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重庆妇幼保健院打玻尿酸多少钱度频道

2020年02月23日 09:40:31|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度云门户

The Zhou culture is apparently a mixture of different cultures of peoples that lived in the Wei River valley.周文化融合了居住在渭水流域的各个民族的文化。After leaving the Wei River plain to expand their realm, the Zhou people adopted keenly the culture of the subdued Shang people. Oracle bone divination, bronze casting for sacrificial purposes and burying rites were almost the same as that of the Shang Dynasty.在向外拓展领土的同时,周人还接受了臣的商文化,用龟骨占卜,铸造祭祀用的铜器等活 动都与商时相同。On absorbing and assimilating others, they also created the culture of their own, and the long history of the Western Zhou, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period witnessed the splendid cultural development in ancient Chinese history. The primary cultural achievements include the following three parts.在吸收借鉴他人的同时,周人也创造了自己的辉煌文化。西周、春秋、战国是我国古代文化大发展时期,主要文化成就有如下3个方面。Five Classics:Book of Odes , Book of Documents , Book of Rites , Book of Changes and Annals of Spring and Autumn are the most important texts to the Zhou tradition, which became also the core texts of the later Confucian classics.The 44 Book of Odes n or ( Shijing ) is the earliest collection of hymns, critics and popular songs from the early Western Zhou and the mid-Spring and Autumn periods. Now there are 305 pieces left.1.五经:“五经”是《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》,是记录周文化传统的重要古典文献,也是儒家的经《诗》也叫做《诗经》,是我国最早的一部诗集,现存305篇。最早的约创作于西周初年,最晚的约创作于春秋中期。It * s the product over 500 to 600 years of accumulation, modification and embellishment.全书经过500 ~600年时间的积累,并经过搜集者的加工和润色而成。The u Book of Documents ( Shujing Of Shangshu , literally Texts of the Old ) is the collection of corpus, accounting the important events like major wars, class relationship, political system and policies from the Shang Dynasties to the Zhou period. They are valuable historical documents.《书》也叫做《书经》或《尚书》,是我国最早的一部文集。主要记述商、周两代的一些重大政治事件,如重要战争、阶级关系、政治制度和政策等,有很高的史料价值。The third great text is the u Book of Changes11 ( Yijing or Zhouyi ), a manual for milfoil divination.《易》也叫做《易经》或《周易》,是我国最早的占卜用书。Its ideas on natural and social changes are simply dialectic.其对自然或社会变化的论述,富有朴素的辩法观点。It is said to have been compiled by the Duke of Zhou.相传该书为周公所编。The Book of Ritesy, is the compilation of partial rites system over the period of the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States, totally 17 pieces.《礼》是春秋、战国时期的部分礼仪制度的汇编,共有17篇。It is traditionally believed to have been compiled by the Duke of Zhou and revised by Confucius.旧说周公制作后经孔子修订。The Spring and Autumn Annals is the earliest annalistic work, which is mainly about the history of the state of Lu.《春秋》也叫做《春秋经》,是我国最早的一部编年体历史著作,以鲁国的历史为主。Confucius is the supposed writer.相传经孔子整理成书。The Hundred Schools of Thought:The Spring and Autumn and The Warring States period is the transitional time from feudal fief lords to feudal landlords, when contentions between the new class and the old became complicated and intense.2.诸子:春秋、战国时期是由封建领主制向封建地主制过渡的时期,新旧阶级之间斗争复杂而又激烈。Scholars or thinkers on behalf of different classes and political powers attempted to explain the universe and society or make proposals according to the interests and demands of their own class or group. Consequently, the contention of hundred schools of thought in the ideological field came into being.代表各阶级、各派政治力童的学者或思想家,都企图按照本阶级(层)或本集团的利益和要求,对宇宙对社会做出解释,或提出主张,于是出现了一个思想领域里的“争鸣”的局面。Among them are Confucianism ,Daoism, Mohist and Legist who have the great influence in the ideological field.其中的儒、道、墨、法四家在思想领域影响最大。Confucius, whose personal name was Qiu and courtesy name Zhongni, was born in 551 B. C. and died in 479 B. C. , a native of the state Lu in the late Spring and Autumn period.孔子,名丘,字仲尼(公元前551 ~公元前479年),春秋后期鲁国人。During his youth, Confucius was for a time a low-ranking and then middle official; then he set up a school and lived on teaching.曾在鲁国任下级和中级官吏。后自办学校,以教书为业。He traveled to the states of Wei, Song, Chen, Cai, Chu to sp his political opinions, which had never been adopted.为宣传他的政治主张,先后游访了卫、宋、陈、蔡、楚等国,但均不被采用。Confucius is a great thinker as well as an educator.孔子是一位伟大的思想家和教育家。In politics,he advocated the sage rulers of Yao,Shun and Yu, praising the system of the Western Zhou, supposing it the ideal society.政治上尊崇尧、舜、文、武、周公,赞扬西周的制度,奉之为人类的理想社会。Benevolence was the core of his political and world views.“仁”是孔子的政治观和社会观的核心。The system and rules instituted to realize it is called Li.为实现“仁”而制定的制度和行为准则为“礼”。Confucius proposed the performance of a benevolent policy.孔子主张行“仁政”。The theory of Confucius not only pushed forward the ancient politics and ethic to a new stage, but also it was the essence of politics and social doctrine of Chinese feudal society. The collection of Confucius ’ sayings is called the Analects or Lunyu .孔子有关“仁”和 “礼”的学说把我国古代的政治和社会伦理思想推进到一个新的阶段,此学说是我国封建时代政治和社会理论的精华,其重要言论收在《论语》中。As the pioneer of private schooling, Confucius was said to have 3000 students.孔子是我国古代私人办学的先驱。相传他有弟子3000。Mencius and Xunzi are the followers of the Confucianism.儒家的代表人物还有孟子和荀子。Mencuis inherited and developed the theory of Confucius with benevolence and righteousness as the pith of his theory.孟子继承孔子的学说而有所发展,其学说的核心是“仁、义”。He assumed that man was good by nature, advocating the benevolent administration and the protection of people and objecting to the dogfight launched by various vassals and cruel exploitation and suppression. All his ideas could be found in his book Mencius.他提出“人之出,性本善”,行“仁政”、“保民”,反对诸侯混战,反对残酷的剥削和压迫,对当时各国的政治和战争多所抨击,其主要学说多收在所著《孟子》一书中。Xunzi, also known as Xun Kuang or Xun Qing, was a native of Zhao.荀子名况,时人尊称他为荀卿,赵国人。Though a Confucian, he had the idea of Legist, contrary to Mencius, assuming that mankind was naturally evil and therefore had to be guided by ritual and rules. The book Xunzi contains most of his important ideas.虽为儒家,但有较浓厚的法家思想。与孟子不同,他认为人之初性本恶,其主要学说多收在所著《荀子》一书中。The second great philosophical school of China, after Confucianism, is Dao-ism.道家是继儒家后的第二大学说。Lao Zi is the founder of it, whose surname was Li and personal name Er, also known as Lao Dan, a native of Chu and a contemporary of Confucius.老子是道家的创始人,姓李名耳字聃,楚国人。约与孔子同时。Daodejing of Laozi was completed in the period the Warring States.老子的《道德经》一书约成于战国时期。It was in favor of letting nature take its own course and of non-interference in people’s life.主张“顺其自然,无为而治”。An ideal society was one small in population and territory.认为理想的社会形态是小国寡民。Zhuangzi was the representative of Daoism in the Warring State Period.道家在战国时期的代表人物是庄子。Zhuangzi’ s personal name was Zhou, a native of Zhao. He wrote the book Zhuangzi.庄子名周,宋人,著有《庄子》一书。Mozi was the founder of Mohists. His personal name was Di, a native of Lu.墨子(约公元前468 ~公元前376年)名翟,鲁国人。The book Mozi contains most of his thoughts.墨家的创始人。His greatest merits were the proposals of a universal love and non-violence.《墨子》 一书基本上保存了他的思想,最有代表性的主张是“兼爱”和“非攻”。He objected to wars, the decayed lifestyle of the ruling class and extravagant funerals.他反对战争,反对统治阶级的腐朽生活,反对厚葬。The thought of Legists reflected the interests of the emerging landlord class.法家是反映新兴地主阶级利益的思想流派。In the early period its leaders were Li Kui, Shang Yang, Shen Buhai and finally Fei.前期法家的代表人物有李悝、商鞅和申不害,后期法家的代表人物是韩非。Han Fei was born in a noble family in Han; he and Li Si were the students of Xunzi.韩非(约公元前280 ~公元前232年)出身于韩国贵族,和李斯同是荀子的学生。He wrote the book oiHan Feizi , illustrating his thought and proposals.著有《韩非子》一书,阐明他的思想和主张。He advocated laws and objected to the doctrine of Confucianism as well as errantry.他崇尚法治,反对儒家说教,也反对民间的游侠横行。He maintained that a sage ruler should neither long for the past nor copy obsolete rules. Instead, they should look at social conditions and adopt appropriate measures.他主张:“明主之国,无书简之文,以法为教;无先王之语,以吏为师。”The king of Qin paid attention to his thought.韩非的主张很为秦王政所重视。Then Han Fei came to Qin from Han,but he was murdered by Li Si,who was jealous of his talents.后韩非自韩至秦,李斯嫉妒他的才能,把他谋害致死。Literature : From the Western Zhou to the Warring States Period, the masterpieces in literature were the Book of Odes and Elegies of Chu , while Qu Yuan#39; s works were the best example of the latter.3.文学:西周至战国时期,文学的代表作,前期有《诗经》,后期有《楚辞》。屈原的著作又是《楚辞》的代表。Qu Yuan, whose personal name was Ping, a noble of Chu, was born in 340 B. C. and died in 278 B. C.屈原(约公元前340年~约公元前278年)名平,楚国贵族。He was worried about the fate of Chu, hoping to improve its political situation and ally with the state of Qi against Qin.他对楚国的命运很关心,想改善政治状况并联合齐国以抵抗强秦。However, the fatuous kings of Chu didn’t follow his advices, and even exiled him twice.可是楚王昏庸,不听他的主张, 还先后两次将他流放。Qu Yuan ’ s works were a collection of poetic verses and songs written in the local dialect and tone of Chu, possessing strong regional characteristics and a u-nique style. It vividly portrayed the authorJ s love to his motherland and the indignation to the corrupt and reactive aristocracy.屈原的作品采用楚国民间诗歌的形式、用楚国的方言而写成,有鲜明的地域特征和色。生动而形象地表达了他对祖国的热爱和对腐朽反动的贵族统治的愤怒。Qu Yuan#39; s works exerted tremendous influence on the development of Chinese literature.屈原的作品对中国文学的发展起到了重大作用。 /201511/407448

Now caffeine addicts are up in arms over Starbucks allegedly under filling its lattes.最近,一群咖啡爱好者们准备联合控告星巴克,原因是拿铁咖啡的分量明显不足。A class-action lawsuit filed last Wednesday in the U.S. district court of Northern California, claims that the coffee chain knowingly and systematically serves customers lattes that are 25 percent smaller than the claims.上周三,美国加利福尼亚州的地方法院受理了一起集体诉讼,原告声称星巴克咖啡连锁店蓄意、且多次出售分量比菜单标识上写的少了25%的拿铁咖啡。The plaintiffs allege that Starbucks not only uses too little liquid in its standard latte recipe but that its cups are not adequately large enough to contain the amount of beverage stated on their size . So if you ordered a grande (16 ounce), it#39;s really more like drinking a tall (12 ounce).原告还声称,星巴克不仅在配置标准拿铁咖啡时加入的咖啡量不够,而且该店盛咖啡的杯子体积太小,和菜单上面标注的饮品容量完全不能匹配。就好比你本来点的是大杯装(16盎司),但是实际呈上来也就只有中杯的分量(12盎司)。The ;fill to; lines etched on the pitchers used by baristas to heat milk result in drinks don#39;t measure up to the tall (12 ounce), grande (16 ounce), and venti (20 ounce) sizes listed on the . ;By underfilling its lattes, thereby shortchanging its customers, Starbucks has saved countless millions of dollars in the cost of goods sold and was unjustly enriched by taking payment for more product than it delivers.;所谓“量满”的刻度线一般被刻在咖啡调配师平时加热牛奶的瓦罐上,但是这一标准和现如今星巴克菜单中所推出的中杯(12盎司),大杯(16盎司)以及超大杯(20盎司)等标准并不相同。咖啡量不足,这从一定程度上已经欺骗了消费者。这样看来,星巴克在降低商品成本这一方面就节省了数百万美元,与此同时,星巴克向消费者提供的商品分量不足,但销售价格未减,属于不正当收益行为。If the lawsuit#39;s class action status is approved, it would be “open to all U.S. Class Members who purchased a Starbucks Latte;—potentially of millions of customers.据悉,如果这起集体诉讼案件得到法院的持,那么这次的原告集体将无比庞大,美国所有曾经买过星巴克不足量拿铁咖啡的消费者大概有百万人之多,都将会成为其中一员。A Starbucks company spokesperson told Eater that ;We are aware of the plaintiffs#39; claims, which we fully believe to be without merit. We are proud to serve our customers high-quality, handcrafted and customized beverages, and we inform customers of the likelihood of variations.;星巴克公司发言人在Eater网站上表示,“我们已经意识到了顾客对我们的控告和不满,但我们认为这些投诉缺乏法律依据。我们一直以向顾客提供优质美味、手工调制以及独家定制的饮品为荣,希望广大消费者能够考虑到出售过程中可能出现的变数和误差。” /201603/433467

Older women have often been portrayed as green-eyed monsters, envying the young and hankering after their own lost looks.年纪大的女人通常都被描述成爱嫉妒的人,她们嫉妒年轻女子,渴望拥有自己曾经的姣好容貌。But it is actually the young who are the most jealous of each other, envious of their friends#39; appearances, relationships, and social success, a new study has revealed.事实上,新研究揭示,年轻人最爱嫉妒彼此,他们会嫉妒朋友的容颜、爱情和社交的成功。It also appears that both men and women are more likely to envy someone who is approximately their own age and of the same gender.还有一种现象,不管男人还是女人都更倾向于嫉妒那些跟他们年纪相当以及同性别的人。The research was carried out by psychology professor Christine Harris and graduate student Nicole Henniger from the University of California, San Diego and is published in the journal Basic and Applied Social Psychology.这项研究由圣地亚哥加利福尼亚大学的心理学教授克莉丝汀·哈里斯以及研究生妮可·亨尼希共同实施执行,并发表在《基础研究和应用社会心理学》这份期刊上。The paper covers two studies: one that surveyed more than 900 people aged 18 to 80 on their own experiences of being envious, and another that asked 800 more in the same age range to remember when they had been the targets of envy.这篇论文包含了两个研究:一个是调查九百多名18岁至80岁的人关于自身嫉妒的经历,另外一个研究是访问另外八百名同龄的人,让他们回忆自己什么时候成为被嫉妒的对象。Envy was a common experience. More than three quarters of the participants reported experiencing envy in the last year, with slightly more women (79.4 percent) than men (74.1 percent).嫉妒是一种常见的经历。据研究报告,超过四分之三的调查参与者在最近的一年里嫉妒过别人,而其中女性产生嫉妒的比例为79.4%,超过男性产生嫉妒的比例,后者为74.1%。But they found that the experience declined with age.但是他们发现这种经历会随着年龄的增长而下降。Around 80 percent of people younger than 30 reported feeling envious in the last year. However, for those aged 50 and over, that figure went down to 69 percent.据研究报告,在过去的一年里,年纪低于30岁的人群中有80%左右经历了嫉妒,然而,对于年纪超过50岁的人来说,这个比例降到了69%。Overwhelmingly, people envied others of their own gender.人们绝大多数是对同性的嫉妒。#39;It surprised us how consistently men envied other men and women, women,#39; continued Professor Harris.“男性嫉妒其他男性,而女性则嫉妒其他女性,这种高度的一致性让我们惊讶。”哈里斯教授说道。#39;Even in domains like financial and occupational success, where you can imagine that a woman might envy a man his better pay or status, that wasn#39;t usually the case.#39;“即使是在诸如金融和职业成功的领域里,你想象到的是一个女性可能会嫉妒一个男性有更高的薪资和更高的地位,但通常情况并不是这样。”Also, people most often direct their envy at similarly aged others - within about five years of their own age.同样,人们最经常将嫉妒的矛头指向年龄相近的人——与他们的年龄相差在5岁之内的人。The researchers found that what people envied also changed with age.研究发现人们所嫉妒的事物也随着他们的年纪的变化而改变。Young people said they felt most envious over looks and romance as well as achievement at school and social success, with 40 percent of participants under 30 said they envied others for their success in romance.年轻人说他们最嫉妒的是外貌、恋爱史以及在学校和社会上取得的成功,其中30岁以下的参与者中有40%的人说他们嫉妒他人恋爱的成功。But fewer than 15 percent of those over 50 said the same.但是在超过50岁的受访者中只有不到15%的人说他们嫉妒的是这类事物。#39;Envy of monetary success and occupational success was common across all age groups,#39; the coauthors write, #39;but these two domains were unique in being more often envied by older people.#39;“对于金钱成功和职业成功的嫉妒是各个年龄群体中都很常见的,”笔者写道,“但是这两个方面独特之处在于,年长的人更容易因此嫉妒。”Elsewhere, the research found that people are more likely to be jealous of their friends than their family - perhaps because the success of these people is more cause for happiness and pride than envy.研究还发现相比于家人,人们更容易嫉妒朋友,或许是因为家人的成功带来的更多是开心与骄傲,而非嫉妒。The researchers could not determine whether the differences observed with age are due to changes over the lifespan or differences among generations.研究者不知道这些在不同年龄人群观察到的差异是由于年岁增长带来的改变还是年代的不同。#39;My hunch, though,#39; Professor Harris said, #39;is that the hold envy has on people diminishes with time. My guess is that it#39;s good news about aging.#39;“但是我的预感是人们所持有的嫉妒感会随着时间的流逝而减少,” 哈里斯教授说,“我想这倒是一个关于变老的好消息。” /201511/409534

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