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来源:美生活    发布时间:2019年12月09日 08:37:21    编辑:admin         

Are there any memories you#39;d like to permanently remove from your head?是不是有些记忆你想从头脑中永久删除?Or what if you could alter unpleasant memories so they#39;re no longer upsetting? Or create entirely new memories of events that never occurred?或者,如果有某种手段可以改写你的不愉快记忆,让你不再沮丧,你觉得怎么样?甚至让你的大脑生成全新的、从未发生过的记忆呢?It sounds like the stuff of science fiction, but according to a new documentary that premiered in the US recently, scientists have discovered how to do just that—and more.这听起来像科幻小说里的桥段。不过根据美国近日播出的一部纪录片的介绍,科学家其实已经知道怎么实现上面这些“科幻”了,而且还不止这些。;Memory Hackers,; from PBS#39;s NOVA documentary strand, looks at cutting edge research into the nature of memory, and how it might be manipulated for mankind#39;s benefit.美国公共广播公司的“NOVA”系列科普节目近日推出了一部名为《记忆黑客》的纪录片,讲述了科学家对记忆本质进行的尖端研究,并以此造福人类的过程。;For much of human history, memory has been seen as a tape recorder that faithfully registers information and replays it intact,; say the film#39;s makers.本片制作人表示:“在大部分人类历史中,记忆就像一台磁带录音机:忠实的纪录信息,然后按原音重放。”;But now, researchers are discovering that memory is far more malleable, always being written and rewritten, not just by us but by others. We are discovering the precise mechanisms that can explain and even control our memories.;“不过现在,研究者发现,记忆其实非常可塑,可以不断改写。而改写的人可以是我们自己,也可以是其他人。我们已经发现了能够准确解释、甚至控制我们记忆的大脑运行机制。”Among the documentary#39;s subjects is Jake Hausler, a 12-year-old boy from St. Louis who can remember just about every single thing he has experienced since the age of 8.12岁的男孩杰克·豪斯勒是本片中参与试验的人之一。来自圣路易斯的他几乎能清楚的记得自己8岁以来经历过的每件事。Jake is the youngest ever person to be diagnosed with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory, which makes it difficult for him to distinguish between trivial and important events from his past.在所有患“极端自传式记忆症”的人中,杰克年龄最小。他分辨不出记忆中哪些是不值一记的小事,哪些是值得记住的大事。;Forgetting is probably one of the most important things that brains will do,; says Andre Fenton, a prominent neuroscientist who is currently working on a technique to erase painful memories. ;We understand only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to human memory.;著名神经学家安德烈·芬顿致力于消除痛苦记忆的研究。他表示:“‘忘记’可以说是大脑需要掌握的最重要的机能之一。在对人类记忆进行的研究方面,我们目前发现的还只是冰山一角。”Other interviewees include Julia Shaw, psychology professor at London South Bank University, who has designed a system for implanting false memories, and has successfully convinced subjects they#39;ve committed crimes that never took place.伦敦南岸大学的心理学教授茱莉亚·肖也是受访者之一。她设计了一种可以向人脑植入错误记忆的系统,这种系统能让受试者错误的以为自己有过犯罪行为。The film#39;s makers also speak to clinical psychologist Merel Kindt, who has discovered that medication can be used to remove the negative associations of some memories—through which she has managed to #39;cure#39; patients of arachnophobia.本片制作人还采访了临床心理学家梅雷尔·金迪特。金迪特发现,可以通过药物消除不好的记忆,她就曾在蜘蛛恐惧症患者身上成功运用了这个方法。 /201602/426420。

BEIJING (Reuters) - IBM Corp will share technology with Chinese firms and will actively help build China#39;s industry, CEO Virginia Rometty said in Beijing as she set out a strategy for one of the foreign firms hardest hit by China#39;s shifting technology policies.北京(路透社)——IBM将与中国公司共享技术,并将积极帮助中国建设科技行业。IBM是受中国的科技行业政策调整冲击最大的外国企业之一,在此情况下,IBM总裁Virginia Rometty称她制定了这一战略。IBM must help China build its IT industry rather than viewing the country solely as a sales destination or manufacturing base, Rometty said at the China Development Forum, an annual Chinese government-sponsored conference bringing together business executives and China#39;s ruling elite.Rometty在中国发展论坛上说,IBM必须帮助中国建设自己的IT行业,而不是仅仅把中国看作销售终端和制造基地。中国发展论坛是中国政府资助的年会,该会召集企业领导人和中国政府精英参加。;If you#39;re a country, as China is, of 1.3 billion people you would want an IT industry as well,; the chief executive said on Monday. ;I think some firms find that perhaps frightening. We, though, at IBM ... find that to be a great opportunity.;“如果你是一个,就像中国吧,一个13亿人口的国家,你肯定也想要有一个IT行业。”IBM总裁Rometty周一称。“有些公司可能觉得这很吓人。但是我们IBM认为这是一个极好的机会。”Rometty#39;s remarks were among the clearest acknowledgements to date by a high-ranking foreign technology executive that companies must adopt a different tack if they are to continue in China amid growing political pressure.Rometty的发言,说明外国科技公司高管层承认,如果想在中国越来越大的政治压力下继续经营,就必须采取与以前不同的策略。A number of U.S. technology companies operating in China are forming alliances with domestic operators, hoping a local partner will make it easier to operate in the increasingly tough environment for foreign businesses.几家美国科技公司与中国当地企业合作,希望在对外国企业日益严峻的经营环境中,中国的合作伙伴能够使得他们的日子好过点。China has been pushing for the use of more Chinese and less foreign-made technology, to grow its own tech sector and in response to ex-U.S. National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden#39;s leaks about U.S. cyber surveillance.中国已经在大力推进多使用国产技术,少使用外国技术,以发展自己的科技产业,也是在美国前国安局承包商爱德华斯诺登揭露美国的网络监视之后的对应措施。IBM#39;s sales in China have stabilized after a sharp drop that began in the third quarter of 2013 following Snowden#39;s revelations. The Armonk, New York-based company reported a 1 percent slide in revenue in China during the fourth quarter of 2014, compared with the prior year.2013年三季度,IBM在华销售额因斯诺登的泄密而锐减,之后保持稳定。2014年4季度,IBM在华销售较上年下滑了1%。IBM#39;s new approach allows Chinese companies to build everything from semiconductor chips and servers b ed on IBM architecture, to the software that runs on those machines.IBM的新策略允许中国公司在IBM架构上制造各类产品,包括半导体芯片、务器,以及在这些机器上运行的软件。Last week IBM said Suzhou PowerCore Technology Co will begin producing a version of IBM#39;s Power8 chip run on Chinese-made servers. Its POWER line of processors is often used for intensive calculations in fi nancial services, where Chinese banks have been required by new government regulations to use more dorr ic vendors.上周 , IBM说苏州中晟宏芯信息科技有限公司将开始生产IBM的Power8芯片,用于中国制造的务器。IMB的POWER芯片 常用于金旨务业的大量运算,而在新的政府规定下,中国的得使用更多的本国供应商。The U.S. company had aly announced a series of partnerships with Chinese vendors and now packages its database software with products from Inspur, a server hardware maker and IBM rival, and has also struck agreements with Youyou, a Beijing-based software firm.IBM已经宣布了一系列的与中国供应商的合作关系,现在则把其数据库软件和其竞争对手浪潮集团的产品打包在一起,还跟一家总部在北京的软件公司优优软件达成了协议。Other vendors are making similar efforts.其他外国企业也在作出同样的努力。SAP SE Greater China head Mark Gibbs for instance said in October the company sought to be a ;complementary player to the Chinese market; by selling its software on hardware made by Lenovo Inc and Huawei Technologies.比如SAP大中华负责人Mark Gibbs就在去年10月说过,SAP应该成为;中国市场的替补球员;,即硬件由联想和华为生产,软件由SAP提供。Everyone that values the national security, national sovereignty of the ed States more than a ROI on an IBM investment should write to their representatives in Washington and demand a senate investigation as to this move by IBM.任何把美国国家安全和主权看作高于IBM的投资回报率的人都应该要求参议院调查IBM的这一举动It appears that Rommetty is more concerned about IBM profits IBMs failed five year plan and saving her job, than she is about the national security and sovereignty of the ed States.我看Rommetty更关心IBM的利润和她自己的位子,而不是国家安全和主权。IBM should not be allowed to bid on any government contract for development and support of any IT appl ations or systems that are critical for national defense or telecommunications, finance or utilities IT s ystems that would be attacked by China cyber-warfare during a military conflict.不应该让IBM承包任何与国防、电信、金融或者应用系统有密切关系的IT应用和IT系统开发的政府工程,在军事对抗中 ,这些领域会遭到中国的攻击。When a CEO of IBM appears in front of a group of Chinese Communist elites and describes a plan to ;share; technology with a Chines communist government that has a cyber warfare military division dedicated tc developing strategies to attacking critical U.S. infrastructure such as telecommunications, business, fin ance and utilities during a time of war, it is time to determine who the loyalties of that CEO and by ext ension IBM corporation are with.当一个IBM的CEO站在一群中共精英面前,讲述一个与中共政府“分享”技术的计划,而这个政府有一网络部队专门负责在战争时期攻击美国的重要基础设施,例如电信、企业、金融和公共设施,这就需要判断一下这个CEO和IBM公司到底效忠谁了。The Chinese Communist party and its plans for global domination or the national security of the people of the ed States of America.是效忠中共和中共统一全球的野心,还是效忠美国人民的国家安全。China will never have to wage war against the U.S.中国永远不需要对美国发动战争。American corporations like IBM are doing it for them.美国公司就像IBM都帮他们做了。IBM should not be allowed to bid on any government contract for development and support of any IT applications or systems that are critical for national defense or telecommunications, finance or utilities IT systems that would be attacked by China cyber-warfare during a military conflict...不应该让IBM承包任何与国防、电信、金融或者应用系统有密切关系的IT应用和IT系统开发的政府工程,在军事对抗中,这些领域会遭到中国的攻击。 /201503/366335。

News that India’s High Court of Delhi issued an injunction against Chinese smartphone upstart Xiaomi was a reminder of how much Chinese smartphone makers still have to grow. It was not, however, an indication that the Chinese can’t grow into international brands.印度德里高等法院下达针对中国智能手机新贵小米公司(Xiaomi)的一项禁令,这则消息提醒了我们,中国智能手机制造商还有多长的路要走。不过,这并不意味着中国手机无法成长为国际品牌。The Swedish telecom giant Ericsson filed suit in India complaining that Xiaomi did not pay royalties on its wireless technology patents. The court agreed and instructed Xiaomi to stop selling and importing in the country until February, when the court hears the case.瑞典电讯巨头爱立信(Ericsson)在印度将小米告上法庭,理由是小米使用了爱立信的无线科技专利却没有付专利费。法院方面已经通过了爱立信提交的申请,并宣布在明年二月开庭审理之前禁止小米在印度销售和进口智能手机。“Ericsson’s commitment to the global support of technology and innovation is undisputed. It is unfair for Xiaomi to benefit from our substantial Ramp;D investment without paying a reasonable licensee fee for our technology,” Ericsson said in a statement.爱立信发言人在一份声明中表示,“爱立信一直致力于全球范围内的科技发展和创新,这一点是毫无争议的。小米使用了我们大量的科研成果,却没有付合理的技术授权费用,这是不公平的。”Xiaomi had been on a roll in India. In October Xiaomi said it sold 40,000 phones in just four seconds in an online flash sale. Hugo Barra, vice president of Xiaomi global, said in a posting on Google Plus today the company had 150,000 registrations for its Redmi Note on the e-commerce site Flipkart just as the injunction came down.小米手机在印度的发展势头如火如荼。10月份时该公司曾宣称,在一次网上限时抢购活动中,开售仅4秒钟就有4万台手机售出。12月12日,小米全球副总裁雨果o巴拉在社交网站Google+上表示,就在禁令下达时,公司通过电子商务网站Flipkart收到了15万份红米Note手机的订购单。That momentum is halted for now, but not quashed. Patent disputes in the smartphone industry are as common as hot specs on a new phone. The litigious history of Apple and Samsung, which included injunctions before the two sides agreed to a ceasefire, is but one example. According to Ericsson, Xiaomi had been unresponsive during three years of attempts by the Swedish company to get compensation for its standard essential patents (those essential in connecting a phone to a wireless standard) for GSM, EDGE, and UMTS/WCDMA standards. A Xiaomi spokeswoman did not respond to a request for comment.虽然小米的发展势头被暂时遏止,但并不意味着就此偃旗息鼓。专利纠纷在智能手机业内相当常见,和新款手机的热门配置一样层出不穷。苹果(Apple)和三星(Samsung)的诉讼史就是其中一例,这两大巨头在决定停战前也曾多次向对方发出禁令。爱立信指出,三年来它一直要求小米对GSM、EDGE、UMTS/WCDMA标准产品的标准核心专利(将手机连接无线设备的关键专利)方面的侵权活动进行赔偿,但对方从未回应。小米公司的一位女性发言人拒绝就此发表任何看法。“Xiaomi needs to act fast to reverse the injunction to protect its brand image in the country,” Canalys analyst Rushabh Doshi said in an email. According to Canalys, Xiaomi shipped close to 340,000 units to India in the third quarter.“小米要迅速设法撤销这一禁令,才能维护它在印度的品牌形象,” 市场研究公司Canalys的分析师拉沙布o多什在一封电子邮件中写道。根据Canalys的资料,第三季度已有近34万台小米手机运到了印度。A quick settlement is likely. Xiaomi doesn’t want to face Ericsson in court—a state-run Chinese newspaper reported last week Xiaomi only holds 12 authorized patents in China—and the smartphone newcomer wants to continue its early momentum in India.双方有希望迅速达成和解。一家中国官方报纸上周报道称,小米在国内仅拥有12项授权专利,它并不想与爱立信对簿公堂,这位智能手机后起之秀希望保持它在印度的发展势头。Xiaomi can end an injunction quickly enough if it chooses. It can offer Ericsson a percentage of every device it sells in India. That will crimp operating margins, aly slim on Xiaomi’s smartphones that sell for as low as in the country, but allow Xiaomi to keep selling. By the time Xiaomi expands to Brazil and Mexico next year, as it has previously said it intends to, its patent portfolio and Ramp;D could be expanded to give it more bargaining power in future patent lawsuits.如果小米愿意,它能够迅速让法院撤销这项禁令,比如将印度销售的手机收入分一部分给爱立信。不过,此举将减少小米的经营利润率,让这款在印度售价仅96美元的手机利润进一步压低,但这样小米至少还能继续其销售业务。根据小米宣布的计划,明年小米将进军巴西和墨西哥市场,小米将扩展专利组合和研发范围,从而在今后的专利纠纷中获得更多的议价能力。Xiaomi’s case in India isn’t isolated. Ericsson ERIC -1.31% has filed suits against Indian-firms including Micromax and a separate Chinese smartphone maker Gionee, which has run a successful business in India for years. Gionee’s president William Lu told me about the case in a November interview at Gionee headquarters in Shenzhen. I asked him if Chinese smartphone vendors had expanded to India because like China, it has a reputation for lax patent enforcement when compared to Western Europe or the U.S. Lu stopped me. “Being in India, you cannot avoid the IP issue,” he said, and offered the Ericsson dispute as proof.小米在印度的诉讼并非个案。爱立信也曾对印度企业Micromax和另一家中国智能手机制造商金立(Gionee)提出过诉讼。金立手机近年来在印度的经营也相当成功。该公司总裁卢伟冰11月份在深圳总部接受笔者采访时,提到了他们和爱立信的诉讼案。当被问到中国手机制造商纷纷开拓印度市场,是否是因为印度和中国一样,在专利管理方面没有西欧或美国那么严格时,卢先生打断了记者的提问,表示“在印度,你是不能回避知识产权问题的”,并举出爱立信的诉讼案作为例。Xiaomi must have realized the same thing this week.小米应该也意识到了这一点。The Chinese smartphone makers’ lack of patents has been known for years. Ericsson’s suit in India is the first taste of the IP hurdle Xiaomi faces outside the favorable confines of China, where the court system established low royalty rates in a case involving the U.S. company InterDigital and under Qualcomm’s terms, the smartphone makers don’t file disputes against one another if they use Qualcomm chips (which almost all do).多年来,中国的智能手机制造商缺乏专利已经是业内共知的事实。爱立信在印度的诉讼是小米在中国这一有利的市场边界之外,首尝知识产权障碍。中国的法院系统在美国公司InterDigital一案中中设定了非常低的专利使用费,而根据高通公司(Qualcomm)的条款,使用高通公司芯片(几乎所有公司都是如此)的各智能手机制造商之间不能互相提起争端。If Xiaomi quickly settles with Ericsson in India, the episode might be seen as just a hurdle in Xiaomi’s global expansion.如果小米能够和爱立信迅速了结在印度的争端,那么这一段插曲只会被当作小米全球扩张途中掀起的一道波澜。(财富中文网) /201412/349378。

The rich are set to become God-like cyborgs in what could be the #39;biggest evolution in biology#39; since life emerged.富人们将变成会成为上帝般的电子人,这将可能是人类有史以来“在生物方面最大的进化”。This is according to Yuval Noah Harari, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who believes the radical shift will take place in the next 200 years.这是来自耶路撒冷希伯来大学(Hebrew University of Jerusalem)的教授尤尔瓦#8226;诺亚#8226;哈拉里(Yuval Noah Harari)的预言,他相信这种巨变会在未来200年内发生。Using biotechnology and genetic engineering, Professor Harari claims the wealthy will transform into a new type of divine, immortal human with complete power over life and death.哈拉里说,富人们使用生物技术和基因工程技术,能够转化成新人类——神圣,永恒,对生与死有完全的掌控权。He argues that humans are unable to resist the temptation to #39;upgrade#39; themselves, according to a report by Sarah Knapton in the Telegraph.萨拉#8226;卡普顿(Sarah Knapton)在《电讯报》(Telegraph)的报道称,哈拉里提出,人类无法拒绝“升级”自身的诱惑。#39;We are programmed to be dissatisfied,#39; said Professor Harari, during a recent speech at the Hay literary festival in Wales.哈拉里教授最近在威尔士干草文学节发表演说,称,“我们已被设定为不满足现状。”#39;Even when humans gain pleasure and achievements it is not enough. They want more and more.“即使人类获得了快乐和成就,仍然感到不满足。他们想要更多。”#39;I think it is likely in the next 200 years or so homo sapiens will upgrade themselves into some idea of a divine being, either through biological manipulation or genetic engineering or by the creation of cyborgs, part organic part non-organic.“我认为在接下来的约200年里,现代人很可能会通过使用生物操控或基因工程,或通过创造半有机半无机的电子人,使自身升级为神人。”#39;It will be the greatest evolution in biology since the appearance of life. Nothing really has changed in four billion years biologically speaking.“这将是自人类生命诞生以来,在生物方面最大的进化。从生物学上来讲,400亿年来,人类的身体构造并没有真正发生变化。#39;But we will be as different from today#39;s humans as chimps are now from us.#39;“就像猩猩已经离我们很遥远了,我们也将会与今天的人类截然不同。”The technology to do this, however, will be restricted to the very wealthy, claims Professor Harari.然而,哈拉里教授称,改造人类这一技术将只属于富人。Up until now, he says society has been held together by inventing #39;fictions#39;, such as religion, money and the idea of fundamental human rights.他说,在目前为止,社会被创造的“虚幻”团结在一起,如宗教,金钱,人权思想等。As long as humans believed they relied more and more on these gods they were controllable, he said.他说,只要人类相信这些,越来越依靠这些“神”,他们就是可控的。#39;But what we see in the last few centuries is humans becoming more powerful and they no longer need the crutches of the Gods.#39;但是我们在过去几个世纪里所看到的是,人类变得越来越强大,不再需要上帝的拐杖。He added that the most interesting place in the world from a religious perspective is not the Middle East but Silicon Valley.他补充道,从宗教的观点来看,世界上最有趣的地方不是中东,而是硅谷。Here, people are developing what he describes as a #39;techno-religion#39; in which they believe death is just a technological problem.这里的人们发展出这样一种他称之为“技术宗教”的观念:他们相信死亡只是一个技术问题。#39;Now we are saying we do not need God just technology,#39; he added.他补充道,“现在我们不需要上帝了,只需要技术。” /201505/377621。