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来源:快乐信息    发布时间:2019年11月13日 10:38:36    编辑:admin         

U.S. President Barack Obama has chosen the Defense Department's head of intelligence to oversee the nation's 16 intelligence agencies. Retired Air Force General James Clapper is the president's choice to be the new Director of National Intelligence.President Obama says General Clapper is one of the nation's most experienced and most respected intelligence professionals. "He has improved information-sharing, increased intelligence support to our troops in Afghanistan and Iraq, upheld civil liberties, and he played a key role in our effort to update and reorient our intelligence community to meet the threats of our time," said President Obama.If approved by the Senate, Clapper would be the fourth Director of National Intelligence. Retired Admiral Dennis Blair resigned last month after a series of conflicts with the White House.Mr. Obama introduced his nominee Saturday in a brief speech in the White House Rose Garden.Clapper spoke for only 40 seconds, saying nominees for Director of National Intelligence (DNI) are "better seen than heard.""We have the largest, most capable intelligence enterprise on the planet, and it is the solemn, sacred trust in the DNI to make that enterprise work," he said.Clapper has spent several decades in military intelligence. He led the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, which analyzes images taken from above. He also headed the Defense Intelligence Agency, which often works closely with the CIA.Clapper is known for being blunt and direct. His manner has won praise in the military, but some of the lawmakers who will decide whether he is confirmed say he is not cooperative enough.President Obama says Clapper's no-nonsense style will be an asset in his new job."He possesses a quality that I value in all my advisors: a willingness to tell leaders what we need to know, even if it is not what we want to hear," added President Obama.Mr. Obama admits that coordinating the activities of 16 U.S. spy agencies is a major challenge, but he believes Clapper will be able to do so."In short, our intelligence community needs to work as one integrated team that produces quality, timely and accurate intelligence. And let us be honest, this is a tough task. But this will be Jim's core mission, he is eminently qualified, and he has my complete confidence and support," Obama explained.The president says the U.S. intelligence community has vastly improved since the terrorist attacks on New York and the Pentagon in 2001. But he says December's incident in which a Nigerian man boarded a jet headed for Detroit with explosives hidden in his underwear shows that more work lies ahead.Mr. Obama is calling on the Senate to quickly approve General Clapper's nomination. 美国总统奥巴马挑选国防部情报负责人监督美国16个情报机构的工作。美国空军退役将军詹姆斯.克拉珀是奥巴马总统新任国家情报总监的人选。奥巴马说,克拉珀将军是美国最有经验,也是最受尊敬的情报专业人士之一。他说:“他提高并增加了驻阿富汗和伊拉克美军的资源共享和情报持,维护了公民自由。他还在我们更新和调整情报机构,以适应当前这个时代的威胁中发挥了关键作用。”如果获得参议院批准,克拉珀将是第四任国家情报总监。退役的海军上将丹尼斯.布莱尔在与白宫发生一系列冲突后于上个月辞职。奥巴马星期六在白宫玫瑰园发表简短讲话,介绍了他提名的人。克拉珀只发表了40秒的讲话。他说,国家情报总监提名人“做出让人有目共睹的工作比夸夸其谈重要”。他说:“我们有全世界最大、最有能力的情报机构,对于国家情报总监庄严而神圣的信任使得这个机构能够运转。”克拉珀从事了几十年的军事情报工作。他曾领导美国国家地球空间情报局。该机构负责分析从上方拍摄的图像。他还曾担任国防情报局负责人。这个机构常常与美国中央情报局开展密切合作。克拉珀因他的直率和不拐弯抹角而闻名。他的这一行事作风在军中赢得赞扬,但是将决定他的任命能否得到确认的一些国会议员表示克拉珀的态度不够合作。奥巴马说,克拉珀严肃的风格将是他新工作中的一大优势。他说:“他拥有一种品质,这也是我对我所有的顾问非常重视的一点,那就是愿意告诉领导人们我们需要知道的东西,即使那并不是我们想要听到的。”奥巴马承认,协调美国16个情报机构的活动是一项重大挑战,但是他相信克拉珀将能够胜任这份工作。奥巴马说:“总而言之,我们的情报机构需要作为一个一体的团队,收集高质量的、及时的和准确的情报。让我们坦率地说,这是一项艰巨的任务。但是这将是吉姆的核心任务。他绝对有资格胜任这份工作,他拥有我完全的信任和持。”奥巴马总统说,美国的情报机构在2001年对纽约和五角大楼的恐怖袭击后已经获得了重大的改善。但是他说,去年12月一名尼日利亚男子将爆炸物藏在内衣里登上一架飞往底特律的班机的事件显示,还有更多的工作摆在面前。奥巴马呼吁参议院尽快批准对克拉珀的提名。201006/105591。

Chinese Food Giant Eyes Australian Sugar Maker in Billion-Dollar Offer上海光明食品拟收购澳原糖生产商A Chinese food giant has offered .4 billion to buy one of Australia's biggest sugar companies. The huge bid could reignite concerns about Chinese investment in Australia.中国一家食品集团出价14亿美元,计划收购澳大利亚最大的原糖生产企业。这项金额庞大的投标可能重新引发民众对中国在澳大利亚投资行动的关切。Shanghai's biggest food company, Bright Food Group, is trying to buy the sugar business of CSR, one of Australia's oldest firms.上海最大的食品公司-光明食品集团,正试图收购澳大利亚原糖生产商西斯尔公司(CSR),西斯尔公司是澳大利亚历史最久的原糖生产企业之一。Bright Food has some powerful and wealthy backers. Its majority shareholder is the Shanghai City government, which would fund any takeover of the Australian company.光明食品集团拥有一些有权势和富有的持者。集团最大的股东上海市政府会对该集团收购西斯尔的任何计划提供资助。Industry experts say that such an acquisition would make sound economic sense, as sugar prices have more doubled in the past year.行业专家说,此类收购计划在经济上站得住脚,因为原糖价格去年翻了一番还多。CSR has rejected the Chinese offer and it is unclear if Bright Food will return with a sweeter deal to tempt the Australians.西斯尔公司已经拒绝了中方的收购建议,目前不清楚光明食品集团是否会重新提出一份诱惑力更大的收购建议。Some analysts believe the move could exacerbate tensions about Chinese investment in Australian firms, amid concerns about foreigners controlling vital and lucrative assets.一些分析人士认为,此举会加剧中国投资澳大利亚企业所造成的关系紧张,因为当地民众担心外国人会控制澳大利亚关键的获利资产。201001/94662。

Japan's catastrophes 灾难来袭日本 Nature strikes back大自然的报复Can fragile Japan endure this hydra-headed disaster?脆弱的日本能否抵御多重灾难的冲击? UP A shallow river, five kilometres from the Pacific coast in Japan’s north-eastern Iwate prefecture, lie the remains of a town. Crushed wooden houses now resemble matchwood, scattered in every direction over swampy wasteland. A purple car is partially submerged in mud. The piles of debris reach two metres high.在日本东北部的岩手县,太平洋沿岸五公里处一条小河的上游保留着一座小城的遗址。泥泞的土地上,被毁坏的木制房屋像火柴棍一样零星地散落在各方。一辆紫色的汽车半掩在淤泥中,废墟堆了足有两米高。Only on close inspection do you see that it was never a town at all—at least not there. It was a rice paddy. The houses, shops, cars and people belonged lower down the valley. But the town is gone, washed away. Its debris settled on the field, high up the valley, that was the tsunami’s high-water mark. That is all that physically remains of Rikuzentakata.如果走近观察,你会发现这根本不是一座小城,至少不是这里的小城,这儿是一片水稻田。这里的房屋,商店,汽车和人本来属于下游的小镇。如今他却被海啸冲走,不复存在。废墟散布在地上,提升了地势,这就是海啸水墙过后留下的痕迹。这些就是陆前高田市仅存的残骸。Rikuzentakata, a former whaling town, once held 23,000 people. Several hundred are confirmed dead, but at mid-week perhaps thousands more were still missing. All tried to flee, as they were trained to do, when the tsunami warnings sounded in mid-afternoon. But this was a town of old people, as fishing villages here invariably are. Many just could not make it. Their fate was shared by perhaps tens of thousands of people living in ports, coastal towns and tiny cove communities across the north-east. Some, though, were spared. Above a washed-away hamlet clay-tiled homes are still standing, and a garden with tenderly coiffed trees. Even higher up is a small cemetery.陆前高田市是一个以捕鲸业为主的小镇,这里曾经居住着23000名居民。如今已有几百人被实死亡,但到本周中旬可能仍会有数千人下落不明,而且这一数字在不断增长。下午海啸警报响起的时候,人们纷纷逃难,就像平时训练的一样。但是和其他渔村一样,这里的居民以老年人居多,他们中的许多对逃生就有些力不从心了。不仅这里的居民,东北部港口,沿海城镇和小海湾社区中的居民也经历了这一切,虽然他们中的一些死里逃生。在一座被海啸冲刷过的小村庄里,一间瓦房仍然矗立在原地,旁边的公园里还有仔细修剪过的树木。然而在更高的地方却是一小片墓地。Japan, which shows its love of nature in its reverence for trees and seasons, also knows the awesome power of the physical world—and fears it. Its orderly and law-abiding people know they live on one of the most geologically violent archipelagoes on the planet. The earthquake that struck on the afternoon of March 11th had a magnitude of 9.0, the biggest in Japan’s recorded history. It was so strong that, even in Tokyo’s shock-absorbing skyscrapers, office workers cowered beneath their desks and then raced out into the street, only to be hit again by the whump of aftershocks. 日本人崇敬树木和季节,这显示了他们对自然地热爱。他们同样也了解自然的可怕之处并对其报以敬畏之心。日本人井井有条,遵纪守法,他们知道自己居住在世界上地质运动最为活跃的群岛之一。3月11日下午发生的大地震达到了里氏9.0级,这是日本有史以来最强的一次地震。这次地震威力无比,东京的天大楼虽然有减震设计,但是在其中工作的人们还是不得不躲到桌子下面,并在安全的时候快速冲出了大楼。然而等着他们的又是一波余震。201104/130126。

Climate change and crops气候变化与农作物Hindering harvests妨害产量Changes in the climate are aly having an effect on crop yields—but not yet a very big one 气候变化已经对农作物产量造成影响——但是迄今影响不大May 5th 2011 | from the print editionTHE problems climate change looks likely to bring in the future may increasingly be visible in the records of the past. Not just in the far-off ages of surging sea levels following ice-age thaws, spikes in prehistoric temperatures correlated with natural releases of greenhouse gas and ancient civilisations brought low by drought, but in records from living memory—which are based on reliable measurements made at the time. Using such data researchers have now compiled an estimate of global changes in crop yields which can be put down to recent increases in temperature and decreases in rainfall (the world as a whole is getting wetter, but the rain has stayed away from some agricultural plains). The bad news is that they find that climate change has lowered the amount of maize (or corn, if you prefer) and wheat produced in a given area. The good news is that the effect is so far reasonably small. 冰河融化后的远古时代,海平面急剧上升,由于温室气体的自然释放,气温处于史前时代最高峰,古代文明由于干旱而衰落。在记忆可及的近代,人们根据可靠的测量对气候变化做了记录。根据过去的这些记录,气候变化可能造成的影响,在未来也许会越来越明显。研究人员利用这些数据,现在已经对全球农作物产量的变化做出了估计。农作物产量变化的原因可能是近来气温的升高和降水的减少(世界总的来说越来越潮湿,但是雨水远离了好些农业平原地区)。消息有好有坏。坏消息是,他们发现,在上述地区气候变化使玉米(或叫包谷,如果您喜欢的话)和小麦减产。好消息是,迄今为止气候变化的影响相当小。201105/135674。

Aid Agencies Speed Up Humanitarian Assistance to Pakistan联合国向巴基斯坦紧急空运救援品 UN aid agencies are expanding and speeding up their relief operations to hundreds of thousands of people displaced by fighting in Pakistan's northwest province. A UNHCR charter plane carrying 120 tons of relief supplies for people fleeing the fighting landed in Pakistan earlier Tuesday.联合国救援机构正在扩大并加速援助行动,帮助巴基斯坦西北省份由于战乱而流离失所的数十万民众。一架联合国难民署的包机载着120吨为援助那些逃离战区民众的物资,星期二稍早降落在巴基斯坦。The UNHCR emergency airlift took off from Dubai early Tuesday morning. The agency says the stock of thousands of mosquito nets, plastic sheets for emergency shelters, plastic rolls and two large portable warehouses it was carrying will be loaded onto seven trucks.联合国难民事务高级专员公署的紧急空运物资星期二凌晨从迪拜起飞。这个难民机构说,机上运载的数千顶蚊帐、搭建临时建筑屋顶的塑料布、塑料滚筒以及两个大型便携式仓库等物资,将装上7辆卡车。UN refugee spokesman, Ron Redmond, says the supplies will be taken immediately to UNHCR's warehouse in Peshawar, the capital of the North West Frontier Province. 联合国难民署的发言人罗恩·莱德蒙说,这些物资将立即送往难民总署在西北边境省首府白沙瓦的库房。"This airlifted consignment will bolster the thousands of relief supplies such as tents and kitchen sets, jerry cans and so on that are either locally procured or from our existing stockpiles in Pakistan," Redmond said. "UNHCR is distributing this stuff alongside our non-government partners and local authorities, as part of a joint UN response. People are being registered in camps and at 38 registration centers that have now been established by the authorities with UNHCR help. We are in the process of setting up 75 such registration centers." 莱德蒙说:“空运物资将加强数以千计的救援设备,比如帐篷和厨房用品、简便油桶等各种从当地获得的,或者从我们已经存放在巴基斯坦仓库的物品。联合国难民署和我们那些非政府机构的合作伙伴以及地方当局分发这些物资,以此作为联合国共同反应的一部分。流离失所的民众在难民营以及38个登记中心里获得登记在案,这些中心是地方当局在联合国难民署的帮助下建立起来。我们正在设立75个这样的登记中心。”Government and UN sources put the number of people displaced in the Swat Valley and other areas in northwest Pakistan at 1.3 million since last August. More than one half million have fled since the recent fighting erupted between government forces and Taliban militants.政府和联合国的消息来源将那些自去年8月在斯瓦特河谷以及巴基斯坦西北部其他地区流离失所的难民人数确定为130万人。其中50多万人是在最近政府军和塔利班激进分子之间爆发战斗以来逃离家园的。Redmond says most of the displaced people from the new influx now have been formally registered by the authorities. He says the majority are staying with relatives, friends or host communities. More than 70,000 are in camps.莱德蒙说,新一轮逃离家园的民众中多数已经得到政府正式的登记。他说,大多数人投靠亲友,或者在收容难民的社区里。有7万多人在难民营中。World Food Program spokeswoman, Emilia Casella, says her agency is currently feeding 654,000 internally displaced people. 世界粮食计划署的发言人艾米利亚·卡塞拉说,该机构目前负责供应65万4千名在国内流离失所的巴基斯坦人。"We have got about enough food for 1.5 million people for the next two to three months," Casella said. "And, that is currently what the stocks are in the country and obviously with this influx, there is a great need for increased funding for all humanitarian services. For food so far this year, 42 million in US dollars have been received. But, we are anticipating that the cost of a food operation of this size is going to be closer to about 0 million."卡塞拉说:“今后两三个月里,我们有足够供给150万人的食品。这个数字是目前在巴基斯坦储存的货物。由于这一波难民潮,显然必须有加大的资金力量来持所有的人道主义务机构。 就食品而言,今年到此为止,收到了4千2百万美元的资金。但是我们预计,这种规模的食品运作成本将接近大约一亿两千万美元。”Aid agencies agree the speed and scale of this crisis is posing huge challenges for everyone. They are appealing to the international community to help the growing number of Pakistanis uprooted by the fighting.救援机构都认为,这次危机的速度和规模对大家都形成了巨大的挑战。他们正向国际社会求助,要求对这些不断增加的因战乱而背井离乡的巴基斯坦人提供帮助。05/69692。

Wealth, poverty and fragile states 富国、穷国和弱国MIFFed by misrule 劣政生怨A new category of countries mixes modest affluence with miserable governance 有点钱却又不善管制的新型国家Jul 21st 2011 | from the print edition MOST people think they know what a failed state looks like. An obvious one is Somalia, where an outbreak of famine in the south was formally acknowledged by the ed Nations this week. Help has started to trickle in after the Shabab, an Islamist militia, lifted its ban on aid agencies that it once termed anti-Muslim. In most ways the afflicted region epitomises the collapse of authority: extremists control roads and markets; the government is powerless outside the capital; outsiders provide what little assistance exists.大多数人自以为懂得何谓失败的政权。索马里就是一个典型的例子。这个星期联合国正式承认索马里南部闹饥荒。伊斯兰民兵组织Shabab解除被它称为“反伊斯兰教”的援助机构入境的禁令之后,援助终于缓缓而来。这个备受磨难的地区很大程度上体现了这个国家政权的崩塌:极端主义者控制了道路和市场;政府在首都外无能为力;外援少之又少。But not all failed or fragile states look like Somalia. This month the World Bank issued its annual list of countries by income category: rich, middle, poor. Several African countries are faring rather better than Somalia; they have graduated from poor to middle-income status. Yet strikingly, some 15 of the 56 countries on the bank’s lower-middle income list (ie, over a quarter) also appear on the list of fragile and failed states maintained by the OECD, a rich-country club. They range from Cocirc;te d’Ivoire to Yemen; the most important of them are Pakistan and Nigeria. State failure, it appears, does not necessarily go hand in hand with other human woes, such as poverty.但并非失败或脆弱的政权就该这样。这个月世界发布了一份清单:它将国家分为富裕、中等、贫穷几个级别。好几个非洲国家的状况比索马里好:它们脱离贫穷了。然而令人惊讶的是,在56个收入属于中等偏低的国家(超过四分之一的国家属于这一行列)里,大约有15个被经合组织(一个富国俱乐部)列为政权不稳。从科特迪瓦到也门都属于这一行列,其中最重要的是巴基斯坦和尼日利亚。似乎政权衰败并不总是与人类其它灾难——例如贫穷——共进退。Why should it matter that a group of countries has crossed some arbitrary line separating poor from middle-income status? Perhaps, some may say, it shows that state failure is an extremely elastic term, embracing both countries in total collapse (Somalia, Chad) and those which merely contain large ungoverned spaces. In fact, the emergence of a group of middle-income but failed or fragile states is more than a curiosity. The group—call them MIFFs—includes countries crucial to the future of west Africa and South Asia. The new state of South Sudan , which combines oil wealth with instability and underdevelopment, will surely join its ranks.为什么一些不贫穷的国家也表现出贫穷国家的一些特征呢?有人也许会说,这反映了政权衰败是一个很灵活的用语,既包括哪些完全分崩瓦解的国家(如索马里和乍得),也包括那些有大半领地处于无政府管辖的国家。确实,这些不贫穷但政权衰弱的国家的存在显得很怪。这些国家(暂且叫做MIFFs)中,有些对西非和南亚的未来发展很关键。石油为苏丹南部的新政权带来财富,但那里依旧属于欠发达地区,并且不稳定。毫无疑问,它将会加入这一行列。201108/147320。

Rice Pledges Full Support for Obama Staff Transition at State Department赖斯保国务院工作平稳交接  Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on Wednesday said she will do all she can assure a smooth transition for the incoming Obama administration. Detailed preparations for the handover at the nation's foreign affairs agency are aly underway. 美国国务卿赖斯星期三说,她将尽其所能,保与当选总统奥巴马的政府顺利交接。与此同时,负责美国外交事务的美国国务院已经开始准备交接工作的细节。Rice, the Bush administration's highest-ranking African American official, is hailing the election of the ed States' first African-American President, and is pledging to do all she can to make the State Department transition as smooth as possible. 布什政府中级别最高的非洲裔美国官员国务卿赖斯盛赞美国选出第一位非洲裔总统,并保她将尽力使国务院的过渡平稳进行。In comments to reporters, Rice called President-elect Obama inspirational and Republican candidate John McCain gracious in defeat. She said Tuesday's election was an exercise in democracy in which all Americans can be justifiably proud, especially those of African descent.  赖斯在回答记者问题的时候说,当选总统奥巴马富有鼓舞人的力量,共和党总统候选人麦凯恩虽败犹荣。她说,星期二的选举是一场民主实践,参加这场实践的所有美国人都有理由感到自豪,尤其是那些非洲人的后裔。"As African American, I'm especially proud because this is a country that has been through a long journey in terms of overcoming wounds and making race not the factor in our lives. That work is not done, but yesterday was obviously an extraordinary step forward," said Rice. 赖斯说:“作为一个非洲裔美国人,我感到特别自豪,因为这个国家经过了漫长的道路,克了创伤,使种族因素不再影响我们的生活。虽然这项工作尚未完成,但昨天显然是前进了一大步。”Earlier Wednesday, State Department officials made a final walk-through inspection of a large suite of offices here that will accommodate the Obama administration's foreign policy transition team within a matter of days. 星期三早些时候,美国国务院官员对一大批办公室进行了最后检查,奥巴马政府外交政策过渡小组将在几天之内来这里办公。Extensive briefing books will await the Obama team, covering everything from the status of key foreign policy issues to the management of the vast department, which has more than 20,000 employees -- half of them overseas. 等待奥巴马国务院过渡小组的是大量简报,内容从关键的外交政策问题现状到这个大部门的管理。美国国务院有两万名员工,其中一半在海外。The Obama State Department transition team has more than 200 members, including several key foreign policy figures from past Democratic administrations. 奥巴马的国务院过渡小组有200多个成员,包括过去历届民主党政府的几位主要外交政策官员。The President-elect is expected to announce his choice for Secretary of State early in the transition period. 当选总统奥巴马将在过渡时期早期宣布他的国务卿人选。Although Mr. Obama has been non-committal, press speculation has focused on Democratic Senator John Kerry and Republican Senator Richard Lugar -- both colleagues of the President-elect on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 虽然奥巴马守口如瓶,但媒体的猜测集中在民主党参议员约翰·克里和共和党参议员理查德·卢格身上。他们俩是奥巴马在美国参议院外交关系委员会的同事。Former Clinton administration diplomatic troubleshooter Richard Holbrooke, a key figure in 1990's Balkans peace efforts, is also a reported contender for Secretary of State. 据报道,前克林顿政府专门排解外交难题的理查德·霍尔布鲁克也是国务卿的热门人选。他曾经是上个世纪90年代巴尔干地区和平努力的关键人物。The current Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, William Burns, is running the transition effort, with 24 State Department employees at work expediting security clearances and employment paperwork for incoming Obama transition members. 美国国务院负责政治事务的国务次卿伯恩斯正在进行交接工作。与此同时,24位国务院的工作人员正在加快对奥巴马过渡班子成员进行安全审查和就业文件的审核。200811/55340。

US Looks at Iraq-Style Community Policing for Afghanistan美拟组织阿富汗民众加强地方治安 The Pentagon is preparing what it calls a "pilot program" to organize local Afghan citizens to help secure their towns and neighborhoods. The program is similar to one in Iraq that was a key factor in security improvements there during the last year. 美国国防部正准备在阿富汗推广一项试验计划,把阿富汗民众组织起来,帮助加强市镇和邻里的治安。在过去一年里,在伊拉克实行的一项类似计划对改善伊拉克的治安状况发挥了关键作用。Pentagon Spokesman Bryan Whitman confirmed the plan to launch the program, which was first reported by The New York Times.  纽约时报首先报道了五角大楼即将实施这项计划的消息,五角大楼发言人布莱恩.惠特曼对此加以确认。"It is, I guess, best described as kind of a grassroots program, with prospects that could lead to improved Afghanistan security," Whitman said. "This is more of a pilot program, a very modest initial look at a community type policing program." 惠特曼说:“我想,形容这项计划的最好方式是把它称为一个改善阿富汗治安状况的基层项目。它是一项试验计划,是一项加强社区安全的初步尝试。”Whitman describes the plan as an Afghan government initiative that U.S. and NATO forces are supporting. He says it will start in Wardak Province, near Kabul, where Taliban fighters have been gaining strength in recent months. 惠特曼说,这项计划是由阿富汗政府发起的,得到了美国和北约部队的持,将首先在邻近喀布尔的瓦尔达克省实施。塔利班在那里的势力几个月来不断加强。Whitman says the idea is to deputize local citizens to improve security and extend the reach of the Afghan government.  惠特曼说,这项计划的要点是把改善治安的权力下放给民众,扩大阿富汗政府的影响力。"This is designed to facilitate sharing of information, building trust, all with an eye toward improving governance at the district and provincial level and connecting it better to the central government," Whitman said.  他说:“实行这项计划的目的是促进情报的分享,建立信任,改善地区和省级政府的治理能力,加强地方政府和中央政府的联系。”Whitman says the initial program will involve only several dozen Afghans, but the Times says commanders plan to expand it rapidly if it succeeds. 惠特曼表示,最初的计划只涉及到几十名阿富汗人,但是纽约时报报道说,如果最初的计划获得成功,美军指挥官打算迅速推广这种做法。A similar program in Iraq organized more than 100,000 local citizens, including former insurgents, and put them at checkpoints and local police stations. Commanders credit the program with improving security, partly by turning government opponents into allies. The Iraqi government is in the process of taking responsibility for those forces, absorbing some into the security services and disbanding others. 在伊拉克实行的一项相似的计划把10万多民众,其中包括前反叛份子组织起来,在检查站和警察局值勤。美军指挥官们把伊拉克治安的改善归功于这项计划,因为它把政府的敌人变成了政府的朋友。伊拉克政府目前正在接管这些组织,把其中一些人编入安全部队,同时解散另外一些人。Officials say it was not necessary to provide weapons to the Iraqi groups, which became known as the Sons of Iraq. The New York Times says there is a plan to provide arms to the Afghan citizens' groups, but Whitman could not confirm that. The Times also es Afghans as saying the plan could lead to new local militias and potentially spark a civil war. But Whitman says it is "premature" to be concerned about such things. 官员们表示,这些伊拉克组织被称为“伊拉克之子”,政府不必向他们提供武器。纽约时报报道说,有计划向阿富汗民众组织提供武器,但是惠特曼不能确认这种说法。纽约时报还援引一些阿富汗人的话说,这项计划可能导致新的地方民兵的出现,并有可能激发一场内战。但是惠特曼表示,现在就担心这些事情“为时尚早”。The former U.S. commander in Iraq, General David Petraeus, is now in charge of U.S. efforts in both wars. He has said he wants to transfer some of the concepts used in Iraq to the increasingly difficult fight in Afghanistan. And while he acknowledges the two wars are very different, and he has not said exactly which techniques will transfer and which will not, he believes both have the same top priority - providing security so government efforts to build long-term stability can take hold. 美国前驻伊拉克指挥官彼得雷乌斯将军目前正指挥着伊拉克和阿富汗两场战争。他曾表示,希望把在伊拉克使用的一些概念应用到日益艰难的阿富汗战争中去。他承认,这两场战争有很大的不同之处,而且他也没有说明将转用哪些作法,但是他认为两场战争的重点都是一样的,那就是确保治安,这样政府就可以努力建立长期和持续的稳定。200812/59696。

Vuvuzela enters the dictionaryThe World Cup, global warming and the credit crunch have all inspired the latest additions to the English language.The vuvuzela, the horn instrument which provided the soundtrack to this summer's football extravaganza in South Africa, is one new entry in the Oxford Dictionary of English, which is based on how language is really used.The battle to deal with climate change has given us carbon capture and storage - the process of trapping and storing carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels - and geo-engineering - manipulation of environmental processes in an attempt to counteract the effects of global warming.The credit crunch has introduced toxic debt to the language - debt with a high risk of default - and quantitative easing - the pumping of new money into the national supply by a central bank.Cyberspace produces a constant supply of words and phrases. The dictionary now offers social media - websites and applications used for social networking - and microblogging, or posting short entries on a blog.In all there are more than 2,000 new items in the third edition of the dictionary, which was originally published in 1998.Other new entries are :* wardrobe malfunction: when someone exposes an intimate part of their body after clothing slips;* chill pill: a notional pill to make someone calm;* bromance: a close but non-sexual relationship between two men;* LBD (little black dress): This refers to the simple evening or cocktail dress that, it is claimed, should be part of every womans wardrobe; and* frenemy: a person that one is friendly with despite a fundamental dislike.Vocabulary:extravaganza: any lavish or opulent show, event, assemblage, etc.(盛典,铺张华丽的表演)背单词 — 装英语词汇201008/111760。