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来源:百科分享    发布时间:2019年08月23日 20:15:02    编辑:admin         

An outsider#39;s perspective is valuable. But even in this age of instant information the outsider could become a poster boy made malleable by preconceived perceptions and a thirst for contrast.旁观者的观点通常是有益的。但是在这个即时通信的时代,旁观者很可能会成为受先入为主观念和反差欲影响的典型例子。In the minds of most Chinese, the word ;Harvard; is synonymous with educational excellence - to the point of overshadowing other equally top-notch Western institutions of higher education except maybe Oxford and Cambridge.在很多中国人的心里,“哈佛”就是优秀教育的同义词——甚至超过了除牛津和剑桥之外的同等级西方高校。However, the Harvard in the Chinese imagination is not the Harvard by the Charles River in Boston. It is a myth shrouded in layers of cultural misperception. When I was a kid, a friend of my father#39;s, one of the very few who had been to other provinces of the country, described Harvard as a school with very high walls, where students were not allowed to go outside during the four years of their study, not even when their parents died. They had to memorize tons of text from early morning until late at night.然而,中国人想象中的哈佛大学却远远不是波士顿查尔斯河畔的哈佛大学真实的一面。中国人脑海里的哈佛,只是由于文化误解而导致的错误的看法。当我还是一个孩子的时候,我父亲的一个朋友是当时少有的去过其他省份的人。他描述的哈佛大学有着高高的围墙,学生在四年学习中不允许外出,就算父母去世也不行。这些学生必须从早到晚记忆背诵着无数的东西。Now that I recall it, the Harvard believed in by this relatively well-informed person (for that era) was a cross between an ancient Chinese school and a prison. Had he been shown the movie Love Story, which was made around the same time and was about a Harvard student, he would have been devastated: ;What? A student could date and get married while in school?;现在,当我回忆起这件事的时候,这位相对来说在那个年代还比较有学问的人,他脑海里的哈佛只是古代中国私塾和监狱的融合罢了。有一部名为《爱情故事》的电影拍摄的就是那个时候的哈佛和哈佛学子。如果他看了这部电影的话,一定会大吃一惊:“什么?学生在学校可以约会,还可以结婚?”Even with China#39;s opening up and with the growing exchange of information, some Chinese people simply cannot resist the temptation of molding China#39;s favorite foreign university in our own image, which is essentially a school staffed by thousands of tiger moms. Thus were born the rumors about the 20 statements plastered on the walls of Harvard#39;s library. The statements were said to include: ;If you sleep now, you will have a dream, but if you study now, you will realize a dream;; ;Even though happiness is not based on a person#39;s performance records, success is the likely result;; and ;If you study one more hour, you will have a better husband.;就算中国改革开放,与外界的信息交流不断增加,一些中国人还是抵抗不了这些一直以来都是中国人心中最好的国外大学的吸引力,认为那里充满了千千万万个虎妈。有谣言说哈佛图书馆的墙上有20条训言,包括“此刻打盹,你将做梦;此刻学习,你将圆梦”;“幸福或许不排名次,但成功必排名次”;“多学习一个小时,你会找到更好的丈夫”。In 2012, The Wall Street Journal carried an article that ed Professor Robert Darnton, who stated unequivocally: ;As the university librarian, I can attest that no such writings exist on any of the walls at Harvard#39;s 73 libraries.;2012年,《华尔街日报》刊登了一篇文章,援引了罗伯特·达恩顿教授的一句话,他清楚明白地说:“作为一名大学图书管理员,我敢保,哈佛73家图书馆的墙上,都没有这样的训言。”The professor may not know that he has many phantom colleagues who have penned Chinese best-sellers.这位教授可能不知道,他有许多“虚幻的”同事写的书是中国畅销书。There is a special section in China#39;s publishing industry, usually operated underground and with retail outlets on sidewalks, that churn out many inspirational and how-to books.中国出版业有一块特殊领域,会大量生产劣质励志和指导书籍,通常秘密印刷,然后在路边摊销售。They tend to have extremely catchy titles, such as Executive Power, which was supposedly authored by a certain Professor Paul Thomas, who is on the Harvard Business School faculty. After selling 2 million copies, this volume of inspiration, which was said to be President Lincoln#39;s favorite book, was found to be totally phony. There was no English original and Paul Thomas was a name the publisher created out of the blue. Harvard Mottos is another such book, but its author seems to have more flesh and blood than Paul Thomas of Executive Power. Danny Feng is reported to be a Beijinger who has studied in the ed States. After the scam was exposed, Feng said he based his book on an online post by expanding on each of the 20 mottos. It was a fly-by-night operation, taking only two months from the book#39;s conception to hitting store shelves.这些书通常都会有搏人眼球的书名,例如《执行力》,是所谓哈佛商学院教授保罗·托马斯写的。在售出200万册后,这本据说是林肯总统最喜爱的励志书被发现是假冒伪劣产品。这本书并没有英文原版,保罗·托马斯这个名字也是出版社凭空捏造的。《哈佛训言》也是如此,但是它的作者听起来比保罗·托马斯更有血有肉。丹尼·冯是曾经在美国读书的北京人。在骗局被揭穿之后,冯说他根据网上的20条格言,扩展为一本书。这个不可靠的把戏,使得这本书从发行到畅销只用了2个月的时间。The trend can be traced back to 2000 when Liu Yiting, the Harvard Girl was published. Liu#39;s mother, Liu Weihua, wrote a book chronicling her methodology of teaching her daughter that ended up with the younger Liu being admitted into Harvard#39;s undergraduate program. The book sold a cumulative 2 million copies and spawned another book of rebuttal.这种风气可以追溯到2000年《哈佛女孩刘亦婷》的出版。刘亦婷的母亲刘卫华在这本书中记录了她对女儿的教育方法,一直记录到刘亦婷考上哈佛的本科生。这本书累计销量为200万册,还引起了另外一本书的反驳。In Truth, Xiao Yu wrote that the way Liu was trained, as described in her mother#39;s book, is traditionally Chinese rather than Western. He adds: ;The reason the myth has held up is the word Harvard. Most in China do not know the real Harvard and they placed a halo of admiration around it.;事实上,萧愚在书中写道,正如刘亦婷母亲书中所写的,她对刘亦婷的训练是传统的中式的,而非西式的。而且,他说,“这种错误的观念甚嚣尘上的原因是哈佛这个词,许多中国人并不知道真正的哈佛是怎样的,他们在哈佛头上强加了荣誉的光环。”At least Liu Yiting is a real person who really got into Harvard and her mother really wrote that book.但是至少刘亦婷是一个真实存在的人物,并且确实进入了哈佛,而且她母亲也确实写了那本书。Most of those responsible for the Harvard-related success stories may not even have a college diploma. Many of those inspirational books were hack jobs by those with marketing savvy and whose writing consists mostly of copying and pasting from online sources.许多写了与哈佛相关的成功学书籍的人甚至都没有大学文凭。许多励志书都是由那些洞察市场的人,从网上复制粘贴而搞出来的平庸至极的东西。My parents did not write books. But they instinctively used comparison as a means of motivating me while I was young. ;That kid next door is studying from 5 am to 10 pm,; or, ;He#39;s got all As, but what have you got?;我的父母不写书,但是在我小的时候他们会本能地用对比来激励我。“隔壁孩子每天从早上5点学到晚上10点”,或是“人家都得了优秀,你看你得了什么?”It dawned on me that my next-door neighbor was actually serving as a kind of miniature Harvard in my parents#39; pedagogy. But as a real person he posed many inconveniences, especially when he started to flunk his courses. But Harvard is always there, so remote and so impersonal that it can be whatever you need it to be.我认识到在我父母的教育法中,邻居家孩子只是哈佛的一个缩小版。但是他作为一个真实存在的人,自己有很多麻烦,特别是不及格的时候。而哈佛永远在那里,那么遥远,无情无欲的,你想让它是什么样子,它就可以是什么样子。Chinese websites are overflowing with feel-good pieces of factoids and dubious information.中国网站上充斥着许许多多的看似真实实则虚假的消息。People who are eager to share but are totally ignorant of such concepts as ;check and verify; will resend a piece they feel important, which could instantly reach millions, usually depending on how catchy the title is. By the time experts come out to clarify, the damage is done. The clarification piece would at best make a small dent in the colossal machine of myth-making.那些热衷于分享,却又没有查意识的人经常会转发一些他们认为重要的东西,只要有一个搏人眼球的标题,转发经常会立马达到数百万人次。等到专家出来澄清的时候,危害已经酿就。这些澄清最多能在庞大的造谣机器表面,造成小小的凹陷而已。Misinformation flourishes with issues closest to the hearts of the Chinese people. Education is one. Because many in China are frustrated with the education system, stories from the US are needed as a contrast. Meanwhile, Chinese parents will use the ;next-door kid; approach to justify their method of discipline. Likewise, Chinese show their displeasure at official corruption by sping stories in which foreign bureaucrats were sacked for taking laughably small favors.虚假信息经常和中国人的生活密切相关,教育就是其中之一。因为很多中国人对教育制度不满,这样,关于美国的教育故事刚好可以拿来做对比。同时,许多中国父母经常会用“别人家孩子”来明他们的教育方法。相似的,中国人经常会对通过传播一些国外官员因为收取小恩小惠,而被罢免的故事,来表达他们对于中国官员腐败的不满。Mind you, not all of these stories are fabricated a la the Harvard professors#39; books. Some are true stories distributed by bona fide news organizations. Others have a modicum of truth, but got embellished as they went around. However, they provide a partial picture if not a distorted one.提醒一下,并不是所有类似哈佛教授的书都是瞎编乱造的。一些就是由真实的新闻组织发布的真信息。还有一些只有一小部分是真实的,但是随着广泛的传播,不断地被添油加醋。然而,这至少不算完全扭曲事实,只是片面的反映了现实。If housing prices in China are obscenely high, those in other countries must be affordable, as attested by comparative photos with prices attached. Never mind that it#39;s ludicrous in the first place to compare an apartment within Beijing#39;s Third Ring Road with a house in Montana.如果在一组标有价格的对照图片中,中国的房价高的吓人,而外国的房价还在人们的承受范围之内,那么不要惊讶,这一定是在可笑地将蒙大拿的房子和北京三环的公寓所比较。Many people are impatient with stories with context because the subtleties and nuances confuse them, depriving them of the pleasure of drawing simple conclusions. If you say Chinese education has certain advantages that the American way does not, and vice versa, as I have sometimes done, you#39;ll offend both the pro-Chinese-education camp and the opposing camp. Both sides will see you as an enemy.许多人都没有耐心看带有文字的东西,因为那些细微的差别会把他们搞糊涂,使得他们丧失了简单下结论的快感。我曾经这样试过,如果你说中国教育有一些美国教育没有的优点,反之亦然,那么你将会把中国教育的持派和反对派都得罪,双方都会把你当成敌人。The third party as contrast is a natural development of an earlier trend, which is the third party as confirmation. We used to love this approach, citing foreigners#39; customary congratulations as testament of the high quality of our artistic works.从将第三方当作实者,到将第三方当作对比,这是自然发展的结果。我们曾经热爱这种方法,将外国人的按惯例的祝贺当作对我们高质量艺术作品的明。Just at the turning point when many Chinese awoke to this pitfall, along came Wolfgang Kubin, a German Sinologist who categorically branded Chinese literature as ;trash;. He grew to be the voice for Chinese discontent with our own literary scene.在这个中国人意识到问题的转折点,沃尔夫冈·顾彬,这位德国汉学家,认为中国文学非常“拙劣”。他逐渐成为表达对中国文学现象不满的人。I suspect that even when he stops critiquing Chinese literature people will make up es and attribute to him. If I come up with ;20 reasons I hate Chinese literature; and put down Kubin#39;s name, I can guarantee the piece will hit every website in China within a day.我怀疑,当他停止批评中国文学的时候,又会出现很多他的名人名言。如果我想出“我讨厌中国文学的20个理由”,然后标上顾彬的名字,我敢保,这将会在一天之内成为各大论坛的热点。 /201406/306199。

In 2012 when 17-year-old Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head on a school bus by the Taliban, she became the first Pakistani student to be actively targeted by the militants. Two years later, Yousafzai is tragically joined by hundreds more.2012年,17岁的马拉拉在一辆校车中遭塔利班击,头部中弹。她是第一个被武装恐怖主义分子追杀的巴基斯坦学生。两年后,悲剧再次发生在上百名巴基斯坦学生身上。On Tuesday, a Taliban attack on a school in Peshawar has left more than 100 schoolchildren killed. Shiza Shahid, the co-founder and CEO of the Malala Fund, an organization working to break the cycle of poverty and empower girls through education, has devoted much of her life to championing women around the world. In an exclusive interview with Fortune, Shahid — speaking as a Pakistani advocate — shared her initial reactions.上周,塔利班袭击了巴基斯坦北部城市白沙瓦的一间学校,100多名学生因此丧生。关注扶贫及女童教育问题的马拉拉基金(Malala Fund)联合创始人兼首席执行官希扎o沙希德接受《财富》(Fortune)的独家专访,以一名巴基斯坦持者的身份,与记者分享了她对这一事件的看法。Edited excerpts:以下是经编辑节选的采访内容:What was your reaction when you first heard about the attack?在最初听到这起校园袭击案时,你的第一反应是什么?It’s been incredibly heartbreaking as a Pakistani and as a human being. I have seen so many terrible things happening in Pakistan in recent years. Suicide attacks, sieges, Malala’s own shooting, but this really hits home in a way that is deeply painful. Malala was the first child to be deliberately target in Pakistan. Now they are targeting over 100 children dead.对巴基斯坦人和全世界其他人来说,这起事件都令人心碎。近年来我在巴基斯坦经历过如此多可怕的事情,包括自杀式袭击、围攻、马拉拉被击等,但是这次事件仍令我如被击中要害般痛彻心扉。马拉拉是第一个被塔利班蓄意袭击的巴基斯坦青少年,现在他们变本加厉,谋杀了100多名孩子。What is missing in Pakistan right now that these violent attacks are continuing?暴力袭击仍在继续,巴基斯坦目前最缺失的是什么?The roots of terrorism in Pakistan are deep and complicated and lawless and ungoverned. Various ideologies are all in the quest for the very same thing: Power. When territories are ungoverned, and people are disappointed and not given opportunities to strive for a better tomorrow, people fall prey to terrorist groups who have the means to intimidate and frighten.巴基斯坦国内的恐怖主义根深蒂固、错综复杂,而且缺少法律的约束和政府的管治。各个流派都在追逐同一个目标:权力。领土之内缺乏有力管治,人民对此深感失望,却又无力为争取更好的未来而抗争,只能活在恐怖分子的威胁和恐吓之下。Why do school children remain a target for the Taliban?为什么塔利班一再袭击在校学童?Significant progress has been made by the military to root out certain terrorist leaders and this was really an act of retaliation. This is a school that mostly has children of military officers and cadets and their wives were teachers. So really, this was retaliation to what was done by the military, and it shows how long this battle is going to be.巴基斯坦军方铲除了一部分恐怖分子头目,取得了反恐的重大进展,这次的袭击显然是报复行为。遭受袭击的是一间军人子弟学校,学校的老师大多数是军官和军事学员的家属。因此,这就是一次针对此前巴军方反恐行动的报复行为,表明了这场战争将会旷日持久地进行下去。Also, there is nothing more precious than our children. By going as far as attacking children, they are saying that nothing is off limits, so there is an utter lack of humanity. There have been instances where terrorists have bombed empty schools as a way to protect the teachings of western ideologies, but this act was clearly and deliberately meant to kill children, and it is as heinous as can be.没有什么比我们的孩子更加珍贵。恐怖分子袭击手无寸铁的儿童,表明他们毫无顾忌,没有底线。这种做法惨无人性。此前恐怖分子曾经轰炸无人的学校,以此拒绝西方的意识形态,但此次事件攻击的目标直接就是儿童,实在令人发指。Do you think this act of violence marks a tipping point in Pakistan?你认为这次暴力袭击会否成为巴基斯坦的一个转折点?We are at a point now were the country needs to stand up and stand up together. We need to grieve for who has been lost and take action for once and for all, and we need to say no more and say never again.在这个时刻,整个国家都应该团结起来,奋起抗争。我们既要哀悼逝者,又要采取行动彻底铲除恐怖分子,不再姑息并坚决杜绝此类事件重演。Are you fearful that this will deter children from going to school?这次事件是否会让孩子们害怕去学校上课?This has been happening for awhile. In the past, areas around schools have been targeted and school buses have been threatened and for a while now, military schools have been targeted as well. I live about a mile away from the Navy complex in Islamabad, and for awhile there has been heavy security. If children aren’t given an education there really isn’t anything left. So hopefully we will take the time to grieve, and hopefully the people will come together and do everything we can to protect children. For more children to lose their one chance to get an education will result in many more tragedies just like this.这种情况已经持续了一段时间。过去恐怖分子打击学校附件的地区,袭击校车,而现在他们袭击军事管理学校。我住在伊斯兰堡海军基地一英里以外的地方,当地暂时处于戒严状态。如果儿童无法接受教育,那这个国家就真的没有未来了。所以我希望人们为逝者哀悼,同时行动起来尽一切努力保护孩子们。如果越来越多的孩子失去受教育的机会,就会酿成更多这样的悲剧。What, if anything, has changed for the better in Pakistan since 2009 when you started a summer camp to empower young girls and their education?2009年时你组织了一个夏令营为女孩提供受教育机会,在那之后,巴基斯坦国内在此方面取得了怎样的进展?Where we have taken two steps forward, we have also taken two steps backward in various aspects. We have more girls going to school than before and we have more parents agreeing that sending their girls to school is a priority. We also have more women in medical school than men. On the other hand, you have terrorists targeting schools, and you still see female medical school graduates not going to work because they are worried about getting a husband. The terrorist threat is very real against women.我们有两点进步也有两点退步。上学读书的女孩子比以前多了,有更多家长认识到了送女儿上学的重要性。医学院的女学生也比男学生多。另一方面,出现了恐怖分子袭击学校的事件,还有医学院的女生毕业后为了结婚而不去就业的情况。恐怖主义对女性存在着切实的威胁。How can concerned people outside of Pakistan help?其他国家的那些关心你们的人如何能提供帮助?I am a big believer in finding local activists and advocates and supporting them. That is very much the model that I worked with at the Malala Fund. Now I am working on a social impact fund that will invest on the ground, and there are some great organizations that try and highlight local leaders and amplify their work.我强烈建议他们去找当地的活动家和倡导者,给这些人提供持。这就是我在马拉拉基金会的工作模式。现在我在为一个具有社会影响力的基金会工作,它能够在当地进行基础的投资,还有一些大型机构选择与当地领导人联手,扩大其影响力。We have heard Malala’s story, and it was a great example of the power of story telling. We have more stories to tell, and we need to bring those stories into the media and supporting their organizations is a great way for us to do it. You are seeing young girls in villages starting companies to sell handbags that employ local women. You see entrepreneurs and young people creating change and innovation. Those are the things we need to focus on, and those are certainly the things I focus on given how hard it is to get anything done through the government.我们都听说过马拉拉的故事,它充分显示了一个故事讲得好会具有怎样的力量。我们还有很多故事可讲,而且我们要在媒体上讲述这些故事,持相关的组织就是一个很好的方法。你可以看到年轻的乡村女性创建手包品牌并聘用当地的妇女,你还可以看到创业者和年轻人在变革和创新。这些就是我们需要关注的东西,也是我最为关注的方面,因为这些很难通过政府来实现。(财富中文网) /201412/350622。

Earlier this month, thousands of people crowded around a group of chengguan in southern China, severely beating and bloodying the officers. This week, the country#39;s state broadcaster issued footage of the incident that shows just how deeply on edge many segments of society are, and how quickly they can be inflamed.本月早些时候在中国南方某地,几千民众围着一群城管队员暴打,致使这些队员们头破血流。本周,中国官方电视台发布了那次事件的视频。这一事件显示出中国各种社会矛盾积压得有多深,以及矛盾激化的程度有多快。Though China enjoys a low violent crime rate compared with the West, in recent years, violence has experienced an uptick. The average number of violent assaults by dissatisfied patients on medical personnel, for example, rose 30% between 2008 and 2012, including several fatal cases. The country#39;s police recently began arming themselves in greater numbers, in part to try to ward against future incidents such as a mass slaying at a train station in Kunming that left 33 dead in March.Youku虽然与西方相比,中国暴力犯罪发生率较低,但近年来,暴力活动呈上升趋势。举例来说,2008年至2012年,心怀不满的患者对医护人员的暴力袭击事件数量上升了30%,包括几起致死案件。中国警方最近开始升级装备,一定程度上是为了防范未来再次出现类似今年3月昆明火车站那样的大规模伤人事件。昆明事件导致33人死亡。As this month#39;s beating in Cangnan, Zhejiang province, showed, crowds can swiftly turn fractious and uncontrollable. For many years, antigovernment protests in China were largely confined to rural areas and carried out by farmers who had been thrown off their land. More recently, they#39;ve begun to involve migrant workers, who have been known to torch buildings, overturn police cars and smash windows.而本月浙江省苍南县的打人事件显示出,群众情绪可能很快暴怒失控。多年来,中国的反政府抗议活动基本上局限于农村地区,进行抗议的都是被强行征地的农民。最近,这类活动开始有农民工参与,抗议者曾经点燃建筑、掀翻警车、砸碎窗户。But if the sea of smartphones amid the angry mob in Zhejiang is any indication, participants there weren#39;t just disaffected migrant workers or the dispossessed but firmly planted in the country#39;s middle class.但浙江打人事件中,愤怒的打人者中不少人拿着智能手机,这说明参与者不仅仅是心怀不满的农民工或失地农民,还包括了中国的中产阶级。The incident was touched off when chengguan, China#39;s urban para-police, began beating a man in a white shirt while trying to take away his cellphone after they spotted him photographing them. Footage showed the man lying on the ground with bloodied clothes, as passersby gaped and photographed him.这起事件的起因是,城管队员发现一名身穿白衬衫的男子在拍摄他们的行动,之后试图夺走该男子的手机时开始殴打此人。视频显示此人躺在地上,衣上沾着血迹,路人围着他,拍下了他的照片。So far, so much par for the course--China#39;s chengguan, charged with maintaining public order, are notorious for roughing up street vendors and protesters, sometimes with fatal results. But the chengguan, surely, didn#39;t expect what happened next. As a local store owner told CCTV, #39;Someone shouted, #39;Chengguan are beating someone!#39;#39;至此,整个过程都是意料之中的——在中国,负责维护公共秩序的城管因粗暴对待街头小贩和抗议者、有时甚至闹出人命而声名狼藉。但这次事件中的城管肯定没有预料到接下来发生的事情。一位当地店主对中央电视台说,有人大喊,城管打人啦!An angry crowd surged, throwing stones and pushing violently up against masses of police who tried to stop them. Armed with cellphones, members of the mob quickly posted news of the incident online, attracting thousands. Several chengguan were beaten by the crowd. They tried to hide in a van, and its windows were smashed; two lost blood and went into shock. As footage details, when an ambulance arrived at the scene to try to reach the officers, it was promptly surrounded by a sea of people who tipped it over onto its side and then cheered.愤怒的群众涌上来,朝试图阻止他们的大群警察扔石头并激烈推搡。人群中有不少人拿着手机,很快就将这起事件的消息发布到网上,吸引了成千上万人关注。几名城管队员被人群殴打。他们试图躲进一辆厢式车里,但车子的窗户被打碎;两人失血休克。视频中显示,一辆救护车抵达现场试图救出几名城管队员,但马上就被人群包围。人们掀翻了救护车,然后发出欢呼。CCTV said all five chengguan involved in the incident are in administrative detention, along with 11 suspected of beating the officers.中央电视台称,当事的所有五名城管目前都已被行政拘留,同时被拘留的还有11名涉嫌殴打城管的路人。The dramatic footage is a window into the fights occasionally waged on China#39;s streets, as well as the depths of mistrust with which the chengguan are held. When two chengguan were killed in 2009 during a scuffle with a street vendor in northeastern China, the country#39;s social media networks subsequently lit up with support for the vendor responsible for their deaths, following claims by his wife that he acted in self-defense.这段颇具戏剧性的视频为人们了解中国街头不时发生的此类冲突提供了一个窗口,同时也揭示出民众对城管的不信任程度之深。2009年,在中国东北,两名城管在与一名街头小贩扭打时被杀。这名小贩的妻子称,丈夫当时的行为只是出于自卫。对于这名对两个城管之死负有责任的小贩,中国的社交媒体网络随即展开了声援。For its part, the country#39;s state broadcaster was intent on stressing the fact that this month#39;s crowd amassed in part because of people hearing information about the incident on social media platforms such as Weibo. In the aftermath of the incident, some had sp information--ultimately untrue--that the man attempting to photograph the chengguan had been killed. #39;After [such information sp], the situation started to get out of control,#39; the newscaster said.关于本月的事件,中央电视台特别强调了这样一个事实:此次之所以会出现民众聚集,部分原因是人们通过微(Weibo)等社交媒体平台听说了有关此事的一些消息。在事件发生后,一些人散布消息说,试图给城管拍照的男子已经身亡。但这一消息并不属实。中央电视台称,在有人散布了这种消息后,局面开始失控。The government has launched a concerted campaign to uproot the sp of rumors it deems harmful to society, including going so far as to institute prison sentences for people who have posted messages on social media containing untrue information reposted 500 times or more.为根除在官方看来危害社会的谣言传播,中国政府已经展开一场协调行动。其中一个行动就是规定如果在社交媒体发布的包含不实信息的消息被转发500次及以上,则消息发布者将被追究刑事责任。The volatile nature of China#39;s crowds is a sign of the challenges the government faces, and a window into what#39;s motivated such draconian laws. If a single spark can start a prairie fire, perhaps it#39;s no surprise that the incident in Zhejiang has prompted such a round of introspection by state media, as well as further fuel for the state#39;s antirumor campaign. Nor, perhaps, is it surprising that the country#39;s budget for internal security spending has grown faster than its national defense spending in recent years.中国大众的不稳定性显示出政府面临的挑战,同时也揭示出政府出台这种严厉法规的原因。如果星火能够燎原,那么浙江的这起事件引发了中国官方媒体这样一轮反思并进一步促使中国打击网络谣言可能不足为奇。或许同样不足为奇的是,近些年来中国在国内治安上的预算出增速快于国防出。As the Beijing Youth Daily pointed out, though, #39;Simply criticizing #39;rumors#39; is easy--and those who sp rumors will be punished by the law. What we need to understand is why the average person believes it#39;s better to believe these rumors, rather than disbelieve them.#39;但正如《北京青年报》所说的,简单谴责“谣言”是容易的,造谣传谣者也自当受到法律制裁,但必须追问的是,一般人对这样的“谣言”,为何总是宁可信其有,不可信其无? /201404/293273。

DATONG, China — The colossal Buddhist statues in the cliffside caves outside this northern Chinese city, carved from golden sandstone by Turkic-speaking nomad conquerors in the fifth and sixth centuries, were so covered in coal dust that when visitors blew on them, black clouds rose up.[qh]中国大同——在这个中国北部城市外的崖边洞窟中有多尊巨型佛像,它们是讲突厥语族语言的游牧民族在五、六世纪在金色砂岩上雕刻而成的。佛像上覆盖着厚厚的煤灰,访客一吹,就会飘起黑色的烟尘。[qh]Called the Yungang Grottoes, the relics had survived the rise and fall of dynasties, modern wars and the Cultural Revolution. But the scourge of a more prosperous China — industrial pollution — had been eating away at the sandstone.[qh]这个被称为云冈石窟的遗迹历经朝代兴衰、现代战争,以及文化大革命,而留存下来。但中国的经济繁荣带来的后果——工业污染——却不停地在侵蚀这些砂岩。[qh]Chinese officials and preservationists have embarked on an ambitious effort to protect them that could become a model for saving antiquities at other sites. They have not only cleaned the statues here and created a vast park, but also shut down nearby coal mines and removed or regulated other sources of air pollution.[qh]中国的官员和保护工作者已经开始采取雄心勃勃的举措,保护云冈石窟,使之在古迹保护方面成为其他遗址的典范。他们不仅清洗了雕像,建造了一个大型公园,还关闭了附近的煤矿,并清除或控制其他空气污染源。[qh];You don#39;t know how bad it was before,; said Huang Jizhong, the head engineer at the Shanxi Province Cultural Relics Bureau and former research director at the grottoes. ;The contrast is very dramatic.;[qh]“你不知道以前有多糟,”山西省文物局总工程师、前云冈石窟研究院主任黄继忠说。“对比非常明显。”[qh]Vast parts of China have some of the world#39;s worst outdoor air pollution, and ancient sites across the country are falling prey to its effects, officials and scholars say. Among the antiquities damaged by acid rain are the giant Buddha at Leshan in Sichuan Province and an 800-year-old thousand-armed statue of Guanyin, a revered Buddhist figure, at Dazu, according to Chinese news reports. A professor in Guangzhou, a provincial capital in the south, warns that acid rain is also eroding the red sandstone buildings there from the Ming dynasty.[qh]官员和学者表示,中国广大地区的室外空气污染堪称属于世界最严重的行列,全国各地的古迹都深受其害。根据中国的新闻报道,被酸雨腐蚀的古迹包括四川乐山大佛和已有800年历史的大足千手观音像。中国南部省会城市广州的一名教授警告称,广州的明代红砂岩建筑也遭到酸雨腐蚀。[qh]Even the terra-cotta warriors of Xi#39;an, a symbol of Chinese civilization, may be under threat. Lee Shun-cheng, an engineering professor at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, has called for glass walls to be built around the warriors, now protected only by a roof.[qh]中华文明的象征——西安兵马俑——可能也面临威胁。香港理工大学工程学教授李顺诚(Lee Shun-cheng)曾呼吁在兵马俑周围建造玻璃墙,现在保护兵马俑的只有顶棚而已。[qh]Experts working on the Yungang Grottoes, in the heart of China#39;s coal country, are now advising officials seeking to preserve sites elsewhere. Mr. Huang visited the mountainside relics at Xiangtangshan and Yaowangshan, both in heavily polluted areas of northern China, and told officials there to shut down or move cement factories. In some cases, officials complied, and where they could not they built glass enclosures around the statues, Mr. Huang said.[qh]云冈石窟的专家正在为那些寻求保护遗址的官员提供建议。云冈石窟位于中国煤炭之乡的中心地带。黄继忠参观过位于响堂山和药王山山腰上的这片遗迹,这两座山都位于中国北部污染严重的地区。黄继忠建议当地官员关闭或搬迁水泥厂。他表示,官员们有时会遵从建议,而无法关闭工厂时,就在雕像周围建造玻璃围墙。[qh]At the Dazu rock carvings in Chongqing and the Longmen Grottoes in Henan Province, in central China, preservationists are using moisture-monitoring devices that were invented at Yungang.[qh]在重庆的大足石刻和中原河南省的龙门石窟,保护工作者均在使用云冈石窟首创的湿度监控设备。[qh];All these things share something in common: they suffer from the air and the water,; Mr. Huang said. ;So these places can draw directly from the Yungang experience.;[qh]“这些东西有共同之处:它们都受空气和水的影响,”黄继忠说。“因此,这些地方可以直接借鉴云冈的经验。”[qh]A large part of the problem is coal. Burning coal emits sulfur dioxide, which further oxidizes in the atmosphere and then combines with water to produce sulfuric acid.[qh]问题的很大部分在于煤。燃煤过程释放二氧化硫,而二氧化硫在大气中进一步氧化,然后与水汽结合产生酸雨。[qh]In the 1980s and 1990s, as the coal industry here in Shanxi Province powered growth throughout China, the impact of acid rain and air pollution on the statues in the Yungang Grottoes was ;severe,; said Liu Xiaoquan, a senior manager at the Yungang Grottoes Research Institute. A national highway ran in front of the grottoes, where 51,000 statues stand in 254 niches and caves. Up to 20,000 coal trucks passed each day. Villagers burned coal for cooking and heating.[qh]云冈石窟研究院高级管理人员刘晓权表示,20世纪八九十年代,随着山西省的煤炭工业为全国各地的发展提供动力,酸雨及空气污染对云冈石窟雕像的影响“非常严重”。一条国道从云冈石窟前穿过。云冈石窟的254个洞窟中有5.1万尊雕像,而每天经过的运煤卡车最多达两万辆,村民们也要烧煤,来做饭、取暖。[qh]Restoration efforts, prompted by a bid for Unesco World Heritage List status, started in the late 1990s. Officials moved the highway in 1998 and barred coal trucks from using it. About 10 small coal mines were ordered shut, Mr. Huang said. Officials also moved six villages from the area, a total of 4,750 households, over the reported objections of some villagers, who said the compensation was too low.[qh]为了使这里的雕像进入联合国教科文组织世界文化遗产名录(Unesco World Heritage List),相关部门从20世纪90年代晚期开始努力展开修复工作。1998年,官员们迁移了高速公路,并禁止运煤卡车经过云冈石窟。黄继忠表示,大约有10家小型煤矿被要求关闭。官员们还将六个村庄迁出该地区,其中涉及4750户家庭,有报道称,一些村民拒绝搬迁,他们称赔偿金太少。[qh]Workers used soft brushes to remove the coal dust that coated the statues. Many of the Buddhas now appear in the golden glory envisioned by their creators. On some statues, vivid paint added during later dynasties is visible again. The biggest Buddha, a seated statue 56 feet tall, has a thin layer of gold paint on its face.[qh]工人们利用软毛刷清扫雕像上覆盖的煤灰,很多佛像如今金光闪闪,就像其创建者想象的那样。后来的朝代在一些雕像上添加的鲜艳涂料又变得清晰可见了。最大的佛像——56英尺(约合17米)高的坐像——面部有一层薄薄的金色涂料。[qh]The grottoes were designated a World Heritage site in 2001, and further work began in 2008, including the banning of tour buses from the nearby national highway, expanding the park that includes the grottoes to six times its original size and planting trees. In a courtyard is a shiny copper statue of Tan Yao, a monk from the Northern Wei dynasty who oversaw the building of the first grottoes for the imperial rulers.[qh]2001年,云冈石窟列入世界遗产名录。进一步的保护工作于2008年开始施行,包括附近的国道禁止旅游巴士通行,将石窟群所属的景观区扩建至原规模的六倍,以及植树种草。一座庭院里坐落着昙曜的铜像,熠熠发光。这位北魏时期的高僧负责为帝王们督建了首批石窟。[qh]The numbers of Buddhist pilgrims and other tourists have grown. On a recent afternoon, dozens of nuns in gray robes arrived on tour buses. The park has 1.5 million to 2 million annual visitors, up from half a million a year less than a decade ago, Mr. Liu said.[qh]慕名前来朝拜的佛教徒与游客人数逐年增长。不久前的一个下午,数十名身着灰袍的尼姑乘坐旅游大巴到达。刘小泉表示,景观区每年接待150万到200万游客,而不到10年前,每年仅为50万。[qh]The most intense preservation and restoration work is underway at four of the most stunning caves. Workers are building wooden roofs to shield the statues from rain. After that, experts from the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, another sanctuary of Buddhist art, are expected to restore some of the paint. The last time the cave was painted was in the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from the 17th century to the early 20th century.[qh]有四座蔚为壮观的石窟正在进行力度最大的保护与重建工作。工人们在修建木质顶棚,以防止雨水侵袭石像。完成后,从另一处佛教艺术圣地——敦煌莫高窟——请来的专家将重新画上部分绘。上次石窟着色还是清朝的时候,而清朝统治中国的时间为17世纪到20世纪初。[qh]Workers are also trying to make digital recordings of all the artwork. Those would help with construction of three-dimensional renderings of the caves that visitors and scholars can view.[qh]修复工作者还在努力对这里全部的艺术作品进行数字备份。这将有助于构建石窟的三维渲染图,供游客与学者查看。[qh]A mine run by the Datong Coal Mining Group, a state-owned enterprise, is still operating within sight of the grottoes. But the company has closed some shafts, and ;they do well with dust and pollution control,; Mr. Liu said.[qh]在云冈石窟的可见范围内,仍有国有企业大同煤矿集团公司旗下的一座煤矿在运行。不过,刘小泉表示,公司已经关闭了一些矿井,而且“他们在煤粉灰和控制污染上做得不错”。[qh]On a recent morning, two photographers were setting up lighting equipment inside the first cave to take photos for the research institute. The cave has a stone pagoda in the center, typical of a sculpture in the middle period, said Ma Yexia, an official guide. A nearby twin cave also has a pagoda, though its base has been eroded by water that once filled the bottom of the cave. The water was pumped out sometime after 1949, when the Communists took over, Ms. Ma said.[qh]不久前的一天上午,两名摄影师在第1窟里调试灯光设备,以便为研究院拍摄图片。这座窟里的正中雕有一尊方塔,官方导游马叶霞(音)称,这是典型的中期雕刻作品。附近的双窟也有一座塔,不过它的基座因为洞穴底部以前充盈的流水而遭侵蚀。马导游称,共产党1949执政后,抽干了其中的水。[qh]Running water, which can damage sandstone carvings, has been a danger for centuries. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty, in the 12th and 13th centuries, a river that ran in front of the caves threatened the statues, and a great warrior ordered the river to be redirected, she said.[qh]流水能侵蚀砂石雕像,多个世纪以来一直是个威胁。马导游说,在十二三世纪的金朝,流经石窟前方的一条河直逼这些石像,于是一位伟大的将军下令河水改道。[qh]Cave numbers 16 through 20 have the oldest statues, built by the monk Tang Yao. The simple Buddhas here were carved from rock at the rear of the caves. Ms. Ma said one enemy was the rainwater, which makes the sandstone brittle and more vulnerable to the wind. The wall surrounding the entrance of cave number 20 has collapsed, leaving the sitting Buddha there exposed.[qh]第16到20窟拥有最古老的雕像,为高僧昙曜督建。这几座窟里的佛像颇为简朴,从后方的岩石中开凿而出。马导游表示,雨水构成了一大威胁,会让岩石疏松,更易于被风化。本应环绕第20窟入口的前壁已经坍塌,让端坐其中的佛像暴露在外。[qh]The oldest caves were used by the early Tuoba rulers of the Northern Wei to help sp the idea they had the divine right to rule over the conquered locals, Ms. Ma said. The Tuoba eventually moved the seat of their dynasty south to Luoyang, in present-day Henan Province. There, they built more grand Buddhist statues at the Longmen Grottoes. Officials at Longmen, which is also a Unesco site, have been carrying out preservation efforts similar to those at Yungang, following what is becoming standard practice for local governments that have sought international recognition.[qh]马导游说,最古老的石窟被北魏前期的拓跋氏帝王用来宣扬,他们拥有天赋神权来统治被征的当地人。拓跋氏最终将都城南迁至位于今天的河南省境内的洛阳。在那里,他们开凿了龙门石窟,建起更多宏伟的佛像。龙门石窟同属世界遗产,那里的管理者也在进行与云冈类似的保护工作。这种做法正在成为惯例,为那些寻求国际认可的地方政府所遵循。[qh]What Chinese officials have been unable or unwilling to control are the stratospheric levels of air pollution. Xinhua, the state news agency, reported that acid rain hit 135 cities in early 2013. Of those, 23 were severely affected. Mr. Huang said, ;The current air pollution still poses a threat.;[qh]不过,严重的空气污染,官方还没能控制,或者说不愿控制。官方媒体新华网曾报道,2013年上半年,有135座城市属酸雨城市,其中23座属重酸雨城市。黄继忠说,“当前的空气污染仍然构成了威胁。”[qh] /201409/327059。