原标题: 即墨/当代妇科医院治疗宫颈肥大多少钱服务网
Oh it#39;s completely new. By the time you get to the end of the Devonian for the very first time in Earth history噢,它是全新的。到了泥盆纪末期,地球历史上首次出现animals and plants are living on land in a significant, permanent way.动植物以一种重要而永恒的方式在陆地上生活That#39;s, that#39;s brand new and a lot of open niches in that waiting to be exploited.这都是全新的,许多开放的小生境正等着它们去开发Those new niches were the margins of this watery world.这些新的生境正是整个水世界的边缘In the tangle of vegetation limbs with fingers would have given tetrapods a unique advantage over fish.在缠结交错的植被中,拥有长趾头的四肢将使四足动物比鱼更具备独特的优势I think we have to think of these fins or, or limbs, or flims as我想我们应该都认同这些鳍,或者说是肢或腿something that would be used by the animal for moving through more complex environments like swamps,很可能是被用来在沼泽之类的复杂环境中穿梭移动or environments that, where there may have been trees down in channels,或是在树枝掉落进水道的环境中,以及浅水中or just shallow water to pursue prey or to escape the guy who#39;s trying to prey upon you.搜捕猎物和躲避想要吃掉它的天敌And there was most definitely something from which to escape.而且那时的确有需要避让的东西Over and over again Daeschler and his team found evidence of a fish called hyneria, a predator of terrifying proportions.Daeschler和他的小组一次又一次地发现一种叫做含肺鱼的化石据,它是一种体型巨大的恐怖掠食者Hyneria is the most common, lobe-finned fish at this site. It#39;s also the biggest.含肺鱼是整个地方最常见的肉鳍鱼,它也是最大的It#39;s probably two or three metres long.它可能有2--3米长This, this is a single tooth from a large hyneria and these were carnivorous obviously.这是含肺鱼的一颗牙齿,可见它是食肉动物 Article/201703/498468The Pearl Estuary has become one of the busiest shipping channels in China, and the dolphins are constantly bombarded with sound.珠江口已成为中国最繁忙的海运通道之一,海豚也经常受到噪音的狂轰滥炸。New research suggests that they may now pack more information into shorter calls in a bid to be heard.新的研究指出,他们的叫声中可能包含了更多的信息并变得更短促。Local conservationists have now set up a protected zone near Lantau Island. So, for now, China#39;s white dolphins are holding on.当地的环保主义者如今在珠江口附近建立起一个保护区,中华白海豚从此得以生存。 注:视频如无法播放,请刷新 /201410/332439

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201508/393737(speaking backwards) Hi,Vsauce.Michael here.You can practice speaking backwards,so when your words are reversed they#39;re intelligible.But here#39;s something else that is weird.The digits in the speed of light are exactly the same as the latitude of the great pyramid of Giza.And,as the anagram genius has revealed,all the world#39;s a stage,but if you rearrange the letters in the meaning of life it becomes the engine of a film.Or more pessimistically,the fine game of nil.反向发声,嘿 这里是Vsauce 我是Micheal 你可以练练倒着说话,当你的话反着播放时,它们就清晰可辨了,还有一些奇怪的事情,光速当中的数字和金字塔的维度完全一样,就像Anagram Genius 网站所说,全世界是一个舞台,如果你将“生命意义”的字母重新排列,就变成了“电影的引擎”。或者更加悲观“虚无的游戏”。What does all this mean?Are these just coincidences or are greater powers at work? Why is it so easy for us to find hidden messages? Why can a mere coincidence give us chills? And why is it so fun? When you reverse Neil Armstrong saying,;Small step for man,;you can hear what sounds like ;man will spacewalk;.(armstrong)That#39;s one small step for man.Man will spacewalk. One small step for man,Man will spacewalk.One small step for man,Man will spacewalk.这都是什么意思呢?是巧合,强大的力量的影响呢?我们为什么会轻易找到隐藏的信息?纯粹的契合为何会让我们不寒而栗?这为啥会这么好玩?当你倒放阿姆斯特朗的“这是个人的一小步”,听起来就像是“人类会太空漫步”。这是人类的一小步,人类会太空漫步。Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated president John F.Kennedy,and in this interview,he defends the Fair Play for Cuba Committee,of which he was a member.The fact that I did live for a time in the Soviet Union gives me excellent qualifications to repudiate charges,that Cuba and the Fair Play for Cuba Committee is communist controlled.Now listen to what it sounds like when we reverse him saying,;...and the Fair Play for Cuba;.and the Fair Play for Cuba-I wish to kill president.I wish to kill president.I wish to kill president.李.哈维.奥斯瓦尔德暗杀了肯尼迪总统,在这篇采访中 他为“古巴公平游戏规则委员会”辩护,他自己也是其中一员。我确实在苏联呆过一段时间,这段经历让我更有资格来否认这样的指控,古巴和公平对待古巴委员会 并非为共产党所控制。现在我们来听听他的话反过来放是怎样的,和公平对待古巴。和公平对待古巴 我想杀死总统。我想杀死总统。Is that a coincidence or a subconscious confession hidden within his own words? It#39;s a coincidence.For crying out land,if anybody says,;...and the Fair Play for Cuba;,and then reverses it,it sounds the same.I wish to kill president.This app,by the way,is called Virtual Recorder.It#39;s really easy way to quickly reverse your own speech.Matthew Hudson,in The Seven Laws of Magical Thinking.points out that if you record yourself saying,;Ooh! You sniff turkey fat!;And then reverse it,it sounds a bit like ;Happy birthday to you !; Happy birthday to you !Kind of.这是一个巧合呢 还是在他自己言语间无意识的坦白呢?这只是一个巧合。其实嘛 不论谁说 “和公平对待古巴”然后倒放 它听起来都是一样的。我想杀死总统。这个应用叫 Virtual Recordr.你可以用它来轻松倒放自己的话。Matthew Hudson所著的《神奇的思维七律》,指出如果你录下自己说的,“奥 你闻闻火鸡的肥肉”然后倒放,听起来有点像“祝你生日快乐”祝你生日快乐!有点儿吧。If a word can be spelled the same forward and backward,it#39;s a palindrome.But if a word or phrase sounds the same,whether spoken forward or rewound,is a phonetic palindrome.For example,;Say yes.;-Reversed?-Say yes.Pretty cool.But check out this poem by Karsten Johansson.;When I wonder why What#39;s never been#39;s never been so,We would lie when we say #39;Yes,you know we all love you#39;What#39;s never been#39;s never been so Hell,we#39;re nowhere now.;When I wonder why What#39;s never been#39;never been so,We would lie when we say #39;Yes,you know we all love you.;What#39;s never been#39;s never been so Hell,we#39;re nowhere now.如果一个词正反拼写都一样,这被称作回文 但如果一个词或者词组正反听起来都一样,这叫做语音回文。比如说“同意”反过来呢“同意”,很棒吧。但是看看Karsten Johansson 写的这首诗。当我不知为何 不知何为从未经历,何为从未经历过 我们正身出虚无,当我不知为何 不知何为从未经历 我们说谎:你知道我们都爱你。何为从未经历过 我们正身出虚无。By the way,some people can speak in reverse on the fly.It is really cool to see them in action.Watch guys lean back after this .It#39;s linked down in the description and it#39;s full of pretty cool coincidence s.Apophenia is the perception of connections,or patterns,in information.One type of Apophenia isPareidolia,the seeing or hearing of things that weren#39;t meant to be there.For instance,hearing your name being called,or your phone ringing,in the sound of running water.Or hearing English words in a non-English song,or seeing faces that weren#39;t purposely placed there.有些人能流利的道着说话,看他们这么做很有意思。看完视频后,去看看Leanback 的视频吧。链接在上方,这个频道有许多关于巧合的视频。空想性措视与信息连接或模式上的感知有关。感知性错视是空想性错视的一种,听到或看到本不该在此处的事物。比方说,听到有人叫你的名字,或者电话铃响,在水流的声音中。或者在非英文歌曲里听到英文单词,或者看到随意摆放的东西中隐藏的面孔。Our brains are good at this kind of work,probably because being hyper-attentive to patterns and faces can save your life.If there#39;s ambiguity as to whether that thing hiding in the shadows is a threat or just a shadow,it#39;s advantageous to heir on the side of threat.Organisms with a healthy sense of Apophenia live longer--long enough to have kids and raise them and naturally become the norm.We connect with faces so well,Hudson relates a story of a friend who draws faces on things she doesn#39;t wanna lose,like her bags.She says the faces make her less likely to forget about them.我们的大脑擅长于此,可能是因为对于图案和脸孔特别敏感 能救你一命。如果分不清影子里的东西 是威胁 或是只是影子而已,将其视为威胁总是有利的。有着健全的空想性错视感的生物获得更长 从而能生养后代,自然而然 这种感觉成为常态。我们与脸孔联系得很紧密,Hudson提到 他的一位朋友在她不愿遗失的东西上画上脸孔,比如说她的包,她说 脸孔让她更容易记住他们。If you like,it you should have put a ring on it.If you like not losing it,you should#39;ve drawn a face on it.We are so good at at teasing out patterns and faces from random noise,actual random sequences don#39;t always feel random to us.Originally,Apple#39;s iTunes shuffle feature generated complaints from users.They said that similar songs,or songs from the same artist,appeared in a string...which,of course,is to be expected from randomness.But it didn#39;t feel random enough,so Apple introduced a smart shuffle that avoided totally sequences that nonetheless didn#39;t seem random to our pattern loving brains.如果你喜欢他,你应该给它戴上戒指。如果你不想弄丢它 就该在上面画一张脸,我们太善于从随机的噪声中识别图案和脸孔,以致随机的序列并不总是令我们就得随机。一开始,苹果的iTunes 随机播放功能引来了用户的投诉。用户反映,相似的歌曲,或者同一歌手的歌,被接连播放 这当然会发生在随机事件中。但用户仍觉得不够随机,因此苹果公司引入了智能随机播放功能,它避免了完全随机的序列,这在我们偏爱模式的大脑看来,还不够随机。As Steve Jobs explained,we#39;re making it less random to make it feel more random.Our impressive ability to imagine patterns also expresses itself when it comes to connecting songs and moving images.This dancing Spider-man animation will famously sync up with any music you play.Try it.What kind of black magic is going on here?Well,as it turns out,most of it is in our heads.RADIOLAB reported that Michigan State University explains that the major movements of dancing animations like this one,or this one,move at typical song tempos,but also contain,like most dance,various other different related rhythms of movement allowing them to seemingly fit many different tempos.就像乔布斯所述,我们降低了随机性, 使其感觉更随机。我们对于模式超强的想象力,在关联歌曲和动画中又一次体现出来。这幅有名的蜘蛛侠跳舞动画会和你播放的任一音乐合拍。试试看 这是闹的什么鬼啊?事实明 这与大脑有着密切的联系。RADIOLAB 引用密歇根州立大学的解释,在跳舞动画中的主要动作 就像这个,还有这个 是随着典型的歌曲节奏而舞动的,就像大多数的舞步 它也包括了许多其它不同的 与节奏相关的步伐,使得其看起来能与许多不同的节奏合拍。Selection bias helps a lot too.We fall prey to this when we reject all the times the animation doesn#39;t really sync up,focusing instead on the more surprising times when it does.The bizarre pyramid coincidence mentioned earlier is a lot less bizarre,when you consider the fact that we got to control where we placed the decimal point.And that a number of degrees this precise isn#39;t necessary to locate the pyramid.By the foruth decimal,we#39;re only talking about a matter of a few meters,so it#39;s easy to make the rest fit the speed of light exactly.and have still picked a point on the pyramid.Confirmation bias also comes into play here.If you really want two things to sync up...they will.选择偏倚也对其影响很大。当动画不合拍的时候 我们全都忽略了,而只关注它合拍的时候 这让我们深受蛊惑。之前提到关于金字塔的离奇巧合 其实没那么离奇,当你考虑到我们实际上要自行决定,小数点的放置位置。而且这么精确的度数对于定位金字塔来说并不必要。在小数点第四位 也只是数米之差,所以很容易就能将剩下的部分 与光速的数字完全对应 而且仍然在金字塔上选择了一个点。确认偏误在这儿起了作用。如果你真的想让两件事情同步,它们就会同步.We often look for evidence that supports what we aly believe,while marginalizing things against it.As Marshall McLuhan said,;I wouldn#39;t have seen it if I hadn#39;t have belived it.;These biases also help explain the seemingly mind-blowing coincidence that famous movies and famous albums can line up.One the most popular states that if you start playing Pink Floyd#39;s Dark Side of the Moon.at the same time as the Wizard of Oz,they will eerily line up.Entire communities have sprouted around the syncing of movies and albums.Some of my favorites are the Yellow Submarine soundtrack and The Little Mermaid.Lordes Pure Heroin and Twilight#39;s Saga,Breaking Dawn-ll,and the end of 2001:A Space Odyssey,with Pink Floyd#39;s echoes.我们常为自己相信的事物寻找据,同时漠视反对它的据。正如Marshall McLuhan所说,要不是亲眼目睹 我决不会相信有这种事。这些偏误同样解释了看上去耸人听闻的巧合,著名的音乐专辑和电影能够配合得天衣无缝。最著名的就是 如果你播放Pink Floyd的《月之暗面》同时播放《绿野仙踪》它们能非常诡异地配上。这们的巧合在社会上像雨后春笋般流行开来。我很喜欢用《黄色潜水艇》配上《小美人鱼》。Lorde的《纯粹海洛因》配上《暮光之城:破晓》,还有《2001:太空漫游》的结尾配上Pink Floyd的《回声》。There are conspiracies that these were somehow secretly planned.Though,in reality,they#39;re just accidental music s.The product of selection bias,confirmation bias,And the Law of Near Enough,a behavior of our pattern sensitive minds.Two things don#39;t have to line up exactly,or literally,for us to see a connection.This is why vague predictions are a great way to look psychic.These are also actually unsurprising when you consider the fact.that the number of narrative paces and rhythms we enjoy,and typically use,are much smaller than the number possible.这些巧合可能是某种秘密策划的阴谋。但实际上,它们只是湊巧配成的MV而已。这些巧合是选择偏倚和确认偏误,足够接近定律,以及对大脑对模式敏感的结果。两件事并不用完全契合,我们就能将其关联 这就是为什么模糊的预言,会让别人觉得你能通灵的原因。这些事情实际上也不再令人惊异,当你考虑到我们所喜欢和常用的,叙事步调和节奏比可能的数目要小得多。In the Improbability Principal,David J.Hand calls this the probability lever.What may be rare on average,or when considering all possible scenarios,can be less rare for specific scenarios,even if they are only marginally different.Getting struck by lightning is a provebially unlikely event,but Walter Summerford wasn#39;t just struck by lightning once during his life,he was struck three times.It never killed him,but four years after his death,his gravestone was also sturck by lightning.What are the chances? I mean,clearly Summerford was some sort of robot built out of lightning rods,or had somehow angered zeus.Right?Probably not.在《不可能性定律》中David J.Hand 称其为“概率杠杆”。当考虑到所有情况后 罕见的事情,在特定情况下会变得不太罕见,即便其间只有微小的区别。众所周知 被闪电击中的概率很小,但Walter Summerford 在他一生中被闪电击中不止一次,他被雷击过三次。雷击并未使他死去 但在他去世四年后,他的墓碑也被闪电击中。这样的几率又是多少呢?很明显这位仁兄 是某种内置避雷针的机器人,或者他触怒了众神之王 是吗?可能不是。You see,while for the average person,the chance of being struck by lightning is quite low.For an avid outdoor sportsman like Summerford,it#39;s not as low.The Law of Truly Large Numbers also comes into play here.With lightning striking earth 40-50 times a second,billions of people for it to strike and thousands of years of recorded history?It#39;s actually not surprising at all that at least once,a story like Summerford#39;s would#39;ve happened.Given the truly large number of people who visit Disney World every day,and the fact that they take photos-and lots of them--it#39;s actually not surprising at all that at least once so far a story like Alex and Donna Voutsina has happened.虽然对于普通人来说,被闪电击中的概率非常低。对于Summerford 这样狂热的户外运动员来说 概率并不低。大数量定律对此起了作用。地球每秒会被雷击40-50次,可能被击中的有数十亿人,有记载的历史长至千年?所以Summerford的事情发生至少一次,实际上并不令人感到奇怪。考虑到每天造访,迪士尼乐园的巨大人流量,这些人还会拍很多照片,至今为止 发生一次这样的事情也不奇怪,正如Alex 及Donna Voutsina的故事。While sorting through old photos before their wedding,Alex and Donna found a photo of Donna at Disney World,14 years before the couple met.But then Alex noticed something.He too had visited Disney World as a child and there,in the background,was his father pushing him in a stroller.Sometimes coincidences can be tragic.婚礼前整理老照片时,他们找到了一张 Donna在贴士尼乐园拍的照片,那是他俩相遇14年前的事情。接着Alex注意到。他也在小时候去过贴士尼乐园,在背景中,他父亲正推着婴儿车里的他。巧合有时会是一场悲剧。In 1864,Abraham Lincoln#39;s son,Robert Lincoln,was saved from serious injury,or possibly even death,when a stranger grabbed him by the shirt collar moments before he plunged onto train tracks below.That stranger turned out to be Edwin Booth,one of the most famous ,Shakespearean actors of the time--so famous,in fact,Robert recognized him and had a letter sent thanking him for saving his life.Less than a year later Edwin Booth#39;s brother,John Wilkes Booth,undid the favor by assassinating Abraham Lincoln.1864年 亚伯拉罕.林肯的儿子罗伯特,幸免于一场险些让他送命的严重事故,一位陌生人抓住他的衣领,在他栽倒在底下的铁轨之前救起了他。这位陌生人是Edwin Booth,当时最有名的莎剧演员之一,他太有名了 结果罗伯特认出了他,让人给他寄了封感谢救命之恩的信。过了不到一年,Edwin Booth的弟弟 John Wilkes Booth 暗杀了林肯 抹去了这个恩惠。Strange as they seem at first math says that given enough time and psychology says that given enough interest in finding them coincidences and connections will be found even unlikely ones.The coincidences between Abraham Lincoln and John F Kennedy are famous both were elected to the presidency in the year ending with sixty.Lincoln was shot at Fords Theater,Kennedy was shot in a 1961 Lincoln Continental four door convertible made by Ford,both presidents last names have seven letters,and both assassins had 15 letters in their names.the list goes on as it should,if you look long enough you can find coincidences,between any two people or things or events,they may seem strange at first,but tend to wind up being in the end pretty expected.这些事情乍一看很离奇,但数学假如有足够的时间,心理学上要是有足够的兴趣去寻找,我们会发现一些几乎不可能发生的巧合与关联。林肯和肯尼迪之间的巧合很是有名,他们都在年份结尾为60的那一年当总统。林肯在福特剧院中,而肯尼迪在1961年福特产的林肯牌欧式四门敞篷车中遇刺,两位总统的名字都含七个字母,两位杀手的名字都含十五个字母,这份清单当然能被继续罗列,如果调查时间足够长 你可以找到任意两个人 两样东西 两件事的巧合,起初 它们可能看似奇怪,可是常常到头来会在意料之中。For just one example,name length isn#39;t that wildly variable seven-letter names are pretty common.Lincoln.Kennedy.Michael.Stevens,In the famous spooky presidential coincidences contest,held by the Skeptical Inquirer in 1992,one contestant alone found similar lists of crazy coincidences,between 21 pairs of former presidents given the vast amount of details in any one of our lives,It#39;s pretty easy.This court can be exploited to almost comedic Heights when it comes to over analyzing.举一个例子,名字长度之间的区别并不是很大,名字中有七个字母很常见。Lincoln Kennedy Michael Stevens著名的“灵异总统巧合大赛”,自1992年开始 由Skeptical lnquirer 主办,在比赛中 其中一位选手找到了许多奇异的巧合,这些巧合发生在21对前总统之间,考虑到任何一个人生命中大量的细节,(找到巧合)很容易。而过度分析亦可藉此,营造出喜剧效果.Of course,hidden messages and signs are often intentionally included in media for fun or to reward attentive viewers,but unintentional extraordinary things happen all the time.Its not really that extraordinary.There#39;s famous calculation that is known as Littewoods law.Given the number of hours we are awake every day and assuming an event only takes about a second to occur.当然 隐藏的信息和标识常被有意地植入媒体中 以取悦或奖赏细心的观众,但是无意的非凡之事无时不刻都在上演。这些事情并没有那么了不起。Littlewoods 定律是一个著名的计算公式。If you calculate the odds of something happening to you are only one in a million you should expect that thing to happen to you about once every 35 days.David J Hand took this even further with seven billion people on Earth,the chance that an event with a one in a million probability of happening to each of us won#39;t happen today is one in ten to the three thousand and fourty.As Persi Diaconis put it the truly unusual day would be a day where nothing unusual happens.And as always,thanks for watching.考虑到我们每天清醒的小时数目,假设每件事件时长仅为一秒,如果你算出自己遇到某事的概率仅为是百万分之一,你该认为,它每35天就会在你身上发生一次。David J Hand 考虑得更远,地球上有70亿人,发生在每个人身上的概率为百万分之一的事件,今日不发生的概率是1/10^3040.正如Persi Diconis 所说,真正不寻常的一天,是没有特殊事情发生的一天,如往常一样 多谢观赏。 Article/201503/364324The potato pieces are still there,马铃薯碎片仍然存在essentially, just sitting in the digestive juices.本质上来说 只是被浸在消化液中It would then pass into our colon接下来它会经过我们的结肠and would, effectively, sit in the colon然后留在结肠里and would just not be digested and would give us serious tummy ache.不被消化 会造成严重的腹痛Then he sees whether the mechanical gut fares any better接下来他要研究机械内脏能否更好地处理with the cooked potato.烹煮过的马铃薯With the raw potato,当实验对象是生马铃薯时we saw the pieces were coming out almost as they went in.我们看到马铃薯碎片从始至终几乎没有变化With the cooked potato because we#39;ve got a less rigid structure,应对熟马铃薯时 因为它的结构已不再坚固we can start to digest it and release all the nutrients out.于是我们开始消化它 使之释放出全部营养This time, the gut has indeed reduced the cooked potato to a pulp.这一次 模拟内脏确实使熟马铃薯成为了浆液But to discover what advantages cooking might have for the body,为了研究烹煮对身体的益处Martin wants to test马丁要测定how much energy the digestive system has released from the potatoes.消化系统从马铃薯里获得的能量总量He adds a reagent to the raw potato marked with an R他向生马铃薯中加入一种试剂 标记为Rand to the cooked potato, marked with a C.也向熟马铃薯中加入这种试剂 标记为C Article/201505/376458

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201510/402099Food is a favourite pastime for many.which is convenient because we need it to live.But what would happen to you and your body.if you were to completely stop eating food,right now? In the first 6 hours,all is fairly normal.Your body begins to break down glycogen-which stores energy in your body into glucose,which your cells use as fuel.对许多人而言吃东西是极棒的消遣,一举两得,因为我们得吃东西才能活下去。如果立刻断食,身体会发生什么变化呢?期初的6小时里,一切都很正常。身体开始分解糖分,糖是体内能量的存储物,它被分解成细胞所需的燃料——葡萄糖。Around 25% of energy generated this way is used for your brain alone,while the rest goes to muscle tissues and red blood cells.But after about 6 hours this method of energy production halts as the glycogen stores deplete,which can lead to the notorious hangry; or hungry and angry feeling that many of us know too well.通过这个方式产生的能量中约25%是属于大脑的,其他的则被肌肉组织和红细胞所利用。但是在约6小时后,由于存储的糖分耗尽,这种能量产生方式中断了,这会导致我们所熟知的“饿怒症” 或饥饿和生气的感觉。At this point [6-72 hours]your body enters a state called ketosis as it begins to fast or starve.Because there is very glucose in your blood,your body must begin to break down fat for energy.This fat is in turn broken down into fatty acids.However,your brain cannot use long chain fatty acids which...is a problem!Because there is no more glucose and the fats are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier,your brain changes modes and begins to use ketone bodies for energy.在开始禁食或挨饿后的6到72小时里,身体开始进入酮病状态。由于血液中葡萄糖的含量很低,身体为了产生能量,开始分解脂肪。脂肪被分解成脂肪酸。然而,大脑无法利用长链脂肪酸..这很严重!因为已经没有葡萄糖了,而脂肪又太大无法穿过血脑屏障,于是大脑改变模式,开始用酮类产生能量。Which are short chain derivatives of fatty acids.this works for the tiem being,but ultimately only 75% of the brain#39;s energy requirements can come from ketones it still needs glucose!Which means your cognitive functioning becomes impaired.Now,it#39;s important to mention that you don#39;t have to be starving to be in ketosis.这是脂肪酸产生的一种短链生物。这暂时管用。 但大脑只能从酮类那得到所需能量的75% 它还是需要葡萄糖!这意味着你的认知功能开始受损。值得一提的是,并非挨饿才会的酮病。Many people enter this phase if they are on a low-carb diet,or professional athletes who use all their carbs for an extended period of time-like marathon runners-will be in this state as well.However,beyond 72 hours,not only will your mood and energy suffer,but your brain will start to break down protein.The proteins release amino acids which can be converted into glucose-which is great news for your brain,but bad news for your body.许多人会因为低碳水化合物饮食,或专业运动员长时间消耗碳水化合物之后也会进入这种状态,如马拉松运动者,就会如此。然而一旦超过72小时,不仅情绪和能量耗尽,大脑还会开始分解身体里的蛋白质。蛋白质释放出的氨基酸可以转变为葡萄糖,这对大脑而言是件好事,但对身体而言则不然。Basically,you#39;re body is cannibalizing itself by destroying your muscle mass.In women,undernutrition often shuts down the menstrual cycle as the body tries to reduce energy expenditure.Bone density diminishes,and both men and women may experience loss of libido.Within a few weeks,the body#39;s immune system will be so weakened without any vitamins or minerals,that many will die from disease.身体在破坏肌肉来维持运转。对于女性而言,营养不足时,为了减少能量消耗,往往会停止月经周期。骨密度降低,则男女都会失去性欲。几周内,由于缺少维生素和矿物质身体的免于系统会变得无比虚弱,随便生个病就会挂了。Otherwise,it will continue to use up all energy sources until there is no glucose,fat,tissue,or muscle mass left.One of the more common causes of death is cardiac arrhythmia or heart attack,due to the tissue degradation in the heart,diaphragm and body.This is fairly common in those suffering from anorexia.Of course,the body experiences severe organ failure all around.此外,身体会继续利用一切能量来源,直到耗光所有的葡萄糖,脂肪,组织和肌肉,最可能的死因就是由于心脏,隔膜和身体组织退化,而造成的心律失常或心脏病。很多厌食症患者就是这么死的。当然身体还经历了器官衰竭的过程。Starvation can lead to death in as short as three weeks,or up to 70 days as documented during the Irish Hunger Strikes in 1981.Though the duration of survival is greatly influenced by how hydrated you are and the amount of fat reserves your body has.大约饿上三周,就会造成死亡,有资料显示1981年爱尔兰的饥饿罢工中最长记录是饿70天。能熬多久,由你的含水程度,以及身体里的脂肪储量所决定。Which in some ways is incredible-that the body can sustain for so long with no food.And yet,approximately 795 million people around the world have to deal with this reality.The good news is that the 7 richest countries have pledged to lift 500 million people out of hunger and malnutrition by 2030- but we need to hold them accountable.从另一方面来说,这很神奇,身体在没有食物的情况下居然能维持这么久。世界上大约有7.95亿人目前处于食不果腹的状态。好在7大最富国承诺在2030年前,将5亿人从饥饿和营养不良中解救出来,但我们需要监督他们尽到责任。 Article/201511/407081This animal market has been happening for over 2,000 years.这个牲口市场开张都有两千多年了Wow!哇It#39;s crazy, I feel like we#39;ve stepped back in olden times.太不可思议了,我觉得自己回到了古代It#39;s like, back to the time of Genghis Khan!就像回到元朝了啊We#39;re meeting the number one roast lamb chef in Kashgar.我们碰到了喀什烤肉的第一把好手He#39;s got an order for a new year#39;s celebration他收到一份置办新年酒席的订单and is here to find the best sheep.现在他是来选最好的羊的Hello!你好啊This is one of the best quality sheep. Three years old.这就是最优质的羊中的一种,三岁Three years old, you can tell by the teeth?三岁,你是看它的牙齿吗Yes.对And why would you buy the three-year-old, is it different?为什么特别选三岁的呢,有什么讲究吗Yes, if it#39;s younger, it#39;s better quality.有的,它齿幼一些呢,肉质就会好一些The taste of sheep is more delicious.味道自然也就好一些If the sheep#39;s ear is bigger, it#39;s much better.如果羊耳朵越大,它越好Really? For taste?真的,味道越好吗For taste and for breeding.味道也是,繁殖能力也是We#39;re keen to know how the chef is going to prepare and roast the lamb,我们很想知道主厨怎么来处理和烤制这只羊的so he invites us to his kitchen to observe an age-old tradition.于是他邀请我们到他的厨房去看看古法的维族厨艺Hello!你好This is the sheep? That he#39;s going to slaughter?就是这只羊,是他准备来宰羊吗He#39;s going to slaughter it here, it must be done by Halal way.他准备在这宰羊,必须按照清真的要求宰杀If it#39;s not, it#39;s not possible to eat.不这样做,就不能吃Before he slaughter, he must the Koran.在他宰杀之前,他必须读可兰经He#39;s ing the Koran and slaughtering.他一边读可兰经一边宰羊39-year-old Osmanjan has been in the business for 15 years,39岁的阿萨马江干屠宰这一行已经15年了learning his skill from his father.他从他父亲那里学到怎么屠宰Very quick. That was fast, huh?非常快,很快,不是After the sheep is slaughtered,羊屠宰好以后air is pumped into the skin to make it easier for the chef to remove it.会向羊体内充入空气,使得以后剥皮容易一些He#39;s a real expert.他真的是专家He is a real expert.他真的是专家The Muslim people, we don#39;t eat the blood.作为穆斯林,我们不吃血制品That#39;s why you don#39;t save it? We don#39;t save it.这就是你把血倒掉的原因吗,我们确实会把它倒掉Cos we keep the blood, chicken#39;s blood, pig#39;s blood,我们会把血留起来,鸡血,猪血and we make little, like rice cakes.然后我们会做成小小的饭团A sausage.血肠And we grill it, it#39;s actually quite good. No? No.我们会烤血肠,味道还不错,不是吗,不It#39;s reassuring to see很开心看到那些that a centuries old Islamic culinary tradition,数世纪流传下来的伊斯兰烹调传统能够延续is still going strong.还在不断变强It#39;s like an eggy, starchy wash?看起来是将蛋和面粉涂上去了啊Yes, and also when it#39;s roasted, it#39;s not burned.嗯,对,烤的时候不会烤焦Oh, protects it from the burning.哦,是让它不烤焦I mean, it#39;s not what I expected it to look like. No, no.我的意思是,我没预料到它看起来是这个样子的,不,不Grandfather, and grandfather#39;s father.祖父和太祖父For many generations.哦,好多代了啊And his two uncles.还有他的两个叔叔He#39;s the number five.他是第五个了Wow!哇 Article/201511/408549

The Story of Bottled Water瓶装水背后不能说的秘密This is a story about a world obsessed with stuff. It#39;s a story about a system in crisis. We#39;re trashing the planet. We#39;re trashing each other. And we#39;re not even having fun. The good thing is that when we start to understand the system, we start to see lots of places to step in and turn these problems into solutions.这是个关于沉溺于物质的世界的故事。这是关于一个岌岌可危的系统的故事。我们正在糟蹋这个星球。我们正在互相糟蹋。而我们一点也不乐在其中。好消息是,当我们开始了解这个系统,我们开始看见许多能够干预之处,并将这些问题转变为解决方法。One of the problems with trying to use less stuff is that sometimes we feel like we really need it. What if you live in a city like, say, Cleveland and you want a glass of water? Are you gonna take your chances and get it from the city tap? Or should you reach for a bottle of water that comes from the pristine rainforests of—Fiji? Well, Fiji brand water thought the answer to this question was obvious. So they built a whole ad campaign around it. It turned out to be one of the dumbest moves in advertising history. You see, the city of Cleveland didn#39;t like being the butt of Fiji#39;s jokes. So they did some tests, and guess what? These tests showed a glass of Fiji water is lower quality. It loses taste tests against Cleveland tap, and costs thousands of times more.试着要使用少一点东西的问题之一是,有时候我们会觉得我们真的很需要它。如果你住在一个,比如说,像克里夫兰的城市,然后你想要一杯水呢?你会冒险喝自来水吗?还是你应该买一瓶来自原始雨林的瓶装水--斐济的喔?嗯,斐济牌瓶装水觉得这个问题的再明显不过了。所以他们拿它大作广告。那最后变成广告史上最蠢的举动之一。你知道,克里夫兰市不喜欢被当成斐济牌瓶装水开玩笑的对象。所以他们做了些测试,你猜怎么样?测试结果显示斐济水的品质比较差。它在味道测试上输给克里夫兰的自来水,而且还贵了好几千倍。This story is typical of what happens when you test bottled water against tap water. Is it cleaner? Sometimes, sometimes not. In many ways, bottled water is less regulated than tap. Is it tastier? In taste tests across the country, people consistently choose tap over bottled water. These bottled water companies say they#39;re just meeting consumer demand. But who would demand a less sustainable, less tasty, way more expensive product, especially when you can get it for almost free in your kitchen? Bottled water costs about 2,000 times more than tap water. Can you imagine paying 2,000 times the price of anything else? How about a 10,000-dollar sandwich? Yet people in the U.S. buy more than half a billion bottles of water every week. That is enough to circle the globe more than five times. How did this come to be?当你检测瓶装水和自来水的时候,这个故事是很典型的结果。它有比较干净吗?有时候有,有时候没有。在许多方面,瓶装水的品质管理不如自来水。它有比较好喝吗?在全国的味道测试中,人们总是选择自来水而非瓶装水。这些瓶装水公司说,他们只是在满足消费者的需求。但谁会需要一个比较不永续、比较难喝、还贵很多的产品?特别是你根本可以在厨房用几乎免费的价格喝到?瓶装水比自来水贵了大约 2,000 倍。你能想像用 2,000 倍的价格买其它东西吗?一个一万美金的三明治如何?但美国人每星期购买超过五亿瓶的瓶装水。那已经够绕地球不只五圈了。怎么会变这样?Well, it all goes back to how our materials economy works, and one of its key drivers which is known as manufactured demand. If companies wanna keep growing, they have to keep selling more and more stuff. In the 1970s, giant soft drink companies got worried as they saw their growth projection starting to level off. There#39;s only so much soda a person can drink. Plus it wouldn#39;t be long before people began realizing soda is not that healthy and turned back to—gasp!—drinking tap water. Well, the companies found their next big idea in a silly designer product that most people laughed off as a passing yuppie fad. ;Water#39;s free!; people said back then. ;What will they sell us next...air?; So how do you get people to buy this fringe product? Simple. You manufacture demand.嗯,这全要追溯回我们物质经济运作的方式,还有一种被称为“制造出来的需求”的关键动力之一。如果公司想要持续成长,他们就得继续卖越来越多东西。 1970 年代,当大型汽水公司看到他们的业绩预期成长开始趋缓时,他们感到不安。一个人就只能喝那么多汽水啊。再加上人们很快就会了解汽水并不那么健康,然后回去--我的天哪!--回去喝自来水。这个嘛,那些公司在一个愚蠢的设计产品中发现了他们下一个伟大的点子,大部分的人都嘲笑那产品是一时的雅痞风潮。“水是免费的!”人们那时这么说。“他们接下来会卖什么给我们...空气吗?”所以你要怎么让人们买这个边缘商品?简单。你制造出需求。How do you do that? Well, imagine you#39;re in charge of a bottled water company. Since people aren#39;t lining up to trade their hard-earned money for your unnecessary product, you make them feel scared and insecure if they don#39;t have it. And that#39;s exactly what the bottled water industry did. One of their first marketing tactics was to scare people about tap water, with ads like Fiji#39;s Cleveland campaign. ;When we#39;re done,; one top water executive said, ;tap water will be relegated to showers and washing dishes.; Next, you hide the reality of your product behind images of pure fantasy. Have you ever noticed how bottled water tries to seduce us with pictures of mountain streams and pristine nature? But guess where a third of all bottled water in the U.S. actually comes from? The tap!你要怎么办到呢?嗯,想像你负责一间瓶装水公司。既然人们不排队用他们辛苦赚来的钱来换你那非必需的商品,你就让他们觉得如果不买的话很可怕、很令人不安。那正是瓶装水产业做的事。他们首要的行销技巧之一就是让人们害怕自来水,利用像斐济牌的克里夫兰广告。“我们成功后,”一个顶尖瓶装水公司的主管说道,“自来水就会被降级为洗澡水和洗碗水了。”接着,你将产品的真实面隐藏在纯净梦幻的影像之下。你曾注意过瓶装水试着怎样引诱我们吗,怎样用那些高山流水和原始大自然的照片诱惑我们?但猜猜美国三分之一的瓶装水其实是从哪来的?水龙头!Pepsi#39;s Aquafina and Coke#39;s Dasani are two of the many brands that are really filtered tap water. But the pristine nature lie goes much deeper. In a recent full page ad, Nestle said, ;Bottled water is the most environmentally-responsible consumer product in the world.; What?! They are trashing the environment all along the product#39;s life cycle. Exactly how is that environmentally responsible? The problems start here with extraction and production where oil is used to make water bottles. Each year, making the plastic water bottles used in the U.S. takes enough oil and energy to fuel a million cars. All that energy spent to make the bottle, even more to ship it around the planet, and then we drink it in about two minutes? That brings us to the big problem at the other end of the life cycle—disposal.百事公司的 Aquafina 和可口可乐的 Dasani 是众多品牌中两个真的是过滤后自来水的品牌。但是原始大自然的谎言还有更夸张的。在最近一个全版广告中,雀巢公司说:“瓶装水是全世界对环境最负责任的消费产品。”什么鬼?!那产品的整个生命周期都在糟蹋环境。那到底哪里对环境负责了?那个问题从石油的抽取和生产过程就开始了,而石油正是用来制作水瓶的。每年,用来制造美国境内使用的塑胶水瓶的石油和能源都足以供应一百万辆车了。那全部能源都被用来制作宝特瓶,更多能源被用来运送那宝特瓶到世界各地,然后我们差不多两分钟就喝完了?那将我们带到宝特瓶生命周期另一端的大问题--废弃处理。What happens to all these bottles when we#39;re done? Eighty percent end up in landfills, where they will sit for thousands of years, or in incinerators, where they#39;re burned, releasing toxic pollution. The rest gets collected for recycling. I was curious about where the plastic bottles that I put in the recycling bins go. I found out that shiploads were being sent to India. So I went there. I will never forget riding over a hill outside Madras where I came face-to-face with a mountain of plastic bottles from California.我们喝完水之后这些宝特瓶会怎样?百分之八十的宝特瓶最后会被丢到垃圾掩埋场,它们会在这待上好几千年,或是被丢进焚化炉,它们在那被烧掉,释放出有毒的污染物质。其余的被收集起来回收。我很好奇我放进回收箱的那些塑胶瓶都到哪去了。我发现那一船船宝特瓶都被送到印度。所以我就去了那里。我永远不会忘记经过马德拉斯的一座小山,我在那亲眼见到一座来自加州的塑胶瓶山。Now, real recycling would turn these bottles back into bottles. But that wasn#39;t what was happening here. Instead, these bottles were slated to be downcycled, which means turning them into lower quality products that would just be chucked later. The parts that couldn#39;t be downcycled were thrown away there, shipped all the way to India just to be dumped in someone else#39;s backyard. If bottled water companies want to use mountains on their labels, it would be more accurate to show one of these mountains of plastic waste.现在,真正的回收会让这些宝特瓶变回宝特瓶。但那不是在这里发生的事。相反地,这些宝特瓶预定被降级回收,意思就是将它们变成之后只会被扔掉的较低品质产品。不能被降级回收的部分就被丢弃在那里,一路海运到印度只为了要丢在别人家的后院。如果瓶装水公司想要在他们的商标上用山峦的图案,展示这其中一座塑胶垃圾山还比较精确。Scaring us, seducing us, and misleading us—these strategies are all core parts of manufacturing demand. Once they#39;ve manufactured all this demand, creating a new multibillion market, they defend it by beating out the competition. But in this case, the competition is our basic human right to clean, safe drinking water. Pepsi#39;s Vice Chairman publicly said, ;The biggest enemy is tap water.; They want us to think it#39;s dirty, and bottled water is the best alternative. In many places, public water is polluted, thanks to polluting industries like the plastic bottle industry. And these bottled water guys are all too happy to offer their expensive solutions, which keep us hooked on their products.恐吓我们、诱惑我们,还有误导我们--这些策略全是制造需求的核心部分。一旦他们制造出这种需求,创造出新的几十亿商机的市场,他们就进而剷除市场竞争以巩固地位。但就瓶装水这例子,那对手正是我们饮用干净、安全的水的基本人权。百事公司的副董事长公开表示:“最大的敌人就是自来水。”他们想让我们觉得自来水很脏,而瓶装水是最好的选择。在许多地方,公共用水是受到污染的,多亏像是塑胶瓶产业那些制造污染的产业。然后这些瓶装水公司的家伙都拳擦掌地要提供昂贵的解决方法,让我们离不开他们的产品。It is time we took back the tap. That starts with making a personal commitment to not buy or drink bottled water unless the water in your community is truly unhealthy. Yes, it takes a bit of foresight to grab a reusable bottle on the way out, but I think we can handle it. Then, take the next step: join a campaign that#39;s working for real solutions, like demanding investment in clean tap water for all. In the U.S., tap water is underfunded by 24 billion dollars, partly because people believe drinking water only comes from a bottle!是我们拿回自来水的时候了。那从许下个人承诺开始,发誓不要买或喝瓶装水,除非你社区的水真的很不健康。没错,出门时携带环保杯需要一点先见之明,但我想我们办得到。然后,采取下一步:加入一个为了真正的解决方法而努力的活动,像是要求为全民投资干净的自来水。在美国,自来水资金短缺 240 亿美元,这有部分是因为人们相信饮用水只来自塑胶瓶!Around the world, a billion people don#39;t have access to clean water right now. Yet cities all over are spending millions of dollars to deal with all the plastic bottles we throw out. What if that money was spent improving our water systems, or better yet, preventing pollution to begin with? There are many more things we can do to solve this problem. Lobby your city officials to bring back drinking fountains. Work to ban the purchase of bottled water by your school, your organization, or entire city. This is a huge opportunity for millions of people to wake up, and protect our wallets, our health, and the planet.在全世界,有十亿人目前没办法取得干净的水。但各地的城市都在花好几百万元来处理我们丢掉的塑胶瓶。如果把那些钱花在改善我们的供水系统如何呢?或更棒的,用来防止最初的水污染这样如何呢?要解决这个问题,我们能做的还有很多。游说政府官员装回饮水机。努力让你的学校、机构,或整个城市不要购买瓶装水。这是一个几百万人能够觉醒的大好机会,而且还能够守护我们的钱包、健康,以及这个星球。The good news is it#39;s aly started. Bottled water sales have begun to drop while business is booming for safe, refillable water bottles. Yay! Restaurants are proudly serving tap. And people are choosing to pocket the hundreds of thousands of dollars they would otherwise be wasting on bottled water. Carrying bottled water is on its way to being as cool as smoking while pregnant. We know better now. The bottled water industry is getting worried because the jig is up. We are not buying into their manufactured demand anymore. We will choose our own demands—thank you very much—and we are demanding clean, safe water for all.好消息是这已经开始了。瓶装水销售量开始下跌,而安全、可重复使用的水瓶生意开始蓬勃发展。耶!餐厅正大光明地提供自来水。人们选择把几十万块钱留着,而不是浪费在买瓶装水上。携带瓶装水逐渐变得和妇抽烟一样完全不酷。我们现在更明白是非对错了。瓶装水企业开始担心,因为他们的诡计被拆穿了。我们对他们制造出来的需求再也不买帐了。我们会选择自己的需求--非常感谢--我们需要的是全民共享干净、安全的水。 Article/201509/396819Over the course of your lifetime,在你的一生中you#39;re likely to be prescribed more than 14,000 pills.医生可能给你开了超过一万四千颗药丸Tiny little spheres of这种小小的粉末压片crushed powder with almost magical effects,有着魔法般的功效pills that will possibly save药物可以拯救生命and extend your life by decades.并将寿命延长数十年Any medicine actually is a miracle.实际上 任何药物都是一种奇迹If you really think about what a medicine does,只要你想想药物的工作原理that you can design a small chemical人居然能研制出一种化学药品to interfere with a biological process to alter disease...调控生物进程 进而治疗疾病...I mean, it is just astonishing that you ever get there.我们能做到这一点真的令人嗔目结舌These miraculous pills这些神奇药物得以出现often owe as much to serendipity as science.所需的运气与研究并重We started with a drug that we hoped would be effective in angina我们研制这种药的初衷 是为了治疗心绞痛and we ended up with a medicine最后却发现这种药物that was highly effective in erectile dysfunction.对治疗阳痿非常有效This accidental nature of drug discovery means little is known这种药物发现的偶然性表明about what they can do until we all take them.在用药物前我们对它知之甚少In many ways you learn as much about即便投放市场之后your medicine after it#39;s launched as you knew before.你对药物许多方面的了解也并无增加 Article/201501/354661

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