different devices across multiple carriers and multiple markets. Google’s real goal here is to drive traffic on mobile devices. They want people using the web on their cell phones, so automatically, if the iphone succeeds, or if other smart phone succeeds, that’s good for Google’s business too. So is this going to be the next iphone killer? Well, probably not, but does that really matter to Google’s overall strategy? Maybe not. 200810/54336Bigger and better整合之潮亦其壮大之势America’s big hospital groups will continue to gobble up competitors美国大型医疗集团将继续吞并小号医疗公司 HOSTILE takeovers are never polite. One fight in America, however, has become particularly ugly. In December a huge stockmarket-traded hospital company, Community Health Systems, announced that it wanted to buy another, Tenet Healthcare, for .3 billion. The bid soon became a brawl. In the saga’s most recent chapter, Tenet filed a lawsuit accusing Community of overbilling government and private health-insurance schemes. Community denies this and, as The Economist went to press, was due to present a more detailed rebuttal.财大气粗的收购商的字典里没有客气二字。然而,美国的一次收购事件却成为了一则丑闻战。大型上市公司社区保健医院(CYH)在十二月宣布,它想再收购一家公司——以22亿美元收购泰尼特保健(TNH)。此次收购出价迅速演变成一场争夺战。战斗打了好几个回合,最近一次,泰尼特提起了诉讼,控告社区保健医院过分干预政府和个人的医疗保险计划。为了给出更有利的回击,本刊刊登时,社区保健医院对上述指控矢口否认。Although this bid battle has become unusually rancorous, it is in line with a broader trend of consolidation in the huge but fragmented business of providing hospital care. In America’s hospitals soaked up one-third of all national health-care spending, or 9 billion, roughly equal to the entire GDP of the Netherlands. In the long term an ageing population will produce more invalids and thus more business. In 2014 the “Obamacare” health reforms will bring 32m newly insured patients. The less good news is that the health reforms also bring new regulations and intense pressure to contain costs. This is strengthening the argument for consolidation among hospital operators.尽管此次出价战不同于一般的敌意收购,但它更倾向于是一种医疗业整合趋势——将大而散的美国医院整合起来。年,美国医院就吸金7590亿美元,占整个国家医疗保健费用的三分之一,大约相当于荷兰整整一年的国内生产总值。从长远来看,人口老龄化将产生更多医疗需求,从而带动医疗业的发展。到2014年,奥巴马医疗改革方案将使医保人数新增3200万。不过坏消息是,医疗改革方案所产生的新的规章制度让政府不得不缩紧裤腰带来应付节省开带来的压力。Mergers are nothing new in the industry. In 1979 only 31% of America’s hospitals were part of a larger hospital system. By 2001 more than half were. The rationale for joining a larger chain is simple. It means better access to capital for renovation and expansion, better management and—most important—more clout when negotiating treatment prices with health insurers.在医疗行业中合并不过是老生常谈。1979年,仅有31%的美国医院属于大型医院。到2001年,该比例超过了50%。加入大型医院并购圈的原因再简单不过——为了得到更新设备、引进设备、开发设备的资金,为了加强管理,最重要的是,为了在医疗保险金上与医疗保险公司谈判时拥有强有力的发言权。Now, the health reforms are piling on the pressure to merge. Obamacare requires hospitals to invest heavily in technology, even as the government cuts payments for treatments. Hospitals will increasingly have to demonstrate the quality of their services. Small hospitals may struggle to meet such demands; bigger groups will be better equipped. Besides, now is a good time to be doing deals, says Gary Lieberman of Wells Fargo. Credit markets have offered favourable terms to hospital groups raising money. And thanks to the downturn there has been ample supply of not-for-profit hospitals for sale. Community’s bid for Tenet is the biggest deal now in the works. The combined companies would have annual revenues of billion, second only to HCA, which last month raised .79 billion in an initial public offering (IPO). But plenty of smaller deals are going on. Vanguard Health Systems, which this month filed for an IPO, has bought hospitals in Detroit, Chicago and Arizona in the past year. HCA seems likely to use at least some of its IPO cash to make more acquisitions.如今,医疗改革给合并上的压力再加一码。奥巴马方案一方面要求医院在技术方面下重金,另一方面却不管政府在医疗费用上日销月铄。医院将越来越能显示出政府公共事业机构的建设质量。小医院可能会努力满足需求,大公司将会尽力提高医疗条件,此外,富国的盖里#8226;利伯曼还说,现在正是兼并交涉的大好时机。信用市场为医疗集团集资提供的有利的条件。由于经济危机,有相当数量的非营利性医院待售。社区保健医院对泰尼特保健的收购是正在酝酿中的一笔最大的买卖:并购后的公司将产生220亿美元的年收入,仅次于美国医院社团(上月首次公开募股筹资37.9亿美元)。除此之外,还有大量的小型并购正在进行中。去年一年中,先锋卫生系统公司它在底特律、芝加哥、亚利桑那州均收购了医院,它于上月申请首次公开募股,并很有可能用一部分或者全部的募股资金来收购更多的医院。Big hospital operators must still grapple with Obamacare’s new requirements. And in some cases, growing larger brings its own challenges. Vicki Bryan of Gimme Credit, a bond-research firm, worries that Vanguard’s shopping spree (and dividends to its shareholders) have left it with excessive borrowings. Another worry is that although there are many benefits to being big, realising them takes time. HCA’s recently improved earnings, Ms Bryan contends, are largely due to changes in accounting and billing models. Tenet says Community has boosted revenue by keeping patients in hospital unnecessarily; Community denies this vehemently.大型医院还要继续应对奥巴马方案的新要求。在某些情况下,扩大规模也就给自己带来了相应的麻烦。债券研究公司吉美信贷的维基.布莱恩为此感到担忧:一是先锋卫生系统公司的疯狂购物节已经让他们欠下负债累累,二是尽管扩张企业规模能带来可观的收益,但想让钱掉进自己的口袋尚需时日。布莱恩表示,近日美国医院社团(HCA)收入之所以增加,主要是得益于账务结算模式的改进。巧妇难为无米之炊,泰尼特保健觉得,社区保健医院何苦要通过增加病人在医院所耗的时日来增加自身收入呢。社区保健医院对此大呼自己是冤大头。Nonetheless, the hospital-merger wave still has far to go. HCA, despite being the industry’s leader, controls less than 5% of the market. There are many more deals to come, the only question is how quickly.不过,医院兼并浪潮才刚刚开始。虽然美国医院社团是医疗业的领头羊,市场掌控率却不到5%。更多的兼并事件即将到来,唯一的问题就是兼并商们如何将事情处理得更加得心应手。201110/159111

  PM Brown Threatens To Sue Iceland A diplomatic row between the UK and Iceland has erupted with PM Brown demanding the return of billions of pounds of British investments. He has threatened to seize assets and take legal action against the Icelandic government. Sky's Glen Oglaza reports. It's 30 years since the so-called Cod Wars. The relations between London and Reykjavik are almost as frosty now as they were then, with the prime minister using the most undiplomatic of language and threatening to sue the government of Iceland. We believe that, and I think everybody at least home will agree that the Icelandic authorities are responsible for this. We'll do what we can, working with local authorities to help. And I think we, as the government, are doing the responsible thing. We are holding the Icelandic authorities responsible with demanding that the money be paid back to the local authorities. (Through Legal action?) And we are prepared to consider all forms of action including as we did, attempting to, and freezing assets. The problem is that it's not only Iceland's banks that have crashed. Yesterday, the British government used anti-terror laws to freeze the assets of those banks. But now, the Icelandic government is in fact defaulting. "Totally unacceptable!", says Gordon Brown, threatening legal action something Iceland's prime minister is keen to avoid. Legal action is something that is always available. That's one way of civilizing, excuse me, it's one way of setting disputes in a civilized manner, go to courts, but I don't know we're...we're hoping and planning to try to resolve this issue in good cooperation with the UK authorities. More than a hundred local authorities placed large sums of money on deposit with Icelandic banks. The total amount is hundreds of millions and could be as much as a billion pounds. That money is needed to revive the goods and services run by local councils. The local authority leaders say they can't guarantee those goods and services unless they get their money back. Until we've actually looked to the implications, for each local authority, the sum is very large and it will be a small amount in the total context of the budget; others, it will be a much greater impact. We still haven't assessed that fully... And then there are the police authorities, who also invested in Icelandic banks and now stands to lose the best part of 100 million pounds.The government's now embroiled in a huge row with the governments of Iceland. But while ministers say they're doing what they can to help local councils retrieve those missing millions, they are also asking question what on earth you have been doing with tax payers' money. The councils reply "we invested it in banks that we thought were safe." But safe? They were not. And Gordon Brown is making it crystal clear that he expects the government of Iceland to underwrite the debts of its banks and to pay up. Glen Oglaza, Sky News.参考中文翻译:所谓的冷战到现在已经30年之久的。但是现在伦敦和雷克雅未克之间的关系仍然像以前一样僵,英国首相布朗使用非外交辞令,威胁会起诉冰岛政府。我相信,我认为每个人,至少是国内的每一个人都同意,冰岛官方需要为此负责。我们会尽我们所能与当地官方团结一致以提供帮助。我认为,作为政府,我们所作的事情是负责任的。我们认为冰岛政府有责任将资金归还当地政府。(会不会通过法律途径?)我们准备考虑所有的方式,包括我们已经采取的措施,冻结资产。问题是,并不是只有冰岛的崩溃。昨天,英国政府利用反恐怖法冻结了那些的资产。但是现在,冰岛政府不付欠款。“这是完全不能接受的!”布朗首相说,威胁说会采取冰岛首相极力避免的法律手段。法律手段总是可以采取的。这是一种文明的,处理争端的文明的方式,上法庭。但是我不知道我们……我们希望通过和英国政府的友好合作来解决这个问题。100多家当地在冰岛存储了大量现金,总数高达数亿甚至十亿元。当地委员会需要这些钱来恢复货物和务供给。当地政府官员说,除非这些钱能够被归还,否则他们不能保那些货物和务。我们仔细考虑一下,对于每一个当地的政府,这些钱是非常大的数目,对于整个国家预算来说非常少;而对于其他人来说,将会造成很大的影响。我们没有全面的评估……还有警察机关,他们也对冰岛进行了投资,现在随时可能损失1亿英镑。政府现在卷入和冰岛政府的争端。但是当统治者们尽一切可能来帮助当地委员会取回即将丢失的数百万时,他们也在问一个问题:你们到底拿着纳税人的钱做什么了?委员会的是“我们投资于,以为是是安全的。”但是安全吗?未必。布朗已经让这一点非常明显了。他希望冰岛政府承认欠款并且尽快归还。200812/57782


  American humour美式幽默Funny man有趣的人The talent of an American lyricist一位富有天赋的美国抒情诗人CALVIN TRILLIN made his reputation over four decades as the author of “US Journal” in the New Yorker, reporting extensively about serious and often tragic subjects such as race relations and crime. He was also among the first writers to grasp that American cuisine is a good way to understand the nation’s vigorous and various cultures. But Mr Trillin is incapable of resisting the temptation of comedy. The jokes kept on welling up and Mr Trillin made a parallel reputation as a writer of funny stuff.卡尔文.特里林作为《纽约客》美国日报作者享誉盛名四十余载,广泛的报道种族关系和犯罪这类严肃而悲痛的题材文章。他是首位发现美国烹饪是了解美国朝气而丰富文化的良好途径的作家之一。但是特里林无法抗拒喜剧的诱惑,创作出许多笑话。因此,他也因创作滑稽有趣的作品而享有同等声望。He belongs to a tradition that included distinguished journalists such as Art Buchwald in the Washington Post, and Russell Baker at the New York Times. Each might regard the idea as risible, but their ability to deflate the reputations of self-important politicians and men of business makes classy moralists of them.他是一位传统派作家,还有华盛顿邮报和纽约时报著名的新闻记者阿尔特#8226;布克沃尔德和拉塞尔贝克。每位想法独特有趣,而他们有能力减少高傲政客和商业人士的声望和影响力,因此他们可称为优秀道德家。The title of this collection of his humorous writings is the first of many jokes. Mr Trillin makes fun of the arrival in the Port of Galveston, Texas, in 1908, from somewhere “near Kiev”, of his father and his Uncle Benny. Apparently, Jacob Schiff, an eminent German Jewish banker was embarrassed by the poor, huddled masses from eastern Europe cluttering up New York at the time and financed the detour to the south-west. The thought is rather appalling, but Mr Trillin makes it work for him: “You can say what you want to about my Uncle Benny, but he never made his living as a money lender.”幽默集锦是特里林第一部笑话作品。他取笑他的父亲和叔叔本尼从基辅附近的某个地方在1908年到达德克萨斯州加尔维斯顿。大批来自东欧的贫穷民众使纽约异常杂乱拥挤,杰出的德国犹太家雅各布.希夫很明显对此感到不安,并资助他们绕道去往美国西南部。这种想法非常令人震惊。但是特里林成功的为他开脱:你可以随便我我叔叔本尼,但是他从未以放贷人为生。201109/154662

  美国无人驾驶飞机发射的导弹在巴基斯坦西北部与阿富汗接壤的瓦济里斯坦地区导致至少24名叛乱分子嫌疑人丧生。巴基斯坦安全官员说,导弹袭击的目标是北瓦济里斯坦部落地区的达卡赫尔区。【英文译文】Two U.S. missile strikes Tuesday in Pakistan's semi-autonomous tribal region of North Waziristan killed at least 24 suspected militants.Pakistani security officials say the targets of the missile strike were located in the Dattakhel district of the North Waziristan tribal region. More than a dozen missiles fired by a U.S drone struck a compound and nearby vehicles.The area borders Afghanistan and is considered a stronghold of Pakistani as well as al-Qaida fighters. The militants are blamed for cross-border attacks on U.S.-led coalition forces.Suspected U.S. drones have carried out scores of missile strikes in the Waziristan region in recent years, killing hundreds of alleged militants.The government has no control over most of the mountainous territory and it is not possible to seek an independent confirmation of the damages in drone attacks because journalists are not allowed to go there. There have been several drone missile strikes in North Waziristan since a failed attempt to detonate a car bomb May first in New YorkThe attempted terrorist act has refocused international attention on the tribal region because the Pakistan-born American citizen detained in connection with the incident has allegedly told U.S investigators he received training in the Waziristan region.American officials also believe the Pakistani Taliban were behind the bomb plot and have formally requested Islamabad to help investigate those links.Speaking to reporters, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi reiterated his country's support, saying the two countries are closely cooperating to defeat terrorism. But he would not discuss the status of the ongoing investigation."Pakistan has been cooperating, and the U.S authorities have recognized Pakistan's active cooperative role in finding out the truth behind this incident. But it is premature to make a value judgment at this stage because it is an evolving situation. Investigation are yet not complete," Qureshi said.U.S Secretary of State Hilary Clinton has warned of serious consequences if a successful terrorist attack on America is traced back to Pakistan. Foreign Minister Qureshi says such statements are unlikely to undermine his country's ties with Washington.  "There is no need for, in my opinion, emotional reaction to some of the statements that have been made. There is nothing to worry (about)," he adds. "Our relationship is smooth and it is moving towards a partnership."But opposition politicians and independent observers say when U.S leaders publicly criticize their close ally, while the New York incident is under investigation, it fuels anti-America sentiment in the country.Wasim Sajjad is the opposition leader in Senate, the upper house of Pakistani parliament."The people of Pakistan react adversely to such comments and it does have an impact on them. If it does not have an impact at the government level I would not know," said Sajjad. "But I can tell you that the parliament has reacted, the people have reacted and they have not liked this (U.S) reaction because there are terrorist incidents all over."Pakistan has conducted major anti-Taliban military operations particularly in its tribal regions near the Afghan border. The militants, in return, have carried out deadly attacks on security forces and civilian targets across the country.201005/103676

  Cambodia’s ancient temples at Angkor Wat are under threat from the large numbers of tourists who are now visiting the site. There are fears that ongoing damage to the temples’ soft stone may mean they could eventually be destroyed. The temples at Angkor Wat are considered among the best surviving examples of ancient religious architecture in the world. The temples were built about a thousand years ago. And relief work on the walls tells of the many threats the ancient empire survived throughout the centuries. But today a new threat to the temples comes from mass tourism. Thousands of tourists now visit the area every day. Local restaurant owner M. believes that too many people walking on the stones are damaging the temples. “Mass tourism destroys any monuments and especially Khmer monuments for a very simple reason - the sandstone on which I sit with my nail. So imagine millions of people walking on them. ” Professor Jacque G. has been excavating in and around the ancient city for five years. He says vehicle pollution affects the stone as well. “Everybody goes at the same time to see the Bayon, everybody goes at the same time to see the Bakeng, everybody enters the city of Angkor Thom at the same spot.” Professor G. recently drew up plans for new type of tourism at Angkor Wat, but says that so far his recommendations have been ignored. “You can extend new type of tourism with the forest - a kind of ecological and archaeological tourism. New itineraries with new ways of transportation, with elephants, with bicycles - make some excavations at some points, explain to people where they are in the city. ” The authorities say they are working hard to protect the temples. Some stairways have now been boarded over and other areas are closed to tourists. But R. says that more must be done. “We need to learn from the advice-how to increase the techniques, how to put more ways, how to protect longer time, how to get people to understand especially awareness to the tourists. When they come they have to understand how to protect together.” With tourist numbers at Angkor Wat growing every year, most agree more needs to be done if the temples are to be protected for future generations.200812/59188

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