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Moodys has cut Japans credit rating one notch to A1 only the fifth-best investment grade - sending the yen to a new seven year low against the dollar.穆迪(Moodys)将日本的信用评级下调一级,降至A1级,这一级别在投资级评级里只排第五。此举令日元兑美元汇率跌至新的七年内最低点。The rating agency said that the downgrade was triggered by rising uncertainty over the success of prime minister Shinzo Abes drastic economic, fiscal and monetary reforms dubbed ;Abenomics;.该评级机构表示,引发这次降级的原因是“安倍经济学(Abenomics)”能否成功的不确定性日益增加。所谓“安倍经济学”,是指日本首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)推行的激进的经济、财政及货币改革举措。The government was recently forced to shelve the second of two sales tax increases after the first one pushed the country back into recession.最近,在第一次提高消费税的举措令日本重陷衰退之后,日本政府曾被迫搁置第二轮增税措斀?The Bank of Japan has ramped up its quantitative easing programme and Mr Abe has called a new election for a fresh electoral endorsement of his programme, but concerns that the bold attempt to break free from two decades of deflation and stagnation have climbed markedly recently.此前,日本央BoJ)已加大了量化宽松的力度。而安倍晋三也曾要求提前举行选举,以便让他的计划再次得到选民认可。安倍试图通过这些举措,令日本摆脱长达20年的通缩和经济停滞。然而,人们对安倍这些大胆尝试的担忧最近正在急剧升高。Moodys said the downgrade was caused by穆迪表示,调降日本评级的原因是:1.Heightened uncertainty over the achievability of fiscal deficit reduction goals;1.日本实现减赤目标的不确定性加大;2.Uncertainty over the timing and effectiveness of growth enhancing policy measures, against a background of deflationary pressures; and2.在通缩压力下,日本促增长政策的时机和效果充满不确定性;3.In consequence, increased risk of rising JGB yields and reduced debt affordability over the medium term.3.在上述不确定性的影响下,日本中长期国债收益率攀升和债务负担能力降低的风险加大。来 /201412/346202WASHINGTON A heated dispute over how to challenge China on currency policy has imperiled a trade bill that has become President Obama’s top legislative priority, uniting even the president’s top Democratic supporters against taking up the bill in the Senate.华盛顿——围绕如何在货币政策上挑战中国的激烈争论,威胁到了一项已经是奥巴马总统立法重头戏的贸易法案,连总统在民主党的高层持者都联合起来,反对在参议院考虑该法案。Senator Mitch McConnell, Republican of Kentucky and the majority leader, vowed to press forward with a vote Tuesday afternoon to begin debating legislation granting the president “fast-tracknegotiating authority to complete a major trade deal with 11 Pacific Rim nations. But Democrats say they will filibuster the measure unless it is combined with a separate customs enforcement bill that would crack down on currency manipulation.来自肯塔基州的共和党人、参议院多数党领袖米奇·麦康奈Mitch McConnell)誓称要推动在周二下午举行投票,开始讨论为1个太平洋沿岸国家达成一项重要的贸易协议,而授予总统“快速通道”谈判权的法律。但民主党称,他们会对该法案采取拖延战术,除非它与另外一项打击货币操纵行为的海关执法法案结合在一起。Both sides say the vote will be close, but absent a breakthrough in negotiations, the 60-vote threshold will be difficult to meet. At the root of the dispute is China, which is not even a party to the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the trade agreement Mr. Obama hopes to make a capstone of his administration.双方皆表示表决结果会颇为接近,但鉴于谈判未取得突破,60票持的门槛将难以达到。争论的根源,是甚至都不是跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(Trans Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)成员的中国。奥巴马希望,该贸易协议能成为他领导的政府的最高成就。Voting to proceed to the measure on trade promotion “is saying this bill is worthy of debate,Mr. McConnell pleaded on the Senate floor Monday, promising that senators could add amendments.投票表决以便继续这项贸易推动议案,“意味着这项法案值得讨论”,麦康奈尔周一在参议院表示,承诺参议员会添加修订内容。But opponents sensed the momentum was on their side.但反对者感觉到形势正在向他们一方倾斜。“We’re going to win,said Senator Sherrod Brown, Democrat of Ohio, who has led the effort to demand trade promotion authority be considered only with other measures on trade enforcement and assistance for workers dislocated by trade accords.“我们会赢,”来自俄亥俄州的民主党参议员谢罗德·布Sherrod Brown)说。布朗领导了一项行动,要求只有和被贸易协议扰乱了的贸易执法及劳工援助法案在一起时,才考虑贸易促进权。The customs bill in question has created a stew of conflict over issues as varied as child labor and enforcement of import duties. Candy makers want to preserve a loophole closed in the customs bill that allows them to import African cocoa harvested by child labor. Automakers are demanding the inclusion of a tough measure allowing companies to challenge trading partners that they say artificially depress the value of their currency to raise the price of American imports and lower the cost of their exports.正在考虑中的海关法案,在童工和进口关税征收等一众问题上引发了冲突。糖果制造商想保留一个漏洞。该漏洞允许他们进口由童工收获的非洲可可粉,但海关法案将这个漏洞堵上了。汽车制造商要求加入一项严厉的措施,允许他们挑战贸易伙伴。他们称,相关贸易伙伴在人为压低自己国家货币的价值,以提升美国进口商品的价格,降低自己的出口成本。Republicans accuse Democrats of reneging on their promise to move forward on trade promotion authority on the condition that it is linked only with a measure expanding assistance to workers displaced by economic globalization. Democrats say Republicans coaxed them into putting their most desired trade measures into a bill that is now being dumped.共和党指责民主党食言。民主党曾承诺推动贸易促进权,条件只是和一项法案捆绑在一起。该法案的内容是扩大对那些因经济全球化而无家可归的工人的援助。民主党称,共和党诱骗他们将最渴望的贸易措施写进了一项正在被扔下的法案里。Trade promotion authority would give allow the president to complete the Pacific deal, knowing that any final accord could still be voted down by Congress but could not be amended. Mr. Obama has repeatedly framed the Pacific accord as a way to counter China’s rising power in Asia, giving countries like Malaysia, Brunei, Japan, Singapore and Vietnam an economic alliance that would be a counterweight to China’s increasingly assertive policies in the region.任何最终协定都有可能被国会否决,且无法进行修订,有鉴于此,贸易促进权将让总统可以完成跨太平洋协定。奥巴马多次强调,面对中国在亚洲的实力日渐崛起,跨太平洋协定将是一种反制,能让马来西亚、文莱、日本、新加坡和越南等国结成经济联盟,制衡中国在该地区越来越强势的政策。But a bipartisan coalition, including Mr. Brown, and Senator Lindsey Graham, Republican of South Carolina, is challenging the administration to do far more.但包括布朗和来自南卡罗来纳州的共和党参议员林赛·格雷厄Lindsey Graham)在内的两党联盟,正在要求奥巴马政府做出更多努力。“If the White House and our foreign policy community were so interested in dealing with China, we would have been much more aggressive in passing a currency bill that would allow us to go toe to toe on these issues,Mr. Brown said. “We’re doing none of that.”“如果白宫和外交政策界真的对应对中国这么感兴趣,我们就应该更强硬地通过一项货币法案,让我们得以在这些问题上针锋相对,”布朗说。“但我们现在什么都没做。”The coalition has told the White House there will be no trade promotion authority bill without a provision aimed at China’s currency policies.该联盟告诉白宫,如果不制定针对中国货币政策的规定,贸易促进权法案就不会获得通过。“I have said to them for three to four months, if you do currency alongside T.P.A. but at same time, it would help your cause,said Senator Charles E. Schumer, Democrat of New York.纽约州民主党参议员查尔斯·E·舒默(Charles E. Schumer)表示,“我在过去三到四个月的时间里一直在跟他们说,如果把贸易促进权与货币政策捆绑在一起,但是是同时,会有助于你们达成目标。”But senior administration officials remain opposed to the senatorssolution, a measure that would require the Commerce Department to investigate currency policy after a complaint is filed, then impose duties to raise the cost of an imported good to counter currency manipulation.但高级政府官员依然反对参议员们提出的解决方案,这项法案会要求商务Commerce Department)在收到投诉后对货币政策开展调查,然后征税,增加进口商品的成本,抑制汇率操纵行为。Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker called it “a terrible idea,even though it would bolster the authority of her cabinet agency.商务部长彭妮·普利茨克(Penny Pritzker)称这是一个“糟糕的主意”,尽管这会巩固其内阁机构的权力。“There’s one authority over our currency,she said. “We should strengthen Treasury. We should not dilute this by having more than one department responsible for currency.”“我们有一个负责货币政策的权力机构,”她说。“我们应该加强财政部的权力。我们不应该设置更多负责货币政策的部门,削弱财政部的权力。”Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, said any measure to counter a foreign power’s currency policies could backfire, undermining the Federal Reserve Board, which uses the flow of currency to tighten or loosen economic growth in the ed States.白宫新闻发言人乔帷欧内斯Josh Earnest)表示,任何针对外国货币政策的法案都会产生事与愿违的效果,削弱联邦储备委员Federal Reserve Board)的权力,美联储利用货币流量收紧或放宽美国的经济增长。More to the point, Republicans say, a tough currency measure attached to trade promotion authority would doom the Pacific trade accord, scaring away important countries like Japan and Malaysia in a misguided jab at China.共和党人表示,更重要的是,与推动贸易促进权进行捆绑的强硬的货币政策,会影响亚太贸易协定的签订,这种对中国的打击是不得要领的,会将日本、马来西亚等重要国家吓跑。“Is the goal to get T.P.A. done, or is it to crush the president’s trade agenda?asked a Republican aide on the Senate Finance Committee.参议院财政委员会(Senate Finance Committee)的一名共和党助手问道,“目标是获得贸易促进权,还是破坏总统的贸易议程呢?”The customs bill in question is multifaceted. Besides the currency measure, it includes the creation of an interagency trade enforcement center and a system to respond faster to unfair trade practices like the dumping of exports at prices below the cost of production. Another provision would require the Customs and Border Protection agency to expeditiously investigate allegations of customs duty evasion. Still another would close a 75-year-old loophole that allows the importation of goods made by child labor if a company cannot find those goods elsewhere.正在讨论中的海关法案是一项多层面的法案。除了货币举措,该法案还要求创建一个跨部门贸易执法中心和对不公平交易行为立即作出回应的系统,比如以低于生产成本的价格出口产品的倾销行为。另一项规定会要求联邦海关与边境保护局(Customs and Border Protection agency)立即对逃税指控开展调查。还有一项规定会要求修补存在5年的漏洞,即允许进口由童工生产的产品,如果公司无法从其他地方获得商品的话。Candy makers are opposing that last provision on the novel ground that it would kill Ghana’s cocoa trade.糖果生产商提出了一个新奇的理由反对最后一项规定,称这会毁掉与加纳的可可豆交易。But as the trade legislation becomes more complex, so does the task of winning approval. Outside conservative groups like Heritage Action for America, the political arm of the Heritage Foundation, have generally stayed quiet on trade promotion authority, torn between their support for free trade and their distrust of Mr. Obama. Now they are encouraging opposition if trade promotion authority is linked to trade adjustment assistance, which they oppose as a waste of federal tax dollars.但随着这项贸易立法变得越来越复杂,促使法案获得通过的任务也变得愈发复杂。美国遗产行Heritage Action for America)——美国传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)的政治部门——等外部的保守派组织通常在贸易促进权问题上保持沉默,左右为难,一边持自由贸易,一边又不信任奥巴马。如果将贸易促进权与贸易调整援助计划捆绑在一起,他们会鼓动大家反对,他们反对该援助计划,称这是在浪费纳税人的钱。“Heritage Action has always been a free trade organization, but free-market conservatives are understandably split on this president’s request for fast-track authority. Including an egregiously ineffective welfare program in a bill intended to promote trade will only exacerbate the problem,Michael A. Needham, the group’s chief executive said Monday.该组织总干事迈克尔·A·尼达Michael A. Needham)在周一表示,“遗产行动组织一直是一个自由贸易组织,但持自由市场的保守派,在总统要求获得快速通道授权的问题上出现了分歧,这是可以理解的。将一个极其无效的福利项目纳入旨在推动贸易的法案,只会加剧问题。”If Democrats bring down the procedural motion to proceed to trade, both sides say that is not likely to be the last word. Negotiations have aly begun on a broader trade bill that could include some currency provision, perhaps weaker than the one in the disputed customs measure.如果民主党人否决这项程序动议,以便继续开展贸易的话,双方都表示这不可能是定论。相关方面已经就一项更加广泛的贸易法案开展谈判,其中包括一些与货币有关的规定,这些规定的力度或许不及存在争议的海关法案。来 /201505/374898

The EU has blocked Hungary’s 12bn nuclear deal with Russia, a decision that is likely to inflame tensions between the Kremlin and Brussels.欧盟(EU)否决了匈牙利与俄罗斯一项价20亿欧元的核协议。这一决定可能会激化俄罗斯与欧盟之间的紧张关系。The ruling from the European Commission is a setback for Viktor Orban, Hungary’s prime minister, who has courted the Kremlin despite the conflict in Ukraine.欧盟委员European Commission)的这项裁决标志着匈牙利总理维克#8226;欧尔Viktor Orban)的一次挫败,在乌克兰冲突中,欧尔班一直向俄罗斯示奀?Russia and Hungary agreed last year to build two 1,200 megawatt nuclear reactors in the town of Paks, 75 miles south of Budapest, in a deal that would have extended Moscow’s commercial reach deep into central Europe. Contracts for designing, building and maintaining the plants were awarded to a subsidiary of Russia’s state-owned nuclear group Rosatom in December.去年,俄罗斯和匈牙利同意,在距布达佩斯特以南75英里的帕克斯镇修建两个装机容量为1200兆瓦的核反应堆,这将令俄罗斯的商业影响力深入中欧。去2月,这些核电厂的设计、修建和维护合同授予了俄罗斯国有核集团Rosatom的一家子公司。But critics of Mr Orban feared the deal would increase Hungary’s aly heavy energy dependence on Russia.但批评欧尔班的人士担心,该协议将加大匈牙利对俄罗斯已然严重的能源依赖。Many EU officials also expressed concern that Moscow was using energy policy to divide Europe and undermine the bloc’s consensus on sanctions imposed on Russia over its actions in eastern Ukraine.很多欧盟官员也担心,俄罗斯正利用能源政策分裂欧洲,并破坏欧盟就俄罗斯在乌克兰东部行为对俄实施的制裁所达成的共识。Arguments have raged for weeks over the technical, financial and fuel provision agreements of the contracts with Rosatom. All nuclear fuel supply contracts signed by EU member states must be approved by Euratom, which imposes financial and technical requirements on fuel suppliers.围绕匈牙利与Rosatom签署的协议中的技术、资金和能源补贴内容的辩论,已持续数周。与欧盟成员国签署的任何核燃料供应合约都必须得到欧洲原子能共同体(Euratom)的批准,该机构对燃料供应的资金和技术有所要求。In the end, Euratom refused to approve Hungary’s plans to import nuclear fuel exclusively from Russia. Hungary appealed against the decision but, according to three people close to the talks, the European Commission has now thrown its weight behind Euratom’s rejection of the contract.最终,欧洲原子能共同体拒绝批准匈牙利完全从俄罗斯进口核燃料的计划。匈牙利针对这一裁决提出上诉,但据知情人士表示,欧盟委员会现在持欧洲原子能共同体对该协议的反对立场。The decision, details of which were kept secret, came at a meeting in Brussels last week of all 28 EU commissioners, including Hungary’s Tibor Navracsics.欧洲原子能共同体是在上周欧盟所8位专员参加的一次会议上做出这项决定的,但决定细节仍未公开。匈牙利的纳夫拉奇赤#8226;蒂Tibor Navracsics)也参加了这次会议。The result is to block the whole Paks II expansion. To revive it, Hungary would need to negotiate a new fuel contract or pursue legal action against the commission.这一结果将阻断整个Paks二期项目的扩张。要扭转形势,匈牙利需要商议一项新的燃料合同或起诉欧盟委员会。The ruling throws a spanner in the works of a project that Mr Orban has put at the centre of his strategy to build closer links with Russia.这项裁决将破坏欧尔班提出的、匈牙利与俄罗斯建立更紧密关系战略核计划的进展。“If the Russians now refuse to modify the original contracts, this will be the end of the road for the project,said Javor Benedek, a Hungarian member of the European Parliament’s Green group. “The report is very clear that the fuel supply agreement does not comply with European law.”“如果俄罗斯现在拒绝修改最初的合同,该计划将没有未来,”欧洲议会绿European Parliament’s Green group)匈牙利议员亚沃尔#8226;贝内德克(Javor Benedek)表示,“报告非常明确的提出,这项燃料供应协议不符合欧洲法律。”Mr Orban won 10bn in financial backing for the scheme from President Vladimir Putin of Russia in January 2014.2014月,欧尔班赢得了俄罗斯总统弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)对该计划00亿欧元资金持。来 /201503/364604

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