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来源:豆瓣分享    发布时间:2019年07月21日 13:30:53    编辑:admin         

四六级资讯 Sensory Evaluation of Food 阅读练习与讲义 -- :51:7 来源: 阅读理解 Exploration of the Titanic  A Polish proverb claims that fish, to taste right, should three times—in water, in butter and in wine. The early efts of the basic scientists in the food industry were directed at improving the preparation, preservation, and distribution of safe and nutritious food. Our memories of certain foodstuffs eaten during the World War II suggest that, although these might have been safe and nutritious, they certainly did not taste right nor were they particularly appetizing in appearance or smell. This neglect of the sensory appeal of foods is happily becoming a thing of the past. Bow, in the book “Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food,” the authors hope that it will be useful to food technologists in industry and also to others engaged in research into problem of sensory evaluation of foods. An attempt has clearly been make to collect every possible piece of inmation, which might be useful, more than one thousand five hundred references being ed. As a result, the book seems at first sight to be an exhaustive and critically useful review of the literature. This it certainly is, but this is by no means is its only achievement, there are many suggestions further lines of research, and the discursive passages are crisply provocative of new ideas and new ways of looking at established findings.  Of particular interest is the weight given to the psychological aspects of perception, both objectively and subjectively. The relation between stimuli and perception is well covered, and includes a valuable discussion of the uses and disadvantages of the Weber fraction of differences. It is interesting to find that in spite of many attempts to separate and define the modalities of taste, nothing better has been achieved than the familiar classification into sweet, sour salty and bitter. Nor is there as yet any clear-cut evidence of the physiological nature of the taste stimulus. With regard to smell, systems of classification are of little value because of the extraordinary sensitivity of the nose and because the response to the stimulus is so subjective. The authors suggest that a classification based on the size, shape and electronic status of the molecule involved merits further investigation, as does the theoretical proposition that weak physical binding of the stimulant molecule to he receptor site is a necessary part of the mechanism of stimulation.  Apart from taste and smell, there are many other components of perception of the sensations from food in the mouth. The basic modalities of pain, cold, warmth and touch, together with vibration sense, discrimination and localization may all play a part, as, of course, does auditory reception of bone-conducted vibratory stimuli from the teeth when eating crisp or crunchy foods. In this connection the authors rightly point out that this type of stimulus requires much more investigation, suggesting that a start might be made by using subjects afflicted with various ms of deafness. It is well-known that extraneous noise may alter discrimination, and the attention of the authors is directed to the work of Prof. H. J. Eysenck on the “stimulus hunger” of extroverts and the “stimulus avoidance” of introverts.  1. The reviewer uses a Polish proverb at the beginning of the in order to  [A]. introduce, in an interesting manner, the discussion of food.  [B]. show the connection between food and nationality of food.  [C]. indicate that there are various ways to prepare food.  [D]. impress upon the er the food value of fish.  . The reviewers appraisal of “Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food” is one of  [A]. mixed feelings. [B]. indifference  [C]. high praise. [D]. faint praise.  3. The writer of the does not express the view, either directly or by implication, that  [A]. sharply defined classifications of taste are needed.  [B]. more research should be done regarding the molecular constituency of food.  [C]. food values are objectively determined by an expert “smeller”.  [D]. temperature is an important factor in the value of food.  . The authors of the book suggest the use of deaf subject because  [A]. deaf people are generally introversive.  [B]. the auditory sense is an important factor in food evaluation.  [C]. they are more fastidious in their choice of foods.  [D]. All types of subjects should be used.  Vocabulary  1. preservation 保鲜,保存  . sensory appeal 感官的魅力  3. be provocative of 脱颖而出  . exhaustive 详尽的,无遗漏的  5. discursive 推论的  6. be provocative of 引起……争论兴趣等的  7. crisp 有力的,有劲的  8. perception 感觉,知觉,直觉  9. modality 方式  modality of taste (味)感觉到  . discrimination 鉴别力  . localization 地区性,定位  . merit 值得……,有……价值  . crunchy 嘎吱作响的  . extraneous 外部的  . extrovert 外向性格的人  . introvert 内项性格的人  难句译注  1. although these might have been safe and nutritious, they certainly did not taste right nor were they particularly appetizing in appearance or smell.  [结构简析] in appearance or smell 应译成:色或香  [参考译文] 虽然这些饭菜可能是安全又有营养,但是肯定味不正,特别是在色,香上难以增进食欲  . This it certainly is, but this is by no means is its only achievement, there are many suggestions further lines of research, and the discursive passages are crisply provocative of new ideas and new ways of looking at established findings.  [结构简析] 复合句This 指前一句内容:书既详细又是对有关食品学的文字做了十分有用的…… Be provocative of 引起……争论或兴趣  [参考译文] 确实如此,可是这并不是书的唯一成就,因为书内有许多关于进一步研究范围的建议推论性篇章及能令人非常感兴趣的看待现存成果的新观点和新方法  3. The relation between stimuli and perception is well covered, and includes a valuable discussion of the uses and disadvantages of the Weber fraction of differences.  Weber fraction 为Ernest Heinrich Weber所著,他生于95年,死与1878,是德国生理学家  [参考译文] 书中详细论及刺激和感觉的关系还包括了一篇很有价值的讨论文章:谈论威伯分数在评价差异上的缺点和实用性  写作方法和文章大意  这是一篇介绍“感官评价食品的原理“一书的序言评者从书的读者对象,书的篇幅到内涵具体涉及片谈起,从主观到客观论,采用例子和对比说明第一段全面介绍,点出此书不同于过去的书它们都把重点放在改善准备,保养和销售上此书信息多,引参考资料多,对今后研究有新建议; 对已有成果有新关点第二段,从客观到主观的论述味觉,嗅觉并加以对比第三段从众多其它感觉中,以听觉为重点论  祥解  1. A. 以有趣的方式开始介绍食品讨论文章一开始,评者就用“波兰有一谚语说,鱼,要想品味正,应游泳三次——在水里游,在油里游和在酒中游”这是国外广告式论说文经常才用的一种写作方式目的是吸引读者,激起他们想读下去的欲望,以达到推广作用  B. 表明食品和国籍的关系 C. 表明有各种准备食品的方法 D. 加深读者对鱼的价值的影响,三项都不对  . C. 评价高者当然对此书评价极高,这是序言的必然途径贬的就是批评文章了全篇文章也说明这点  3. C. 食品价值由专家的嗅觉客观决定这和第二段后半段的内涵有联系他说,味道可分甜,酸,咸辣,而味觉生理性却无明确无误的据“至于(嗅觉)闻,由于鼻子特别灵敏,对外界刺激的反映主观性强,所以任何分类体系均无价值”作者建议以“大小,形状和涉及分子电子态为基础的分类值得进一步探讨研究,就像理论性前提一样刺激物分子和受体之间弱的物理结合是刺激生理机能的必要组成部分”这段文章谈到味觉,嗅觉但并没有直接或间接表达这种观点:食品的价值是通过专家的嗅觉客观判定  A. 需要明确无误的味觉分类酸,咸,辣就是味觉的分类 B. 有关食品分子构成进行更多研究文内也讲到有关分子电子态应进一步研究 D. 温度是食品评价中的一个因素文内只在第三段提到了“除了味觉,嗅觉外,口中食品还有其他许多种感觉成分,基本为疼,冷,热,触碰以及震动感,鉴别力和地区性都可能起作用“作者直接说明热是可能有作用的  . B. 听觉在食品评价中是一个重要因素这在第三段内提到除了味觉和嗅觉外,口中食品还会产生许多其它感觉基本可分为痛,冷,热,触碰以及震动感,鉴别力和地区性都可能起作用就像在吃脆硬或嘎嘎作响的食品时,听觉接受了来自牙齿骨操纵的震动刺激在这方面,作者真确指出这种刺激需进行更多探讨研究,建议运用受各种听不见痛苦折磨的 病人作起点研究众所周知,外部的噪声会改变分辨力和注意力“这说明B. 听觉在食品评价中起着重要作用是对的  A. 聋子一般是内项的 C. 他们在选择食品时很挑剔 D. 各种物体都应当应用都和本文无关 讲义。






考研英语 年考研英语模拟训练答题需注意点 --5 ::00 来源: 研英语考场答题是最为关键和最具决定性的时刻,大家一定要有条理,不慌不乱下面四点考生一定要多加注意,在做模拟题和时也可以参考  1、考研英语分为两个阶段,考场之上最忌“抢答”  首先要做好答题前的准备:正式开始答题前几分钟,同学们就会拿到英语试卷从考试要求来说,正式考试开始之前,是绝对不允许动笔答题的这时,首先要快速地整体浏览一下试卷,大致判断一下对于自己来说试卷的难度  这里要特别注意留意两个部分:一是阅读理解,通过语篇词汇和话题,感觉一下难度,同时要确定哪几篇是自己感觉能读懂和要尽力全部答对的,哪些可能单从语篇词汇就超出了自己的能力,不能“硬攻”,而更要讲究答题技巧的;二是看一看书面表达题目,大致勾勒出一篇文章结构,特别是想一想需要使用的词汇,有哪些就在脑子里,哪些一时想不起来对于这样的词,可以随着答题进程,借助试卷信息得到提示  、不要“长”答,要合理分配答题时间  在第一个阶段的英语考试中,控制好答题节奏,合理利用时间,这一点非常重要阅读理解部分由于语篇多,词汇量和阅读量都大,比较耗时,但千万不能在这里“恋战”如果因为一味地在阅读上耗时,从而牺牲了其他部分的答题时间,那将是得不偿失的要有效地控制考场答题时间,考前的这段时间,还要特别注意做好“限时”训练,形成自己答题时良好的时间感  此外,考生要准确的表达出来,文字要严谨些,尽量用政治术语答题时可以从正反两面去论,比如你在肯定唯物主义的同时,也可以批判唯心主义,这样给老师的印象就是你对这个问题把握的很到位,从而高分也就理所当然了  3、调动语感做到“一答”准确  考研英语考查语言的运用,,考试中有没有语感,就变得非常重要答题时,不要一味地想语法,想考点,要把考试变成“调动语感”和进行“语言交流”要自觉运用平时训练所形成的答题技巧对应试卷各个题型,在回答问题时要注意:(1)单项选择:一定要从题干语义入手,不要一上来就往空上带选项对于感觉不太清晰的题干,可以做一些变化,化陌生为熟悉()完型填空:不要急于一上来就填,先要快速浏览全文,对文章有一个整体的感知,整体把握好语篇选择时要捕捉好文章中出现的复现信息做完型可以将全文多读几遍(3)阅读理解:首先要判断题目类型,把题干读准,把关键词找对寻找原文信息时,还可以将自己答题的位置做个简单的标记,以便看准,读透要特别注意辨明选项的干扰方式,了解命题人常用的干扰方法,这样就不至于落入陷阱()翻译的重要一步就是一定要理解原文,然后在用自己的语言通顺的表达出来,英语重在意合,英语重在形合(5)书面表达:审题抓住体裁,不遗漏要点,这是保完成书面表达要求的关键一条在写作中尽量多使用学过的语法结构句、特殊句式或恰当的修辞过渡语的运用,务必要规范准确  、仔细填涂答题卡  避免“非能力失分”英语考试不仅检验平时训练是否“有素”,“功力”是否“完满”,也体现临场发挥的程度和水平希望同学们关注考试程序,注重答题的每一个细节,稳定心理,正常、甚至是超水平发挥,以期在考试中取得优异成绩。

欢迎学习《读句子轻松学英语四级语法【第98节】98.As far as I know, no such drugs are ever known to work.四级词汇讲解:口语中经常以as far as I know作为一句话的开头,意为“据我所知”,其后的内容便是说话的重点,这也正是听力的常见设题点no such…ever…意为“此类……从未……”,表示强调句中的work意为“有效果,起作用”英语四级考点归纳:听力中与as far as I know类似的表达还有:※ asso far as Im concerned意为“就我而言”如:So far as Im concerned, I;m not going to run the program就我而言,我不会去运 作这个项目※ as far as sb.sth. is concerned意为“就某人或某事物而言”如:As far as permance is concerned, weve done quite well.就表现而言,我们做得还不错※ as far as it goes意为“就其本身而言”如:The statement is correct as far as it goes.该表述就其本身而言是正确的学习更多《读句子轻松学英语四级语法。

考研英语 考研英语:必考核心词汇坚持练(第十六天) -- ::3 来源: 我们知道,复习贵在持之以恒,尤其像考研英语这种学科,单词、翻译、作文都需要坚持定时定量的练习,才会有效果具体每天该如何复习、复习多少,考研的同学们应该根据自身的实际情况来制定,我们可以定期给你提供一些小练习,坚持读下去,也会对你有不小的帮助  upsetv.使……心烦意乱;打翻,推翻a.难过的;不安的I suppose how upset you were just from the expression in your eyes.从你的眼神中可以看出你有多心烦意乱The heavy waves upset the boat and the fishermen had to swim to the bank.巨浪打翻了船只,船上的渔民只得游回岸上up(上)+set(放置)→心里七上八下→使心烦意乱unhappy, distraught; disorderIt upsets profit-making journal publishers.这使得营利杂志出版商们感到非常恼火 perseverev.坚持,坚忍,不屈不挠We should persevere in arming the people with scientific theories, guiding the people with correct public opinions, molding the people with noble minds, and inspiring the people with superior works.坚持以科学的理论武装人,以正确的舆论引导人,以高尚的精神塑造人,以优秀的作品鼓舞人per-(始终)+severe(严格的)→始终很严格的→坚持insist, adhere, stickpersistence n.坚持,持久性 absorbv.吸收(水、光、蒸气等);使全神贯注The temperature of air is higher, and the water vapor that it can absorb is just more.空气的温度越高,它能吸收的水蒸气就越多He is absorbed in studying the science.他专心致至于科学研究attract, seize, engageDuring the same period, families have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement income.在同一时期,很多家庭被要求在他们的退休收入中承担更多的风险 verbala.用言辞的,用文字的;口头的;动词的You don’t have to tolerate any verbal or physical abuse.你不是非得忍受所有口头上或身体上的侮辱This written report contains both a verbal description and a sketch of the building.这份书面报告包括了这座建筑的文字描述及草图verb(言,词)+-al→口头的oralverbally ad.口头地,用言辞地 nonverbal a.不用语言的;不用动词的IQ test ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies.智商测试要求你完成文字和视觉的类比耐心之树,结黄金之果前进的路看似曲折,但只要认准方向,并抱着坚定的信念“耗”到底,就终会得到自己想要的,怕就怕半途而废马克思说过一句话:生活就像海洋,只有意志坚强的人,才能到达彼岸考研也一样,祝各位考生都能成为最后的胜者。

英语能力>英语作文>初二英语作文 寒假英语日记每日一篇:我的生日(My Birthday) --01 :18: 来源: 寒假英语日记每日一篇:我的生日(My Birthday)It's my birthday today,but both my parents got aboutit.I had expected a big birthday cake and some good gifts from them yesterday night,however,when i got up this morning,all the good wishes broke.They were not home,only a note sticking to the refrigerator ,it :"There is money in the drawer,go to buy breakfast yourself."Theyonly know their business and money!I hate them.今天是我的生日,但是我的爸爸妈妈都忘记了昨天晚上我原本还期待着一个大大的生日蛋糕盒各种精美的礼物,然而,今天早上我起来的时候,一切美好的心愿都落空了他们不在家,只有一张纸条贴在冰箱上,上面写着:“抽屉里有钱,自己去买早餐吃吧”他们就只知道他们的生意和钱!我讨厌他们。