首页>要闻>天下           天下         



2019年08月24日 09:13:35 | 作者:88对话 | 来源:新华社
Science and technology科学技术Pilotless aircraft无人驾驶飞机This is your ground pilot speaking呼叫,这里是你的地面飞行员Autonomous civil aircraft could be flying before cars go driverless民用飞机会先于汽车实现无人驾驶WITHIN the next few weeks a twin-engined Jetstream will take off from Warton Aerodrome in Lancashire, England, and head north towards Scotland.在接下来的几周里,一架双引擎飞机喷流将会从英格兰兰开夏郡的沃顿机场起飞,向北飞往苏格兰。Like any other flight, the small commuter airliner will respond to instructions from air-traffic controllers, navigate a path and take care to avoid other aircraft.与其他班机一样,这架小型通勤客机将会根据空中交通管制员的指示,沿着一条航路飞行,注意避开其他飞机。But the pilot flying the aircraft will not be in the cockpit: he will have his feet firmly on the ground in a control room back at Warton.但是驾驶这架飞机的飞行员却没在驾驶舱里:他在沃顿机场的一个控制室里驾驶着飞机,双脚仍然稳稳地踩在地面上。Pilotless aircraft are now widely used by the armed forces, but those drones fly only in restricted airspace and conflict zones.无人机现在已广泛应用于军队之中,但这些无人机仅用于在禁飞区及冲突地区。The Jetstream mission is part of a project to develop the technologies and procedures that will allow large commercial aircraft to operate routinely and safely without pilots in the same skies as manned civilian flights.而喷流的任务是某个技术及程序开发项目的一部分,该项目的目的在于能让大型商用飞机在没有飞行员的情况下安全的进行常规飞行,与有人驾驶的民航班机在同一片天空中飞行。Fasten your seat belts系紧您的安全带To reassure those of a nervous disposition, the test flights do not carry passengers and pilots remain in the cockpit just in case things go wrong.为了让那些神经质的人安心,测试的飞机不会有乘客,驾驶舱中仍然有驾驶员以防万一,In that way they are similar to Google’s trials of driverless cars, which have drivers inside them to take over if necessary while on public roads.这有点类似于谷歌无人驾驶汽车的实验,在公路上行驶时,如有必要,车中的驾驶员可以控制汽车。Yet unmanned commercial aircraft are likely to enter service before people can buy autonomous cars.但是无人驾驶的商用飞机很可能在人们可以买到无人驾驶汽车前便能投入使用。Modern aircraft are aly perfectly capable of automatically taking off, flying to a destination and landing.现代的飞机已经完全有能力进行自动起飞,自动飞往目的地,自动着陆。These tests are trying to establish whether they can do those things safely without a pilot in the cockpit and at the same time comply with the rules of the air.而要进行的测试是想确认在驾驶舱没有飞行员的情况下,飞机能否在遵守飞行规则的同时,还能安全的完成以上三件事情。Progress is being made, a conference in London heard this week.笔者本周从在伦敦召开的一次会议上获悉,事情正在取得进展。It was organised by the Autonomous Systems Technology Related Airborne Evaluation and Assessment, the group staging the British test flights.本次会议是由机载无人系统技术评审组织举办的,就是该组织在英国进行了无人机测试。This 62m programme, backed by the British government, involves seven European aerospace companies:该项目获得了英国政府的持,投资达六千两百万英镑,共有七家欧洲的航空工业公司参与其中:AOS, BAE Systems, Cassidian, Cobham, QinetiQ, Rolls-Royce and Thales.机载观测系统公司,英国宇航系统公司,凯西典公司, 科巴姆公司,奎奈蒂克公司,劳特莱斯公司及泰雷兹公司。It is potentially a huge new market.这是一个潜在的巨大新兴市场。America’s aviation regulators have been asked by Congress to integrate unmanned aircraft into the air-traffic control system as early as 2015.美国国会已要求该国的航空协调员要在2015年将无人驾驶飞机加入空中交通管制系统。Some small drones are aly used in commercial applications, such as aerial photography, but in most countries they are confined to flying within sight of their ground pilot, much like radio-controlled model aircraft.有些小型无人机已经应用于航拍等商业用途,但在大多数国家,小型无人机的飞行范围被限制在其地面飞行员的视野以内,很像无线电遥控的模型飞机。Bigger aircraft would be capable of flying farther and doing a lot more things.再大一点的无人机能够飞的更远一些,可以做更多的事情。Pilotless aircraft could carry out many jobs at a lower cost than manned aircraft and helicopters—tasks such as traffic monitoring, border patrols, police surveillance and checking power lines.无人驾驶飞机可以完成很多工作,并且比有人驾驶的飞机和直升机成本更低,比如说交通监测,边境巡逻,警务监视及电缆检查等任务。They could also operate in conditions that are dangerous for pilots, including monitoring forest fires or nuclear-power accidents.无人机还可以在对飞行员有危险的环境下工作,包括监视森林火灾或核电事故。And they could fly extended missions for search and rescue, environmental monitoring or even provide temporary airborne Wi-Fi and mobile-phone services.而且无人机还可以执行更多的任务,如搜索救援,环境监测,甚至提供临时的机载无线网络和移动电话务。Some analysts think the global civilian market for unmanned aircraft and services could be worth more than billion by 2020.有分析师认为,到2020年,无人驾驶飞机及其务的全球民用市场的价值可超过500亿美元。Whatever happens, pilots will still have a role in aviation, although not necessarily in the cockpit.无论发生什么,飞行员仍会在航空业占有一席之地,虽然不一定是在驾驶舱里。As far as the eye can see there will always be a pilot in command of an aircraft, says Lambert Dopping-Hepenstal, the director of ASTRAEA.在可以预见的未来,飞机一直都会由飞行员掌控, ASTRAEA的主任Lambert Dopping-Hepenstal说,But that pilot may be on the ground and he may be looking after more than one unmanned aircraft at the same time.但飞行员或许会留在地面上,有可能同时照看好几架无人机。Commercial flights carrying freight and express parcels might one day also lose their on-board pilots.运送货物和快递包裹的商用飞机某天也可能会失去其随机的飞行员。But would even the most penny-pinching cut-price airline be able to sell tickets to passengers on flights that have an empty cockpit?但就算廉价航空公司再怎么精打细算,它能把没有飞行员的飞机的机票卖出去吗?More realistically, those flights might have just one pilot in the future.更现实点说,未来的商用飞机可能只有一名飞行员。Technology has aly relieved the flight deck of a number of jobs.飞行班组的许多职位已经被技术取代了。Many early large aircraft had a crew of five: two pilots, a flight engineer, a navigator and a radio operator.许多早期的大型飞机上有五名机组成员:两名飞行员,一名飞行机师,一名领航员及一名无线电话务员。First the radio operator went, then the navigator, and by the time the jet era was well under way in the 1970s flight engineers began to disappear too.最先是无线电话务员消失了,然后是领航员,等到了20世纪70年代,进入喷气机时代后,飞行机师也消失了。Next it could be the co-pilot, replaced by the autonomous flight systems now being developed.下一个消失的会是副驾驶,被现在正在开发中的自主飞行系统取代。The flight over Scotland will test how well air-traffic controllers can communicate with the ground pilot through the aircraft.在那架飞往苏格兰的飞机上将会测试空中交通管制员通过飞机与其地面飞行员通话的质量。The project is also exploring ways to make the radio and satellite links secure and reliable.该项目还在探寻使无线电及卫星连接安全可靠的方法。But engineers still have to prepare for the eventuality that the link breaks; the aircraft then has to have enough autonomy to operate safely until communications are restored or it can land using its own guidance systems.但是工程师仍必须为连接中断的可能性做好准备;然后飞机必须要有足够的自主权来保飞行安全,直至通讯恢复正常,或者能够使用自己的导航系统着陆。Unmanned aircraft will, therefore, need a sense and avoid capability.因此无人驾驶飞机需要感应并规避的能力。This can be provided by transponders that bleep the aircraft’s presence to other aeroplanes and air-traffic controllers.异频雷达收发机便具备这一功能,它会发出哔哔声来提示其它飞机及空中交通管制员本飞机的存在。But not all manned aircraft have such kit.但并非所有的有人驾驶飞机都有该功能。Some light aircraft and gliders operating at low altitudes in clear weather are not required to have even radios, let alone transponders or radar.一些在晴朗天气下进行低空飞行的轻型飞机和滑翔机甚至不需要无线电,更别提异频雷达收发机或雷达了。Which is why pilots keep their eyes peeled when such traffic might be about.这也是为什么在可能发生这种情况时,飞行员要时刻保持警惕。ASTRAEA’s Jetstream, therefore, also uses cameras to allow the ground pilot to look around outside the cockpit.因此ASTRAEA的捷流号还使用了摄像头以便使地面飞行员可以查看驾驶舱外的情况。Image-recognition software can warn of other aircraft.影像识别软件可以在出现其它飞机时发出警告,This is being tested against different backgrounds, such as a cluttered landscape or a hazy sky.目前正在不同的环境下对该功能进行测试,如地形复杂或天空雾蒙蒙的环境。In other trials, different aircraft are being flown in the vicinity of the Jetstream, and some of them will be flown deliberately towards it on a potential collision course, to see if these intruding aircraft can be recognised by the automated systems and the appropriate avoiding action taken.在其它的试验中,不同的飞机飞至捷流附近,其中几架故意以可能与之相撞的航线飞向捷流,以测试自动系统能否识别这些入侵的飞机并采取适当的规避措施。These flights are taking place in an area cleared of other aircraft over the Irish Sea.以上飞行测试是在爱尔兰海上空一片没有其它飞机经过的空域进行的。The results to date suggest you can do sense-and-avoid as well as a human, says Mr Dopping-Hepenstal.迄今为止的测试结果表明系统的感应并规避的能力能做到和人一样, Dopping-Hepensta说。A pilotless plane must also be able to act autonomously in an emergency.在发生紧急状况时,无人机必须能够自行采取行动。In the event of an engine failure, for instance, it could use its navigational map to locate a suitable area to put down.比如,如果一台引擎发生故障,无人机需要使用其航行图来找到合适地点降落。But what if this was an open field that happened to be in use for, say, a fair?但如果其选择的空地恰好被占用了,比如说成了集市,怎么办?A forward-looking camera might show a ground pilot that.此时前视摄像头会将此影像传给地面飞行员。But if communications were lost the aircraft would rely on image-recognition software and an infra-red camera to detect the heat given off by people and machines and so decide to try to land elsewhere.但如果通讯中断,飞机将依靠影像识别软件及红外摄像头来感知人或机器发出的热量,以此来决定去其它地点降落。The ASTRAEA researchers are carrying out a lot of their work using flight simulators and air-traffic-control data.ASTRAEA的研究人员的许多工作都是通过飞行模拟装置及空中交通管制数据来完成的。But eventually they will still have to prove that their systems can work in the real world—even during emergency landings.但最终他们还是要明他们的系统要能应用在现实的世界里,甚至在紧急迫降时也能使用。In order to satisfy risk-averse aviation regulators, the researchers are working with Britain’s Civil Aviation Authority to certify a virtual pilotless aircraft for use in civil airspace.为了让民航协调员在规避风险方面满意,研究人员与英国民航局一起验了虚拟的无人机用于民用空域的可行性,The intention is not to certify an actual aircraft, but for both sides to learn what will be required to do so.其目的并非是要对真正的无人机进行验,而是为了让双方了解需要为此做些什么。Some of the technologies being developed are also likely to find their way into manned aircraft as a backup for pilots, and possibly for cars too.开发出来技术中有一些可能作为飞行员的后备而应用到有人驾驶飞机,还有可能应用到汽车上。Systems that provide automatic braking and motorway-lane control, for instance, aly feature in many types of car.例如,许多种的汽车都已经配备了自动刹车及公路车道控制系统。These features take cars some of the way towards autonomy.这些功能让汽车走上了无人驾驶之路。But driverless cars, like pilotless planes, will have to fit in with existing infrastructure and regulations, not least insurance liability, before they can take off.但是无人驾驶汽车与无人驾驶飞机一样,在出发前,需要先符合现有的基础设施及规章,尤其是明确保险责任。 /201401/272133Water水资源All dried up全面干涸Northern China is running out of water, but the government’s remedies are potentially disastrous中国北方水资源渐耗尽,政府举措存风险Oct 12th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionCHINA endures choking smog, mass destruction of habitats and food poisoned with heavy metals. But ask an environmentalist what is the country’s biggest problem, and the answer is always the same. “Water is the worst,” says Wang Tao, of the Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre in Beijing, “because of its scarcity, and because of its pollution.” “Water,” agrees Pan Jiahua, of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. “People can’t survive in a desert.” Wang Shucheng, a former water minister, once said: “To fight for every drop of water or die: that is the challenge facing China.”中国正遭受着持续雾霾、栖息地大规模破坏以及食品重金属中毒等问题。然而,当问起环境专家“什么是中国最大的问题”时,得到的通常如出一辙。北京清华-卡耐基中心的王涛答道:“水资源问题最为严重,一方面由于水资源缺乏,另一方面由于它的污染状况。” “水资源,”中国社科院潘家华表示认同,“人们不能在沙漠中生存。”前水利部部长汪恕诚曾说:“中国面临的挑战就是要珍惜每一滴水,否则就是灭亡。”He was not exaggerating. A stock image of China is a fisherman and his cormorant on a placid lake. The reality is different. The country uses 600 billion cubic metres (21,200 billion cubic feet) of water a year, or about 400 cubic metres a person—one-quarter of what the average American uses and less than half the international definition of water stress.他并非夸大其词。人们脑海中的中国印象是平静湖面上的渔民和他的鸬鹚。现实却大相径庭。中国水资源的年消耗量达6000亿立方米(212,000亿立方英尺),即约每人400立方米——为美国人平均使用量的四分之一,不到国际公认的用水紧张线的一半。The national average hides an even more alarming regional disparity. Four-fifths of China’s water is in the south, notably the Yangzi river basin. Half the people and two-thirds of the farmland are in the north, including the Yellow River basin. Beijing has the sort of water scarcity usually associated with Saudi Arabia: just 100 cubic metres per person a year. The water table under the capital has dropped by 300 metres (nearly 1,000 feet) since the 1970s.全国平均用水量背后的地区差异更为令人担忧。中国五分之四的水资源位于南方,尤其是长江流域。一半人口以及三分之二的耕地则位于北方,其中包括黄河流域。北京的水荒常被与沙特阿拉伯的相比较:人均年用水量仅为100立方米。自从20世纪70年代以来,首都的地下水位已下降约300米(1,000英尺左右)。China is using up water at an unsustainable rate. Thanks to overuse, rivers simply disappear. The number of rivers with significant catchment areas has fallen from more than 50,000 in the 1950s to 23,000 now. As if that were not bad enough, China is polluting what little water it has left. The Yellow River is often called the cradle of Chinese civilisation. In 2007 the Yellow River Conservancy Commission, a government agency, surveyed 13,000 kilometres (8,000 miles) of the river and its tributaries and concluded that a third of the water is unfit even for agriculture. Four thousand petrochemical plants are built on its banks.中国正以一种难以长期持续的速度消耗水资源。过度使用使河流几近干涸。重要集水区的河流数量已从50年代的50,000条减至如今的23,000条。仿佛事态还不够严重,中国仅存的河流也正遭受污染。黄河常被称为中华文明的摇篮。2007年,政府组织黄河保护委员会调查了13,000公里(8,000英里)的黄河及其流,结论是三分之一的水域不甚健康,甚至无法用于农业生产。4000家石油化工厂矗立黄河两岸。The water available for use is thus atrocious. Song Lanhe, chief engineer for urban water-quality monitoring at the housing ministry, says only half the water sources in cities are safe to drink. More than half the groundwater in the north China plain, according to the land ministry, cannot be used for industry, while seven-tenths is unfit for human contact, ie, even for washing. In late 2012 the Chinese media claimed that 300 corpses were found floating in the Yellow River near Lanzhou, the latest of roughly 10,000 victims—most of them (according to the local police) suicides—whose bodies have been washing downstream since the 1960s.可用水如此匮乏。建设部城市水质监测中心总工程师宋兰合说,城市水资源中仅有一半能供人安全饮用。据土地称,超过半数中国北部平原的地下水不能用于工业,同时,七成的水不适于与人体接触,也就是说,这些水甚至无法用于洗涤。2012年下半年,中国媒体曝出在黄河兰州段附近发现300具浮尸。自60年代以来约10,000名新受害者(据当地警方称,其中多为自杀)的尸体顺流而下。In the World Bank put the overall cost of China’s water crisis at 2.3% of GDP, mostly reflecting damage to health. Water shortages also imperil plans to expand energy production, threatening economic growth. China is hoping to follow America into a shale-gas revolution. But each shale-gas well needs 15,000 tonnes of water a year to run. China is also planning to build around 450 new coal-fired power stations, burning 1.2 billion tonnes of coal a year. The stations have to be cooled by water and the coal has to be washed. The grand total is 9 billion tonnes of water. China does not have that much available. According to the World Resources Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC, half the new coal-fired plants are to be built in areas of high or extremely high water stress.年,世界认为中国在水危机上的总出占GDP的2.3%,这在很大程度上反映出水资源状况对健康之危害。水资源短缺同样危及扩大能源生产,对经济增长造成威胁。中国希望能跟随美国进入天然气时代。然而,一个天然气井需一年15,000吨水来运转。中国也正在计划建造约450座新的燃煤发电站,一年燃烧12亿吨煤炭。发电站需要用水冷却,而煤炭需要用水清洗。总需水量达90亿吨。供不应求。据位于华盛顿的智囊组织世界资源协会称,一半的新燃煤发电站建造于水资源紧缺或极度紧缺的地区。Every drop is precious滴滴珍贵The best answer would be to improve the efficiency with which water is used. Only about 40% of water used in industry is recycled, half as much as in Europe. The rest is dumped in rivers and lakes. Wang Zhansheng of Tsinghua University argues that China is neglecting its urban water infrastructure (sewerage, pipes and water-treatment plants), leading to more waste. Water prices in most cities are only about a tenth of the level in big European cities, yet the government is reluctant to raise them, for fear of a popular backlash.最好的办法是提升水的利用效率。只有约4成工业用水循环使用,该比例仅为欧洲的一半。而余下的则被弃于江河之中。清华大学王占生认为中国忽视城市水利基建(污水、管道和污水净化厂)导致更多浪费。大部分城市的水费仅为欧洲大城市的十分之一,而政府由于担心民众反对,则不愿涨价。The result is that China’s “water productivity” is low. For each cubic metre of water used, China gets -worth of output. The average for European countries is per cubic metre. Of course, these countries are richer—but they are not seven times richer.造成的结果是中国的“水分生产率”低下。每立方米水产出值为8美元。而欧洲国家平均产出值为58美元。当然,这些国家更为富有——但不至于富裕七倍。Rather than making sensible and eminently doable reforms in pricing and water conservation, China is focusing on increasing supplies. For decades the country has been ruled by engineers, many of them hydraulic engineers (including the previous president, Hu Jintao). Partly as a result, Communist leaders have reacted to water problems by building engineering projects on a mind-boggling scale.相比合理使用、价格显著调整以及水资源保护,中国采取的主要方法则是增加供应量。几十年来,中国的领导人多为工程师,他们中有不少是水利工程师(包括前国家主席胡锦涛)。部分由于上述原因,共产党领导对水资源问题的反应乃是在令人难以置信的范围内建立工程项目。The best known such project is the Three Gorges dam on the Yangzi. But this year an even vaster project is due to start. Called the South-North Water Diversion Project, it will link the Yangzi with the Yellow River, taking water from the humid south to the parched north. When finished, 3,000km of tunnels and canals will have been drilled through mountains, across plains and under rivers. Its hydrologic and environmental consequences could be enormously harmful.此类工程中最著名的就是位于长江的三峡大坝。但今年一个更大的项目即将启动。南水北调工程将长江与黄河接通,将水从湿润的南方调运至干旱的北方。项目完成后,将有3,000公里的隧道与运河贯通山脉,穿越平原与地下河。它将在水文与环境上造成严重后果。The project links China’s two great rivers through three new channels. The eastern, or downstream one is due to open by the end of this year (see map). It would pump 14.8 billion cubic metres along 1,160km of canals, using in part a 1,500-year-old waterway, the Grand Canal. The water pumped so far has been so polluted that a third of the cost has gone on water treatment. A midstream link, with 1,300km of new canals, is supposed to open by October 2014. That is also when work on the most ambitious and controversial link, the upstream one across the fragile Himalayan plateau, is due to begin. Eventually the South-North project is intended to deliver 45 billion cubic metres of water a year and to cost a total of 486 billion yuan (.4 billion). It would be cheaper to desalinate the equivalent amount of seawater.该项目通过三条新水道接通中国两大河流。东部,即下游调水线将于年底贯通(见地图)。它将沿1,160公里的运河(部分利用拥有1500年历史的水道——大运河)输水148亿立方米。迄今输送的水已被污染,以至于三分之一的开被用于水污染治理。长达1,300千米的中游调水线预计于2014年十月贯通。而最为雄心勃勃和最具争议的上游调水线也预备动工,它贯穿了脆弱的喜马拉雅高原。最终,南水北调工程计划每年调水450亿立方米,总花费4,860亿元人民币(794亿美元)。这比除去等量海水中的盐分的成本来得更低。The environmental damage could be immense. The Yangzi river is aly seriously polluted. Chen Jiyu of the Chinese Academy of Engineering told South Weekly, a magazine, in 2012 that the project so far has reduced the quantity of plankton in the Yangzi by over two-thirds and the number of benthic organisms (those living on the river bottom) by half. And that was before it even opened. Ma Jun, China’s best known environmental activist, says the government’s predilection for giant engineering projects only makes matters worse, “causing us to hit the limits of our water resources”.这可能造成巨大的环境破坏。长江已被严重污染。2012年,中国工程院院士陈吉余告诉南方周末记者,项目迄今造成长江浮游生物数量减少超过三分之二,底栖生物(生活在水底的生物)减少一半。这还是没有贯通之前所发生的。中国著名环保斗士马军说,政府对大型工程项目的偏好只会让事情变得更糟,“导致我们冲击水资源的使用极限”。But the biggest damage could be political. Proposed dams on the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra, Mekong and other rivers are bound to have an impact on downstream countries, including India, Bangladesh and Vietnam. The Chinese say they would take only 1% of the run-off from the giant Brahmaputra. But if all these projects were operational—and the engineering challenges of one or two of them are so daunting that even the Chinese might balk at them—they would affect the flow of rivers on which a billion people depend. Hence the worries for regional stability. And all this would increase China’s water supplies by a mere 7%. The water crisis is driving China to desperate but ultimately unhelpful measures.不过,最大的危害可能是政治上的。计划在雅鲁藏布江、湄公河以及其他河流上游建造的大坝必定会对下游国家产生影响,包括印度、孟加拉国和越南。中国方面说他们仅从广阔的雅鲁藏布江中调取1%的水量。但是如果所有的项目都开始运转——其中一两个工程上的挑战就会令人沮丧,届时中国可能予以回避——这将影响傍河而生的10亿人口。从而导致地区稳定上的隐忧。而所有这些工程仅增加中国供水量的7%。水资源危机迫使中国孤注一掷,而终究未必治本。201310/261348

Russias aid convoy来自俄罗斯的援助Putins PR coup普京的“公关部队”Russia offers to send aid to eastern Ukraine俄罗斯表示愿意为乌克兰东部地区提供援助HELP is on the way. Or so Russian state television declared on August 12th, as nearly 300 lorries with food, medicine and generators set off from a base outside Moscow for the besieged city of Luhansk in eastern Ukraine.俄罗斯国家电视台8月12日宣布对乌的援助已经在路上了,接近300辆满载食物、药品以及发电设备的货运卡车已经从莫斯科外的基地出发,准备开往乌克兰东部去帮助卢甘斯克地区那些被围困的城市。Confusion reigns over what the lorries are carrying, and over how they will cross into Ukraine. As The Economist went to press, the convoy was heading to Rostov, a Russian city close to the border. It is a measure of Ukrainian distrust of Russian machinations that an aid convoy should be widely suspected of being a Trojan horse for invasion.但是人们一直对卡车上到底装载何物表示怀疑,同时也对他们如何穿过俄乌边境到达任务地区表示质疑。按经济学人的推测,护送车队的目的地将在靠近边境的俄罗斯城镇—罗斯托夫。因为乌克兰当局怀疑这是俄罗斯的诡计,并且这批援助车队极可能是为侵略做准备而送来的“特洛伊木马”。In March Vladimir Putin, Russias president, sent columns of troops without insignia into Crimea while claiming only local pro-Russian volunteers were at large. Yet the aid convoy is unlikely to be cover for an invasion. Had Mr Putin decided to invade, he would not have needed a stealth fleet of lorries—he has as many as 45,000 troops on the border. Russia does not have to hide arms in aid lorries to get them to its proxy forces.今年3月,当克里米亚地区公投声称亲俄选民占了大多数时,俄罗斯总统弗拉德·普京向该地区输送了一队没有官方标识的军队。不过,这一批的援助车队看上去不太可能是为了侵略打掩护。即使普京已经决定开始侵略行动,他也没必要将军队藏在货运卡车中——在俄乌边境上,他至少驻守了多达45,000人的军队。俄罗斯没必要使用这种偷偷摸摸的方式来运送它的武装力量。Most likely the offer of Russian aid to Luhansk, a city wracked by fighting and left without water or power, is a clever push by Mr Putin to be seen at home to be doing something to protect civilians in the east. Polling by the Levada Centre, a think-tank, shows public support for Russian military intervention in Ukraine dropping from 40% to 26% between June and July, but support for non-military aid remains high. Either the Russian supplies go through, making Mr Putin look the peacemaker, or they are blocked by Ukrainian forces, allowing Russia to appear the nobler party.在普京看来,俄罗斯向被战乱和激进左翼分子围困的卢甘斯克地区提供援助,是他能够在克林姆林宫为保护俄罗斯身在该地区公民做的明智之举。由智囊团——内华达中心进行的调查显示,6到7月之间,公众们对于俄罗斯军事干预乌克兰事务的持率从40%降低到了26%,但是对于提供非军事援助,人们一如既往地持。不管是最后俄方的援助车队能穿过边境到达目的地,还是说虽然被乌克兰军队阻挡无法进入,但是允许俄方在一些高层聚会中有所作为的行为。Mr Putin has taken advantage of a blind spot within the Ukrainian government and in the West: the mounting civilian death toll of the “anti-terrorist operation” in eastern Ukraine. On August 13th the UN reckoned that 2,086 people had been killed in the fighting, double the number from just two weeks ago. As Ukrainian forces recapture territory from pro-Russian rebels, their shelling often ends up striking civilian areas.现在,普京已经牢牢抓住了乌政府的一项污点:根据8月13日的统计,在乌克兰东部“反恐行动”中死亡的公民数已经达到2086人,相比两周前,这个人数已经翻番了。因为乌克兰军队在从那些亲俄的反政府主义者手中重新夺得一些地区的控制权时,通常以进攻平民居住区收尾。Yet the convoy carries the risk of escalating tensions rather than bringing relief. Any fight at the border over the passage of the lorries into Ukraine could erupt into a wider clash presaging Mr Putin calling in the troops. After months of Russias backing anti-government rebels, suspicions in Kiev are high.然而,援助车队不但不能让形势缓和,反而提高了冲突升级的危机。一旦这一路上发生任何战斗都可能带来更为巨大冲突,那时也预示着普京极有可能会呼唤军队的介入。并且,由于数月来俄罗斯对于反政府势力的暗中持持,基辅当局有理由高度怀疑俄罗斯的用心。More probably, a break in the fighting to let the lorries in is part of a plan to slow down the pace of the Ukrainian advance, helping to turn the war into a frozen conflict. That would suit Mr Putin fine. But, however deft he may be at controlling the pictures on television, the events on the ground are harder to dictate.更可能的是,这种暂停战事以让车队顺利到达卢甘斯克的行为只是拖缓乌克兰前进的计划的一部分,这将有助于将这场战争转入冻结状态。那样正和了普京的如意算盘。不过,无论如何,他可能也只能完全掌控电视画面所呈现的一切,战场上的一切都是未知数。 /201408/322590

Shes aly lost four babies, at least one to sharks.她已经失去了四个孩子,至少有一只喂了鲨鱼。This new calf would be especially precious.因此这个新生儿显得尤为珍贵。Very little is known about the first days of a calfs life.小海豚刚出生的那几天鲜为人知。Its a rare opportunity for Janet to learn more.珍妮特学习的机会不多。They are all very close, and they just sort of stay together, tight in rest它们靠的非常近,紧紧的挨在一起休息。All the dolphin families in Shark Bay are mostly made up of females.鲨鱼湾的大多数海豚家庭都是由雌性海豚建立的。Just like cuddling in humans, the Beachies spent a lot of time touching and patting.跟人类一样,比奇家庭成员也花了很多时间彼此触摸亲近。Family is everything for dolphins.家庭生活对海豚而言至关重要。201404/284603

Heres a neat experiment: Find an open doorway and standinside it, facing into the room.做一个简单的实验:找一扇开着的门并站在门口,面向房间。Now press your arms outward until the backs of your hands are pressing into the door frame.接下来向外伸展手臂直到手背是被压入门框。Go ahead and try it. Keep pressing outward, as hard as you feel comfortable with, for the nextminute or so.试一试吧,努力向外伸展手臂,接下来的几分钟你将会感到很舒。In the meantime, lets talk about what your muscles are doing.一起来讨论一下这期间你的肌肉发挥了什么样的作用。In order to maintain the rightamount of stiffness, your muscles need to know how much resistance theyre up against.人体肌肉需要了解他们所承受的阻力是多少以便能够保持适当的刚度。To check this, your muscles have sensory receptors inside the muscle tissue itself which tell your nervous system just how stiff or relaxed these muscles are.由此,肌肉组织内部有感觉感受器,通过这些感受器向神经系统传达肌肉的僵硬度或者是松弛度。For example, muscle spindles are thin,fluid filled sacks that measure your muscles stretch.例如肌梭是体内感觉肌肉伸展的细长梭形本体感受器, Receptors in the tendons measure your muscles contraction.肌腱中的感受器感觉肌肉的收缩。With this information feeding back from the muscle, your body can figureout how tight the muscle needs to be in order to keep it in the same place.有了这些从肌肉中反馈的信息,本体才能计算出为了使肌肉保持在相同位置需要多大的松紧度。Which, right now asyou press the doorway, is pretty tight.在按住门口时,肌肉绷得很紧。What will happen, though, if you suddenly take the resistance of that door frame away? Lets findout.如果突然移除门框的阻力会发生怎样的事情?一起来寻找。Step into the room again and completely relax your arms.走进房间,彻底放松自己的手臂。If youve been pressing hard enough,youll be surprised to find your arms now drifting effortlessly upward, as though you had heliumballoons tied to your wrists.如果您之前压得足够紧,您会惊讶的发现您可以毫不费力的向上抬起手臂,仿佛有一只氦气球绑在您的手腕上。Whats going on is this: While you were pressing, your muscles learned that they needed to bepretty stiff to stay in the same place.一切缘由如下:在您用力压的时候,肌肉感知到需要崩得很紧才能处于同样的位置,Stepping out of the doorway changed all that-and very suddenly.而走出门口之后一切在瞬间改变,It takes your muscles a few moments to learn about this new situation.肌肉感受新情形需要花费一些时间,Until that happens, your arms will continue to press outward against a door frame thats no longer there.在这期间,手臂仍然保持在一种向外继续按压已经不存在的门框的状态。201408/317309

Business商业报道German property firms德国房地产公司Safe as houses非常安全The residential-property business is growing and consolidating住宅地产商业正在扩大合并THE British are obsessed with property ownership, but Germans, by and large, are happy to rent.英国人对房地产所有权很痴迷,但是德国人一般更喜欢租房子。The European Unions biggest economy also has its lowest rate of owner-occupied housing, and the highest proportion of people living in homes rented at market prices.欧洲最大的国家对业主自住房屋有着最低的利率,以及最高比例居住以市价出租房屋的人口。That is why rising rents, not rising house prices, were a theme in Germanys recent elections, with even the conservative Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union showing sympathy for some kind of rent brake.这也是为什么提高租金而不提高房屋价格会成为近期德国选举的一个主题,甚至是保守的基督教民主联盟和基督教社会联盟都对出租阻碍表示同情。Germanys renter-heavy housing market has unique historical and cultural causes—and interesting consequences.德国以租客为主的房地产市场有其独特的历史和文化的原因—以及有趣的结果。Much housing has been owned by state or city governments, or public-sector firms like Deutsche Bahn, the national railway.许多房地产是国家或者市政府所有,或者是像国营铁路德国联邦铁路那种公共部门公司所有。Germans have usually put their savings into banks rather than homes.德国人通常都把他们的积蓄存在而非花在房屋上。But the gradual privatisation of Germanys housing stock has led to the emergence of unusual beasts: big, stockmarket-listed property firms which mainly rent out homes, not offices or shops.但是德国住宅逐渐私有化引来了不同寻常的野兽:主营住房出租而非办公室或店铺出租的大型上市地产公司。Two of the biggest will soon become one: this week GSW Immobilien said it had agreed to a takeover by Deutsche Wohnen.德国两家最大的地产公司不久将会合并:这周GSW Immobilien表示该公司已经同意由Deutsche Wohnen公司来接管。If the deal goes ahead, the combined company will be one of Europes largest listed property firms, along with Deutsche Annington, another German residential landlord, which floated on the stockmarket in July.如果这项交易顺利进行,这个合并的公司将会成为欧洲最大的上市房地产公司,接着是7月份上市的另一家德国住房地产公司Deutsche Anniington。Most of Europes other property giants deal mainly in commercial premises.欧洲大多数其他房地产巨头主营商业楼宇。The two merging firms have big portfolios in Berlin.两家即将合并的公司在柏林有很大的投资。Of their combined 150,000 flats, about 108,000 are in the capital region.在他们合并的15万套公寓中有10.8万套位于首都圈地区。So in contrast to many mergers, there is a good chance of achieving the promised cost savings.因此与许多合并公司相比,还有很大获得预期成本节约的机会。For the deal to go through, 75% of GSWs shareholders must accept it.对于即将进行的这项交易,Gsw75%的股东一定会接受。Many may conclude that it is a good time to sell: rents in Berlin, having risen sharply, are likely to be flat in the near future, reckons David Eckel, a consultant and lobbyist for housing developers and owners.许多人推断这是卖出的最好时机:房地产开发商和业主顾问及说客David Eckel认为,急剧上升的柏林房屋租金在不就的将来很可能趋于平缓。A bigger company should be better equipped to thrive in a heavily regulated business.大型公司要更好地准备以便能在严重受管制的商业中蓬勃发展。For example, the government has many requirements for the energy efficiency of new buildings, something smaller landlords have a harder time coping with.例如,政府对新建筑的能源效率提出了许多要求,这是小业主很难处理的问题。The larger German companies should also find it easier to negotiate deals on big and prominent development sites, says Yolande Barnes of Savills, a London-based property consultant.总部在伦敦的房地产顾问第一太平戴维斯的Yolande Barnes说,大型德国公司也会发现在大型有前途的开发项目上,他们更容易面谈协商。Philip Charls of the European Public Real-Estate Association notes that many Germans are queasy about the idea of treating housing as a speculative investment.欧洲公共房地产协会的Philip Charls表明,许多德国人对于把房地产作为投机投资的想法很反感。But the current low interest rates, which the local financial press moans about daily, are driving Germans to seek creative ways to earn returns.但是当地财经媒体每天抱怨当前低利率驱使德国人去寻找新的方法来获得回报。Bigger housing companies, like the merged Deutsche Wohnen-GSW, should provide liquid investments, offering attractive and fairly predictable yields.大型房地产公司,如合并的Deutsche Wohnen—GSW,应该提供引人而又预计有利可图的短期投资。However, in the financial crisis many Germans lost money on failed savings vehicles which, without them realising it, had invested in commercial property.然而,在金融危机中,许多德国人在失败的储蓄产品中亏了本,把钱投资在了商业地产上。Publicly ed firms that rent flats to families should be a safer investment.面向家庭出租房屋的上市公司可能是一种更安全的投资。But those who got burned on property last time may take some convincing.但是那些刚在房地产事业上遭受损失的人可能要有一些有说力的据。 /201310/261133

  • 泡泡分享郴州汝城县治疗龟头炎多少钱
  • 郴州正规的男科医院
  • 郴州市人民医院南院治疗包皮包茎多少钱
  • 中国社区郴州眼睛咨询热线
  • 医苑对话郴州治疗龟头炎费用
  • 郴州尖锐湿疣专科医院
  • 豆瓣爱问湖南省郴州治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好
  • 郴州割包皮去哪个医院最好
  • 郴州哪家治疗生殖器疱疹的医院好
  • 美丽典范郴州治疗早泻多少钱
  • 郴州东方男科割包皮中医媒体
  • 郴州市人民医院看泌尿科怎么样
  • 郴州治疗男性早泄的医院飞度云时讯郴州市中医医院不孕不育多少钱
  • 郴州正规的男科医院
  • 郴州东方男科专科医院看男科怎么样平安养生郴州资兴市包皮手术怎么样
  • 郴州泌尿外科医院哪家好安心爱问
  • 问医生活郴州医院男科
  • 郴州治疗前列腺肥大哪家医院好
  • 郴州治疗前列腺增生男性医院
  • 郴州男科医院那家最好
  • 北湖区治疗前列腺炎哪家医院最好美活动湖南省郴州治疗阳痿多少钱
  • 郴州人民医院南院泌尿科咨询赶集常识
  • 郴州哪里的男科好
  • 乐视对话郴州治疗早泄要多少钱
  • 郴州早泄检查费用
  • 郴州东方泌尿专科治疗前列腺疾病多少钱大河优惠
  • 乐视互动郴州市人民医院包皮手术怎么样
  • 郴州哪里有前列腺按摩
  • 郴州市中医医院看男科怎么样
  • 郴州哪家包皮
  • 相关阅读
  • 明天开始一年内赚的盆满钵满穷的只剩钱的生肖
  • 百倍的热情千遍的呵护万分的用心品鉴华菱星马运煤专线上
  • 洛阳城市建设勘察设计院有限公司招聘信息
  • 阿梅你真的学了中医比较擅长是哪一方面的?你是在乡下学的吗
  • 深圳互金协会发布通知严禁成员单位开展首付贷等违规业务
  • 乌兰察布市召开十三五人才发展规划座谈会
  • 《梦想的声音》本周逆势上扬田馥甄浓妆惊艳颠覆
  • 特朗普要废了耶伦?华尔街的小心脏都要跳出来了!
  • 车市之星专访上海锦俊总经理尤悦梅
  • 地铁时代常青城暂无房源可售(图)
  • 编辑:知道社区