2019年09月21日 19:56:26|来源:国际在线|编辑:新华解答
Over the July 4 weekend, I made my annual trip to Afghanistan to visit US troops and military commanders. I also travelled to Pakistan to meet civilian and military leaders and to discuss counterterrorism efforts in the region. Two things are clear from that visit.7日前那个周末,我对阿富汗进行了年度访问,看望了美国士兵和军官。我也前往巴基斯坦,会见了政府和军方领导人,并讨论了地区反恐努力。访问之后,我得出了两条明显结论。First, the US mission in Afghanistan is the same today as it was in 2001: to disrupt and defeat terrorist networks that seek to attack its interests and homeland and to deny them safe haven. That mission remains urgent, and it is unfortunately not over yet.第一,如今美国在阿富汗的使命001年时的使命相同:破坏并击败旨在攻击美国利益和本土的恐怖主义网络,让它们失去庇护所。这一使命仍然紧迫,而且遗憾地尚未完成。Second, the US mission in Afghanistan is immeasurably more difficult without Pakistan’s co-operation in taking on terrorists that operate across the Afghan-Pakistani border at will. That is why enhanced co-operation between Afghanistan and Pakistan is essential. Likewise, the strategic imperative for improved relations between the US and Pakistan is clear for the safety of American troops and the success of their mission in Afghanistan, for the stability of the region and for the national security of both Pakistan and the US.第二,在打击自由活动于阿富汗与巴基斯坦边境的恐怖主义分子的过程中,若没有巴基斯坦的合作,美国在阿富汗的使命实现起来要难得多。正因如此,阿富汗和巴基斯坦之间加强合作是非常关键的。同样,在战略上看,美国也必须改善与巴基斯坦之间的关系,这是为了美国驻军的安全及其阿富汗使命的成功,为了地区的稳定,也为了巴基斯坦和美国的国家安全。But recently, the US-Pakistan relationship has been strained. Among other things, limitations on US assistance to Pakistan and congressional reluctance to approve subsidies for the sale of defence articles have added to tensions between the two governments.但近期美国和巴基斯坦的关系出现紧张。美国对巴基斯坦提供援助受到限制,美国国会不愿批准防务装备销售补贴,再加上其他一些事情,加剧了两国政府之间的紧张关系。Despite this and other recent difficulties, US and Pakistani leaders cannot allow ambivalence and suspicion to fester. Common interests in counterterrorism, nuclear security and regional stability are too important and too urgent.尽管存在近期的种种困难,美国和巴基斯坦领导人不能坐视矛盾和怀疑心理滋生。两国在反恐、核安全以及地区稳定方面的共同利益太重要、太紧迫。For too long, the US has viewed the bilateral relationship only through the prism of Afghanistan. To achieve real progress, the US must make clear its enduring commitment to Pakistan’s stability and economic growth.太长时间以来,美国一直只透过阿富汗这枚棱镜来审视美国与巴基斯坦的关系。为了实现双边关系的真正进步,美国必须明确对巴基斯坦稳定与经济增长的长期承诺。For its part, Pakistan must take on and eliminate havens for terrorist groups such as the Afghan Taliban, the Haqqani network, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad that operate within its borders, attack its neighbours and kill US forces. Pakistani leaders, including Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the army chief of staff General Raheel Sharif, have made recent commitments to do just that. Following through on these is critical.从巴基斯坦方面来看,该国必须打击并清除恐怖主义组织的庇护所,这些恐怖主义组织包括在其境内活动、攻击其邻国并杀死美国军人的阿富汗塔利班、哈卡尼网络(Haqqani network)、虔诚军(Lashkar-e-Taiba)以及穆罕默德Jaish-e-Mohammad)。包括总理纳瓦#8226;谢里Nawaz Sharif)和陆军参谋长拉希#8226;谢里夫上General Raheel Sharif)在内的巴基斯坦领导人不久前已经做出了这样的承诺。后续落实承诺是至关重要的。This will be difficult for Pakistan. It will require political will and entail costly sacrifice in blood and treasure. That is why there will be sceptics in the country opposed to decisive efforts to defeat extremism.这对巴基斯坦而言并非易事。巴基斯坦将必须拿出政治意志,并做出鲜血和金钱方面的巨大牺牲。正因如此,巴基斯坦国内将有些怀疑人士反对采取果断行动打垮极端主义势力。But Mr Sharif and Gen Sharif have heard such pleas for restraint before. There were those who said it would be too hard to take on the Pakistani Taliban after it attacked a school in Peshawar and killed more than 130 children in 2014. Fortunately, Mr Sharif and Gen Sharif recognised the threat that these militants posed to Pakistan and took action. Thanks to these efforts, the perpetrator of the Peshawar school attack is no longer a threat to Pakistan or any other country.但谢里夫总理和谢里夫上将此前听到过克制行动的请求。有些人说,在巴基斯坦塔利班2014年袭击白沙瓦(Peshawar)一所学校、杀死30名孩子之后,打击他们太难了。幸运的是,谢里夫总理和谢里夫上将都意识到这些武装分子对巴基斯坦构成的威胁,并采取了行动。多亏了这些努力,白沙瓦学校袭击案的凶手现在对巴基斯坦和任何其他国家都不再构成威胁。In 2014, Pakistan launched Operation Zarb-e-Azb in North Waziristan, a tribal area along the Afghan-Pakistani border where militants had operated with impunity for decades. During my visit to Miram Shah in North Waziristan, I saw the city’s bazaar that once housed bomb-making factories, arms dealers and office fronts for terrorist groups.2014年,巴基斯坦在北瓦济里斯North Waziristan)发动了“利剑行动Operation Zarb-e-Azb)。北瓦济里斯坦是巴基斯坦-阿富汗边境的一处部落区,武装分子在那里无法无天地活动了几十年。我去访问北瓦济里斯坦的米拉萨赫(Miram Shah)时,看到了该市那个曾经聚集着炸弹工厂、军火商和恐怖组织的办公场所的集市。Thanks to the actions of Pakistani soldiers, this death market is no more. Now the military is building roads, border posts, schools and healthcare facilities across North Waziristan, a recognition that the failure to focus on economic development in the tribal areas in previous decades was a profound mistake.得益于巴基斯坦战士们的行动,这一死亡市场已不复存在。如今,军方正在北瓦济里斯坦全境修建道路、边防哨所、学校和医疗设施。他们承认,过去几十年未能集中精力发展部落区的经济,是一个重大错误。This operation did not eliminate every haven nor did it catch every terrorist. And it will require years of follow-up to secure the gains it has achieved. But it has led to security improvements in the country. It shut down bomb-making factories and tunnel networks that menaced Afghanistan. And it displaced militants, many of whom fled into the crosshairs of US and Afghan forces y and waiting on the other side of the border.这一行动没有根除所有的恐怖组织庇护所,也没有抓住所有的恐怖分子。而且,还需要多年的后续行动才能巩固已获得的胜利。但是,该行动改善了巴基斯坦的国内安全状况。它关闭了对阿富汗构成威胁的炸弹工厂和隧道网络。而且,它赶走了武装分子,其中许多人逃进了等候在边境另一侧的美国和阿富汗军队的瞄准范围。Pakistan has the opportunity to prove the sceptics wrong again by taking on terrorist groups that target Afghan, Indian and US forces in the region with the same energy with which it has prosecuted the fight against the Pakistani -Taliban. By taking on all terrorist groups operating in its territory, Pakistan will find that the US remains willing and able to assist in this fight and develop an enduring strategic partnership.巴基斯坦可以拿出跟打击巴基斯坦塔利班相仿的精力,对瞄准该地区的阿富汗、印度和美国军队的恐怖组织发起攻击,这样就有机会再次明怀疑者是错误的。在打击所有在本国境内活动的恐怖组织时,巴基斯坦将发现美国仍然愿意并有能力协助战斗,并与巴基斯坦发展长久的战略伙伴关系。The sooner the US, Pakistan and Afghanistan get down to the business of fighting their common terrorist enemies together, no matter where they hide, the better off the nations, the region and the world will be.美国、巴基斯坦和阿富汗越是尽快着手联合打击共同的恐怖主义敌人——无论他们隐藏在哪里——这三个国家、该地区和全世界就将变得越美奀?来 /201608/457849China appears to be building radar installations on contested reefs in the southern part of the South China Sea, according to satellite images released by a US think-tank, in a move that could significantly boost Beijing’s surveillance capabilities.一家美国智库公布的卫星图像显示,中国似乎正在位于南中国海南部的争议岛礁上布置雷达装置,此举可能显著提高北京方面的监视能力。The Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies late on Monday published photographs that it said showed the development of high-frequency radar towers on Cuarteron Reef and several other Chinese-controlled features in the Spratly Islands.位于华盛顿的战略与国际问题研究中Center for Strategic and International Studies)周一晚间发布图片,称这些图片显示在位于斯普拉特利群岛(Spratly Islands,中国称南沙群岛)的华阳Cuarteron Reef)及其他几个中国控制的地物上,出现了高频雷达塔。It said that while Beijing’s recent construction of airstrips and deployment of anti-aircraft missiles in the South China Sea had caused concern, the apparent radar installations “will prove equally important to Beijing’s long-term strategybecause they “could significantly change the operational landscape in the South China Sea该中心表示虽然最近北京方面在南中国海建设简易机场、部署防空导弹已引起关注,但图片中的雷达装置“将明对于北京的长期战略同样重要”,因为它们“可能显著地改变南中国海的军事格局。”In its analysis of the images from Cuarteron Reef, CSIS said that “two probable radar towers have been built on the northern portion of the feature, and a number of 65ft (20m) poles have been erected across a large section of the southern portion战略与国际问题研究中心对华阳礁图像分析后表示,“在该地物的北部已建成两座貌似雷达塔,而在南部大片地区树立起了许多65英尺0米)高的杆子。”It continued: “These poles could be a high-frequency radar installation, which would significantly bolster China’s ability to monitor surface and air traffic across the southern portion of the South China Sea.”该中心还表示:“这些杆子可能是高频雷达装置。该装置将显著加强中国对南中国海南部水面及空中交通的监控能力。”Euan Graham, a security analyst at Sydney think-tank the Lowy Institute, said that as tensions grow between China and the US, as well as other claimants, the development of radar in the Spratlys would “change the balanceby giving Beijing a “surveillance capability in the southern part of the South China Sea悉尼智库洛伊国际政策研究所(Lowy Institute)的安全分析师尤安格雷厄姆(Euan Graham)表示,随着中国与美国和其他声索国之间紧张升级,在南沙群岛布置雷达将赋予北京“对南中国海南部的监视能力”,这会“改变平衡”。He said that from China’s perspective these islands would have a “natural function as listening posts to monitor air and surface traffic and that Beijing would consider the deployment of radar a “low-risk, non-provocative step他表示从中国角度来看,这些岛屿具备“监听站的天然功能,可以监视空中和海面交通”,北京方面会认为部署雷达是“低风险,没有挑衅性的一步”。News of the possible radar development comes as Wang Yi, China’s foreign minister, travels to the US to meet John Kerry, the secretary of state.在中国可能部署雷达的新闻出现之时,中国外长王毅正前往美国会见美国国务卿约翰克John Kerry)。A spokesman for the state department said on Monday that the US government would continue to “press China to de-escalate and to stop its militarisation美国国务院发言人在周一表示,美国政府将继续“敦促中国逐步降级紧张局势,并停止军事化。”Beijing defended its recent activities in comments made before the images of the purported radar facilities were published.在雷达装置传闻发布以前,北京方面曾发表言论为近期自己的活动辩护。“China’s deployment of limited defence facilities on its own territory is its exercise of self-defence right to which a sovereign state is entitled under international law,said a foreign ministry spokesman. “It has nothing to do with militarisation.”中国外交部发言人表示:“中方在自己的领土上部署必要的国土防卫设施,是行使国际法赋予主权国家的自保权和自卫权。这与所谓的南海‘军事化’没有关系”。来 /201602/428246

Hundreds of thousands of people have marched through the Venezuelan capital, Caracas, in rival demonstrations.近日,数十万反对派持者在委内瑞拉的首都加拉加斯的街头游行示威。Opposition supporters, staging their largest rally for two years, called for President Nicolas Maduros removal.这是两年来反对派持者举行的最大规模集会,他们要求总统尼古拉斯·马杜罗下台。They blame him for Venezuelas economic crisis and accuse the electoral commission of delaying a referendum that could shorten his stay in power.他们谴责了当前委内瑞拉国内严重的经济危机,控告国家选举委员延迟举行可能会缩短马杜罗的执政期的公投。Mr Maduro, whose supporters also rallied in huge numbers, accused the opposition of trying to stage a coup.马杜罗的持者也举行了大规模集会,谴责反对派试图发动政变;The nation has triumphed. They wanted to intimidate the people but the people are here,; said Mr Maduro at a rally in central Caracas. ;We have defeated an attempted coup that tried to fill Venezuela and Caracas with violence, death.;马杜罗在加拉加斯中心的集会上说道:“我们已取得胜利。他们想要恐吓人民,但是人民就在这里。我们挫败了一次未遂政变,他们试图让委内瑞拉、让加拉加斯充满暴力。;We have shown to the world the importance of Venezuela and how much it wants change,; said opposition politician Jesus Torrealba.反对派政治家耶稣·托瑞艾巴则称:“我们向全世界表明了委内瑞拉的重要性及其期望改变的意愿。”Protesters said they had enough of the policies of the governing ed Socialist Party of Venezuela.抗议者表示,他们已准备了充足的政策来统治委内瑞拉执政党社会主义统一党;We are going to defeat hunger, crime, inflation and corruption. Theyve done nothing in 17 years. Their time is finished,; Naty Gutierrez told Reuters news agency.娜蒂·古铁雷斯在接受路透社采访时表示:“我们准备解决饥饿、犯罪、通货膨胀以及贪污问题。马杜罗政府在过7年里什么也没做成,是时候结束他们的统治了。”A small group of protesters clashed with riot police as the peaceful rally ended. In the run-up to the march, a number of opposition politicians were detained.和平集会结束后,一小部分抗议者与防暴警察发生冲突。在游行的准备阶段,许多反对派政界人士已经被逮捕。来 /201609/465740

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