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栏目简介:China Southern Airlines has established a fast-track channel for the transfer of donated human organs. Officials say they want to reduce delays during transportation to improve the rate of organ usage. Our reporter Song Wenjing takes a look. Article/201705/505546TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201606/447627

Hi again, welcome back to engvid.com, I#39;m Adam, today#39;s lesson is meant to show you ways of increasing your vocabulary.再次见到大家很高兴,欢迎回到engvid.com,我是Adam,今天的课程是要教你们一些增加词汇量的方法。I know some of the other teachers on engvid.com have done these lessons.我知道engvid.com上有些其他的老师已经做过这种课程了。I just want to throw my two cents in if you know what that means, is I want to give my own piece of advice.我只是想跟大家分享一下我的拙见,如果你们知道这是什么意思的话......也就是我想给你们一些我自己的建议。I have a few ideas for you, we are going to start with these, we#39;re going to look at a few others more practical ones as well.我给你们准备了一些方法,我们会先从这些开始讲,然后还会再看其他几个更实用的想法。The most important thing that you can do to increase your vocabulary is , a lot.要增加词汇量,你们能做的最重要的事是阅读,大量阅读。What should you ? Anything and everything.But the most important thing is what you are interested in, okay?你们应该读什么?任何东西,所有材料都可以。但最重要的是阅读你们感兴趣的材料。If you like sports, a sports magazine.If you like movies, a movie magazine, even better the script of the movie.如果你们喜欢运动,那就读本运动杂志。如果喜欢电影,那就看本电影杂志,能读一读电影剧本就更好了。If the movie is based on a novel, the novel.For example, recently the movie Life of Pi was very famous in the theaters.如果这部电影是根据一本小说改编的,那就去读这本小说。举个例子来说,最近在各大影院都很火爆的电影《少年派的奇幻漂流》。It#39;s based on a novel, the novel, it#39;s a pretty good book.它就是根据一部小说改编的,这本小说很不错,你们可以看一下。My favorite movie Shawshank Redemption, based on a novella by Stephen King.我最喜欢的电影《肖申克的救赎》,改编自Stephen King的中篇小说。Read it, best way to increase your vocabulary.Also don#39;t just learn new words and try to remember them.去读一读吧,这是增加词汇量最好的方法。还有,学新单词的时候不要只是干巴巴地学并且试着记住它们。Write, write a lot, use the words you#39;re learning, right?你们要动手写,多写,要把你们正在学的单词用起来。Every time you learn a new word, you should have a notebook with you all the time anyway.不管怎样,每次你们学习一个新单词的时候,都应该在身边带一个笔记本。Write the word in a sentence, but not just any sentence, make sure that the sentence clearly shows that you know the meaning of the word, okay?用这个单词造一个句,但是也不要随便造句,你们要确保这个句子能够清晰地显示你们知道这个单词的意思,懂吗?So let#39;s... for example, I know everybody knows this word but... ;beautiful;, everybody knows this word, but let#39;s say it#39;s a new word for you.比如......我知道;beautiful;这个单词你们都认识,每个人都认识这个单词,不过我们假设这对你们来说是个新单词。Don#39;t write ;The sky is beautiful;, it doesn#39;t tell me anything about the word ;beautiful;.不要光写个;The sky is beautiful;,这个句子并没有告诉我任何关于单词;beautiful;的信息。The sky is also blue, does beautiful mean blue?No, make sure you#39;re using something.天空也是蓝色的啊,;beautiful;的意思是蓝色吗?不是,请一定要在句子里加上其他成分。I love to see a beautiful sky that has pretty clouds and sunshine and a nice color, nice shade of blue, because it makes me feel happy.比如:我喜欢看这片有着漂亮的云、阳光和好看的颜色、好看的蓝色的美丽天空,因为它让我觉得很开心。Not the best example, it#39;s a very long sentence but you get my idea.这个例子虽然不是最好的示例,句子太长了,但是你们懂我的意思就好。Now again, coming back to that notebook, always have a notebook with you, always have a pen with you and don#39;t limit yourself to one new word.再说一次,回到笔记本这个话题上来,你们随时都要带一本笔记本,随时都要带一笔,还有,不要局限于一个新单词。When you learn a new word, make sure you learn different forms of the same word, okay?当你们学习一个新单词的时候,请一定要学习同一个单词的不同形式。So for example, the word ;beautiful;, let#39;s say this is a new word for you, you learn the word ;beautiful;.比如单词;beautiful;,我们假设这对你们来说是个新单词,你们在学;beautiful;这个单词。Put it in your adjective column, it#39;s an adjective, that#39;s what you want.把它写在你们笔记本上形容词那一栏,它是个形容词,是你们想学的单词。But why not learn the other forms?For example, what is the adverb form of ;beautiful; ?但是为什么不学学它的其他形式呢?比如,;beautiful;的副词是什么?I think most of you know it, it#39;s ;beautifully;, so you have now two new words.我想你们大部分人都知道,那就是;beautifully;,那么现在你们有两个新单词了。What is the noun form of ;beautiful;?It#39;s ;beauty;, you now have three new words in your vocabulary.;beautiful;的名词形式是什么呢?是;beauty;,现在你们的词汇量里增加了三个新单词。Is there a verb form of ;beautiful; ?Yes, as a matter of fact there is.;beautiful;有没有动词形式呢?有,事实上还真有。;Beautify;, means to make beautiful, you now have four new words.Think of other words, ;beautician;.那就是;beautify;,它的意思是“使......美丽”,你们现在学会了四个新单词。再想想其他单词,比如;beautician;。;Beautician; is a person who works making people more beautiful, she does facials and manicures and pedicures and wax and whatever else these beauticians do.;beautician;(美容师)的工作职责是把人们变得更加美丽,她会做美容、美甲、足疗、脱毛以及任何这些美容师会做的其他事情。Anyways try to find other forms, learn many words instead of just one word, okay?反正你们一定要试着找到单词的其他形式,学习多个单词而不是仅仅只学一个。Now some people like to study roots and suffixes and prefixes.有些人喜欢研究词根、后缀和前缀。Personally I#39;m not a huge fan of this recommendation, but first, let me explain what a root is.个人来说,我对这个做法并不是很推荐,不过我还是先给你们解释一下什么是词根吧。For example, you have the root ;-ject;, so you learn inject, eject, object, subject, all the different words that come from the root,举个例子来说,你们看到了一个词根;-ject;,然后就可以学到这些单词:inject, eject, object, subject,这些不同的单词都是来自同一个词根,so many people only study the word or the root ;-ject; and think that it will help them understand all the words with this root.于是很多人就只学习这个单词或词根;-ject;,他们觉得这样就能弄懂所有由这个词根组成的单词。It#39;s a good idea if you have the patience.想法不错,但是你们得有这个耐心。I think most people who are studying English don#39;t like to study roots, because it#39;s like studying another language.我觉得大部分学英语的人都不喜欢学习词根,因为这就像在学另一门语言一样。If it works for you, do it, if it doesn#39;t, don#39;t, okay.如果这个方法对你们有用的话就照着做,如果没用就不要做。And now another thing you can do--listen.Listen to any spoken English that you can.现在我们来讲讲你们能做的另一件事——听。听任何你们能找到的英语口语。I think some of you may have heard of Ted.com, it#39;s a good website, people give talks and lectures about different topics.我想你们中一些人也许听说过Ted.com,那是个很好的网站,在那上面人们会发表关于不同话题的讲话和演讲。Listen, listen carefully.Anytime you hear a word that you don#39;t recognize, write it down.听一听他们的讲话,认真听。任何时候你们听到了不认识的单词都要把它写下来。If you don#39;t know the spelling, no problem, write it phonetically.如果你们不知道这个单词怎么写也没关系,按照读音把它写下来。Write the word just like it sounds, then if you have access to a transcript,根据它听起来的样子把这个单词写下来,然后如果你们能看到文本的话,means all the words that were spoken written down, check the transcript and find your word.也就是被记录下来的演讲的全部内容,如果能看到的话,请核对一下文本,找到你们不认识的那个单词。If you can#39;t, if you don#39;t have a transcript, go to a dictionary.如果找不到,如果你们没有文本的话,那就用字典。Now some of you have asked me to recommend a dictionary, very simple, and online you can get the paper one, or the online one.你们中有些人叫我推荐一部字典,这非常简单,从网上你们能找到纸质版的,也能找到电子版的。Merriam Webster#39;s, m-w.com, American English, oxford dictionaries.com, British English, okay?你们可以在m-w.com上找到韦氏字典,那是一部美式英语的字典,然后在oxford dictionaries.com上能找到英式英语的字典。Now I know I#39;ve seen a lot of students use like their electronic dictionaries,我看见过很多学生使用他们的电子词典,they go from like English to Korean, English to Japanese, English to Spanish, don#39;t do that anymore, okay?他们用的是像英韩词典、英日词典和英西词典之类的,不要再这么做了好吗?English to English, this way you#39;re learning more words as you#39;re learning one word.使用英英词典,这样你们在学习一个单词的时候能学到更多的单词。I don#39;t know this word, I look at the definition, in the definition I might be... I might be learning other words, okay?比如我不认识这个单词,我去看了看释义,在释义里我也许会学到其他的单词。You will maximize how many words you learn by using an English to English dictionary.通过使用英英词典,你们学到的单词数量会达到最大化。Now again about those electronic dictionaries, sometimes like especially when people are trying to write,我再说一下电子词典方面的事情,有时候,尤其是当人们在写作的时候,they will write a sentence in their native language and then press translate on this dictionary, and get a sentence in English.他们会用母语写一个句子,然后按词典上的翻译键,接着就能得到一个英语的句子。Now I#39;ve seen sentences that I knew came from the dic... from the electronic dictionary, because they made no sense.我看到过一些我一眼就知道是从电子词典中翻译来的句子,因为它们根本讲不通。Okay? They were terrible terrible sentences, don#39;t do that, okay?那些句子超级超级糟糕,不要这么做好吗?The people who made these dictionaries might not know English very well, keep that in mind, okay?那些制造这些电子词典的人也许并不是很懂英语,记住这一点。So these are some ideas, now I#39;m going to tell you what I think are the best ideas to increase your vocabulary.以上是我告诉你们的一些想法,现在我要跟你们讲我认为的增加词汇量最好的方法。Okay, so now we#39;re going to look at a couple of other ways you can increase your vocabulary.现在我们要来看几个能帮你们增加词汇量的其他方法。These are very effective but they take a lot of patience, a lot of perseverance.下面的这些方法非常有效,但是需要很多耐心和很大的毅力。You have to try hard, you have to keep doing it because vocabulary, not so easy right?你们必须努力,必须坚持,因为增加词汇量可不是件简单的事,不是吗?Okay, so first we#39;re going to start with cards.好了,首先我们要从卡片开始。You get yourself a stack of cards, maybe this big, not too big, because you want to carry them in your pocket, take them with you everywhere you go, okay?你们要给自己准备一叠卡片,也许这么大,不要太大了,因为你们要把它们放在口袋里,去哪儿都要随身带着。On one side of the cards, you#39;re going to write words, four maybe five words that are new words for you.在卡片的一面,你们要写上四五个新单词。You#39;re going to write sentences on the back, on the other side of the card.在卡片的另一面也就是背面,你们要写下句子。You#39;re going to use these words in sentences so you have a clear meaning or you can write the meaning of the word, dictionary meaning, both okay.你们要把这些单词用到句子里去,这样你们就有一个清楚的含义,或者你们也可以写下这个单词的意思,字典上的释义,两种都可以。Now you#39;re going to split your cards into three piles, okay?然后你们要把这些卡片分成三摞。You can like have the pile of cards of words that you know, words you#39;re very comfortable with, eventually you will have a pile like this.你们可以分出一摞写着你们认识的单词的卡片,就是那些很顺口的单词,最终你们会得到像这样的一摞卡片。Words that you#39;re very comfortable with, you know them very well, you don#39;t need to look at these cards very often, okay?这一摞是你们觉得很舒、非常了解的单词,这些卡片不需要你们很频繁地去看。Now before I continue, where do you get these words?在继续之前,我问一下你们知道从哪儿找这些单词吗?Get from a TOEFL site or an IELTS site or an SAT site or an SAT book, for example they have lists of words that you need to learn.从或者雅思网站上找,或者SAT网站或SAT书,上面有很多你们要学的单词。Put all these words on cards, split them up like this.把所有这些单词写在卡片上,然后像这样把它们分出来。You know these words very well, don#39;t need to look at.如果你们对这些单词很熟知的话,就不需要看了。These words you#39;re almost sure or at least you recognize these words, you#39;ve seen them before, you#39;ve heard them before, you can guess what they mean maybe in context.下面这些单词你们几乎能确定它们的意思,或者至少能认出它们,你们以前见过或听过这些单词,也许根据上下文能猜出它们的意思。So you#39;re not sure, put them in this...this pile, this pile you will look at all the time.那么对于你们不太确定的单词,把它们归到这一摞,这一摞卡片你们要一直看。And then in the last pile, you put words that you really don#39;t know, okay?接下来,最后一摞的单词是你们真的不认识的单词。This is the pile you will look at the most, you will study these words.这是你们要看的时间最多的一摞单词,要好好学习这些单词。As they become more familiar, you move them to this pile, this pile you study also very regularly.等它们变得熟悉了一些之后,就把它们移到这一摞,这一摞卡片你们也要定期学习。You take this... this pile is the one you put in your pocket and take with you, when you go outside.这一摞是你们出门的时候要放在口袋里随身带着的。On the bus, look at your words, long line at the bank, pull out your cards, look at the words, okay?在公交车上的时候,你们可以看看这些单词,在里排长队的时候,你们也可以把卡片拿出来看看单词。When this word becomes very comfortable for you, when you know what this word means, move it over to this pile, leave it at home, okay?当这个单词变得对你来说很舒的时候,当你知道了这些单词的意思的时候,就把它移到这一摞里来,这一摞是要留在家里的。Don#39;t know-almost sure-know, study-move-study- move-put aside, once in a while look at them just make sure you remember.你们要经历的过程是:不认识-几乎确定-认识,学习-移动-学习-移动-放在一边,偶尔你们还要再看看这些单词,谨防你们会忘记。Because if you never look at these again, you will forget them, okay?因为如果你们再也不看这些单词的话,就会忘记它们的。So it#39;s all the time, continual, you have to practice, practice, practice, practice.所以要一直看,持续不断地看,你们必须练习、练习、练习再练习。Vocabulary is a lot of memorization, that#39;s the way it is.词汇需要大量的背诵,它就是这么回事。Now here#39;s another thing you can do, okay, this is the last one I#39;ll show you today.现在还有一件事是你们可以做的,这也是我今天要跟你们讲的最后一点。What you do is you make yourself groups of words, okay?你们要做的就是自己把单词分组。You take... you can do it many ways, you can make yourself a little... like a... a little brainstorm.你们可以按照很多方式来做,可以自己做一个小头脑风暴。You, for example if we#39;re looking at root, you write the root in here ;-ject;举个例子来说,如果我们在看词根,你们在这里写下词根;-ject;,and then you wirte reject, inject eject, subject etc, or in a list, however way it works for you.然后写下单词reject, inject eject, subject等等,或者你们也可以列一个表,无论什么方式,只要对你们来说有用就行。So three ways that I will recommend to group words, again if you like the roots, group them like that: eject, reject, object, subject, inject.我会给你们推荐三种单词分组的方法,再说一下,如果你们喜欢词根,那就按照词根分组,比如:eject, reject, object, subject, inject。Now the reason you#39;re going to make groups is because maybe you don#39;t remember object or object, remember, now moreover,要给单词分组的原因是,也许你们不记得;object;的意思了,但是你们记得;-ject;,你们记得这个小组,but you remember ;-ject;, you remember this group, you sort of remember what ;-ject; means, so you can apply it to object.在一定程度上记得;-ject;的意思,那么你们就能把这个意思适用于;object;。;-ject; is like push, in most contexts object is push away, refuse, okay?;-ject;有推的意思,在大部分语境中,;object;是推开,也就是拒绝的意思。So if you don#39;t remember the word, hopefully you will remember the idea of the group and then that will remind you what the word means, okay?所以,如果你们不记得这个单词,但愿你们记得这个小组的概念,然后它们就会提醒你们这个单词的意思。Another group you can use is similar meanings, so synonyms, words that have similar meanings or a similar function, okay?你们能用的另一种分组方法是相似的意义,即同义词,也就是有着相似的含义或者相似功能的单词。So for example, I#39;m going to look at this function ;increase;, extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce,比如,我要看;increase;(增加)这个功能,那么extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce,all of these have some sort... in their meaning, have some sort of connection to increase.这些单词的含义都跟;increase;有某种联系。;Extend;, make longer, increase length or time, duration; ;expand;, increase size or scope;;extend;的含义是“使......更长”,“增加长度或时间”,“音延”; ;expand;是“增加规模或范围”;;accelerate;, increase speed; ;intensify;, increase intensity; ;reinforce;, increase strength.;accelerate;是“提高速度”;;intensify;是“加强强度”;;reinforce;是“增加力度”。So you... maybe you see the word ;reinforce;, you#39;re ing something, you see the word ;reinforce;.也许你们看到了单词;reinforce;,也许你们在阅读某个材料的时候看见了;reinforce;这个单词。You#39;re not exactly sure what it means, but you remember the group it was in, the group was the increase group.你们不能完全确定它的意思,但是你们记得它所在的小组,它在;increase;小组里。So ;reinforce; means increase, plus, the context of the sentence you saw it in will help you understand it means increase strength,所以;reinforce;的意思是增加,另外,你们看见的它所在句子的语境也会帮你们理解它的意思,它有“ 增加力量”的意思,or sometimes it could be increase number like a number of soldiers, reinforce the position.或者有时候它也有“增加数量”的意思,比如士兵的数量,或者加强地位。The last group is theme, for example let#39;s say for today that the theme is technology, okay?最后一种分组是主题,比如我们假设今天的主题是科技。So you write words that have to do with technology.那么你们写的单词就要和科技有关。;Obsolete;, ;state-of-the-art;, ;update;, ;downgrade;, ;cutting-edge;, all these words we can talk about like computer softwares or computers.比如;obsolete;, ;state-of-the-art;, ;update;, ;downgrade;, ;cutting-edge;,所有这些单词我们都能用来谈论电脑软件或者电脑。;Obsolete;, old not useful anymore, nobody uses this anymore...uh... Windows XP maybe not completely obsolete but almost obsolete or hardly anybody uses it anymore.;obsolete;的意思是“旧的,不再有用的,没人会再用的”,比如Windows XP,它也许不是完全废弃的,但是也几乎废弃了,或者基本上没人会再用它了。;State-of-the-art; means the newest; ;cutting-edge;, the newest, the most modern, that the most advanced you can get; ;update; to make newer; ;downgrade; to make less.;state-of-the-art; 的意思是“最新的”;;cutting-edge;是“最新的,最现代的,能获得的最先进的”;;update;的意思是“使......变得更新”;;downgrade;是“使......更差一些”。For example, I have Windows 8, I don#39;t like it, I want to downgrade to Windows 7, but I can#39;t do it, Windows 8 won#39;t let me.举个例子来说,我用的是Windows 8系统,我不喜欢它,想把它降级成Windows 7,但是我没法儿这么做,因为Windows 8不会让我这么做的。But anyway so you have a theme, you have a function, you have the root.不管怎么说,你们有三种分组方法:主题、功能、词根。Learn in chunks, if you don#39;t remember one word, you#39;ll remember the group, it will help you understand the word you#39;re looking at, okay?学习词块,如果你们记不住单个单词,你们会记住整个小组,它会帮你们弄懂眼前的这个单词的。Go to engvid.com, I#39;ll give you a quiz, give you some more practice with these ideas,你们可以去engvid.com网站上看看,我会在那里上传一个小测验,让你们多练习一下这些方法,and subscribe to my YouTube channel and come again and we will do this again.Thanks!同时也别忘了订阅我的YouTube频道,还有,我们下次上课的时候欢迎再来观看。谢谢! Article/201707/516476

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