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At just before four oclock in the afternoon of 12th March 1938,Adolf Hitler drove down this road and crossed over the River Inn, into Austria.1938年3月12日,接近下午4点,希特勒沿着这条路驱车南下,跨过因河进入奥地利。He was coming home.他正在回家。This town, Braunau am Inn was his birthplace.茵河、布劳瑙小镇是他的出生地 。And it was in this house that Hitler had first entered the world 49 years before.49年前,希特勒在这栋楼房里出生。The crowds were so ecstatic that Hitlers motorcade took several hours to reach the city of Linz,the place Hitler had gone to school and lived for much of his youth.人潮拥挤以致希特勒的车队行进数小时才抵达林茨,希特勒曾在这里上学度过大部分青春年华。The welcome here was the most tumultuous yet.他迎来了最热烈的欢迎仪式。I think we cried, most of us, at that time.我们大部分人都哭了。Tears were running down our cheeks,and when we looked at the neighbours, it was the same.泪水滑下我们的脸颊 我环顾周围的人,他们亦然。You all,and he said that to us,他对我们说,你们所有人,You all shall help me build up my empire to be a good empire with happy people who are thinking and promising to be good people.你们所有人都要助我建立帝国,帝国的人民将幸福快乐并会成为高质素民众。 译文属201512/419191Remember seesaws? Those things were great.还记得跷跷板吗?它可是伟大的发明,But there wasoften a problem.但仍然存在一个问题。Suppose theres a big kid on one side and a smaller kid on theother side.假设跷跷板的一边坐一个大点的孩子,而另一边坐一个 小点的孩子。The seesaw just stays in one position:跷跷板就只停留在一边:big kid on theground, smaller kid up in the air. No fun.大孩子那边,小孩子则悬在空中。这样就失去了跷跷板的乐趣。After a few differenttries, you probably realized that moving the big kid in towardthe center made it possible to rock a little.几次尝试后,你也许会发现让大孩子往中间坐久可以摇动一点。Move the big kid evenmore and you can achieve balance.Now the seesaw works.再让大孩子让中间挪动直至平衡后跷跷板就可以摇动了。Whats going on here?这到底是怎么回事?The answer is in the “center of mass.”就是“质心”。The center of mass is a pointsomewhere along the plank that holds the two kids where their average weight falls.质心是跷跷板上撑两个孩子平均重量的一个点。If you can getthe center of mass to be over the pivot point, the seesaw will be balanced.如果找到了是新的点,跷跷板就平衡了。Theres a simple way to figure out where the center of mass is.有一个简单的方法找出质心。If the big kid is two times as heavyas the little kid, then their mutual center of mass will be two times closer to the big kid than to thelittle kid.如果大孩子的重量是小孩子的2倍,那么质心的位置离大孩子的距离就比离小孩子距离近2倍。Three times heavier and the center of mass will be three times closer. And so on.重三倍,质心的位置就进三倍,以此类推。So the reason the heavy kid sits on the ground while the light kid is up in the air is that theirmutual center of mass is on the heavy kids side of the pivot.因此,重的小孩坐在地上而轻的小孩悬在空中的原因是,他们共同的质心在重的孩子这边。To make the seesaw work, theheavy kid must push that center of mass forward until it just touches the pivot.要想让跷跷板摇动,重的孩子就得往中间挪直到质心移到中心。Then theiraverage weight pushes right on the middle, letting the ends rock up and down.然后当他们的平均质量正好在中间,这样两头就可以上下摇动了。 /201410/338530Now, a few tens of thousands of years ago, wolves and people started becoming friendly species.时至今日,数万年前,狼和人便慢慢演变成进化成为可以友好相处。You can imagine a person tossing a bone to a friendly wolf from time to time.你可以想象人们会时不时地向一只温顺的狼扔块骨头。But “friendly” is the key.但是“温顺”一词至关重要。Nobody ever gets close to a hostile wolf.没人会靠近一只充满敌意的狼。So over many thousands of years we would have been gradually selecting for certain behavioral traits-playfulness, low hostility, the ability to bond.因此,实际上,成千上万年以来,人类都在渐渐地、有意识地进行着选择,选择具有特定行为特征的狼群。这些特征包括爱嬉戏玩闹,温顺,合群。Very puppy-like behaviors! See whats happening?这些行为难道不像小吗?A species that resembles a wolf puppy that never grows up may have slowly evolved in this way.现在明白这是怎么回事了吗?就像这样,一种类似于狼崽的物种开始慢慢的进化着。That species would retain its puppy-like behaviors, such as barking, but never grow into growling, howling adult wolves.这一物种保留了那些幼崽般的行为特征,比如吠叫,它们也不会进化为嚎叫的成年狼。That species We would now call that species “dogs.”这一物种便是我们现在把它称之为“”的动物。201503/364092

Bribery贿赂Graft work移花接木A new study lights up the shadows无处遁形GONE are the days when multinationals could book bribes paid in far-flung countries as a tax-deductible expense. These days would-be palm-greasers have to contend with ever-tougher enforcement of old laws, such as Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, and a raft of new ones in countries from Britain to Brazil.有种日子一去不复返了,想当年,跨国公司可以先行贿,然后在远远找个国家付以抵扣公司税。 如今,想要伸手的人必须面对依然严峻的原有法令,例如1977年的美国反海外贿赂法,以及从英国到巴西等国家的一大堆新颁法令。 As policing is stepped up, however, much about the practice of bribery remains murky. The OECDs first report on the subject, published on December 2nd, sheds some light by analysing more than 400 international bribery cases that have been brought since the anti-bribery convention of this group of mostly rich countries came into force in 1999.虽然加强了监管,但是,许多贿赂行为仍然在暗处作祟。国际经合组织首次就此问题撰写的首次报告在12月2日发表,通过分析从1999年主要是由发达国家组成的该组织颁布的反贿赂公约生效以来的超过400起跨国贿赂案例,而发人深省。Some findings confirm what was known or suspected. The most bribe riddled sectors are oil, gas, mining, construction and transport. At the other end of the spectrum, financial services and retailing are fairly clean. Most bribes go to managers of state-owned companies, followed by customs officials. And America leads the enforcement pack, with 128 cases that resulted in sanctions (see chart).一些调查结果实了那些所知到的和所怀疑的东西。贿赂最泛滥的领域是石油、天然气、采矿、建筑和运输业。而在该序列的另一端,金融务和零售业则相当清白。大多数贿赂聚焦在国有企业的管理人员,其次是海关官员。美国查处力度最大,处置了128起案件。But the report also undermines some common beliefs. Bribery is not a sin of rogue employees or poor countries. In 53% of cases payments were made or authorised by corporate managers (and in 12% of them by the chief executive). More than 40% of the time, the bribe-taking official was in a developed country (though this figure is probably inflated by rich countries greater willingness to criminalise bribery and co-operate with cross-border investigations). Authorities are often alerted by firms themselves: those that co-operate quickly are often treated leniently.但报告也对一些常识造成了冲击。贿赂不是居心不良的员工和贫穷国家才有的罪恶。在53%的案件中由公司管理者亲自或授权付贿款,其中12%由总裁进行。超过40%的案件中,受贿的公务人员来自发达国家(虽然这个数据可能被发达国家的惩治贿赂以及进行跨国协作调查的强烈意愿夸大了)。当局常常收到公司自己的报案:毕竟坦白从宽嘛。Nevertheless, the cleanest countries tend to be rich, and the dirtiest poor. Four of the five best-performing countries in Transparency Internationals latest corruption-perceptions index, also published this week, were Nordic. The worst were North Korea and Somalia. (Interestingly, Chinas score slipped despite a recent high-profile campaign against corrupt officials.)尽管如此,最清廉的国家仍然是那些富国,而最糟糕的还是穷国。五个在“透明国际”组织最新的清廉指数中(也是本周刚刚发布)表现得最好的国家是北欧。最差的是朝鲜和索马里。(有意思的是,尽管近期有高调的反腐运动,中国的评分仍然下降了)The cost of bribery varies by industry. Builders pay a modest average of 4% of a transactions value; extractive companies a hefty 21%. Add to that the rising costs of paying penalties and conducting internal probes—these cost Siemens, for example, .4 billion when it was mired in a graft scandal a few years ago—and bribery starts to look bad not just for reputations, but also for bottom lines.行贿的成本因行业而异。建筑商平均付成交价的4%,较为适中;而采掘业企业则高达21%。加上那些日益上升的罚款和进行内部调查的出(以西门子为例,当数年前深陷贪污门之时,这些费用高达24亿美元),于是,如今行贿可不仅仅是名誉上看起来不妙,更关乎盈亏生死。Even for firms that are not caught, the business case for bribery is far from clear. A 2013 study by Harvard Business School and Americas National Bureau of Economic Research found that what bribe-paying companies gain in higher sales in corrupt countries, they lose in lower profit margins. According to the OECD, the average bribe costs 11% of the transactions value and 35% of associated profits.即使是对那些还没有东窗事发的公司,搞贿赂的生意也是一摊烂账。2013年由哈佛商学院和美国全国经济研究局的研究表明,行贿公司虽然在一些腐败国家的赢得了更高的销售额,但实际上由于降低了利润率而蒙受损失。根据经合组织的调查,平均的行贿出占到交易额的11%和相关利润的35%。Nevertheless, graft remains alive and well. One of the OECD reports authors told a conference this week that 390 cases are under investigation—not far short of the total number resolved since the OECD convention took effect 15 years ago. The number of cases concluded each year has dipped since a peak in 2011 as the time taken to complete investigations and prosecutions has climbed to more than seven years, from under four in 2008.即使这样,贪腐仍然搞得有声有色。经合组织报告的一位作者在本周的一次会议上谈到目前正在调查390起案件,与自从经合组织公约15年前生效以来已了结总案件数差的不远了。每年结案的数量自从2011年达到峰值以来逐年下降,因为那正开展全面调查和起诉,从2008年不到4起攀升到七年来的最高峰的时候。One possible reason for the slowdown is that bribery techniques are growing more sophisticated and thus harder to detect. Another could be the widesp use of opaque corporate structures to conceal wrongdoing. These can be devilishly difficult to unpick, especially when they are stacked in several layers and fronted by nominee directors. Anonymous shell companies and other intermediaries—sometimes dressed up as “consultants”—were used to move or to house payments in more than 70% of cases. The OECD report underlines the importance of cracking down on the misuse of shell companies and enforcing more clarity over ownership of companies and trusts, whether through accessible corporate registers—a move being pushed by some G20 countries, led by Britain—or by tougher regulation of service providers that do the paperwork for new firms.放缓的原因之一是收受贿赂的手段越来越玄妙,从而更难于察觉。另一个原因可能是普遍使用的不透明公司结构隐匿了丑行。剥离这些结构异常艰难,特别当是这种组织层层堆叠,由提名董事来在前面顶缸的时候。在70%的案例中,匿名的皮包公司和其他中间人(通常扮演“顾问公司”角色)用来转移或隐匿所付款项。经合组织的报告凸显了打击滥用空壳公司和明晰公司及信托公司权属的重要性,要么是通过方便的公司注册检索(一些G20国家推动了该项运动,由英国牵头),要么对负责经办新公司事宜的务商的严格监管。 翻译:沈竹 校对:刘苗苗 译文属译生译世 /201412/347647

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