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2020年01月22日 19:00:00
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The teen years are often fraught with door-slamming, eye-rolling and seeming insensitivity, even by kids who behaved kindly before. Some parents worry that they#39;re doing something wrong, or that their children will never think of anyone but themselves.十几岁的孩子常常会摔门、翻白眼,还会显出一副冷冰冰的样子,甚至连之前表现友善的孩子也是这样。一些家长会担心自己做错了什么,或者担心孩子会永远不考虑别人而只考虑自己。New research shows that biology, not parenting, is to blame.新的研究显示,这种现象归咎于生理,而不是家庭教育。In adolescence, critical social skills that are needed to feel concern for other people and understand how they think are undergoing major changes. Adolescence has long been known as prime time for developing cognitive skills for self-control, or executive function.在青春期,关心别人以及理解他人想法所需的关键社交能力发生着重大变化。长久以来,青春期一直被视为赖以自制或执行的认知能力形成的黄金时期。#39;Cognitive empathy,#39; or the mental ability to take others#39; perspective, begins rising steadily in girls at age 13, according to a six-year study published recently in Developmental Psychology. But boys don#39;t begin until age 15 to show gains in perspective-taking, which helps in problem-solving and avoiding conflict.近期刊登在《发展心理学》(Developmental Psychology)上一项为期六年的研究显示,女孩的“认知同理心”(即站在他人立场思考的心理能力)从13岁开始稳步增强。但这种有助于解决问题和避免冲突的换位思考能力,在男孩身上要到15岁才会开始增强。Adolescent males actually show a temporary decline, between ages 13 and 16, in a related skill-affective empathy, or the ability to recognize and respond to others#39; feelings, according to the study, co-authored by Jolien van der Graaff, a doctoral candidate in the Research Centre Adolescent Development at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Fortunately, the boys#39; sensitivity recovers in the late teens. Girls#39; affective empathy remains relatively high and stable through adolescence.荷兰乌特勒大学(Utrecht University)青少年发展研究中心(Research Centre Adolescent Development)士生、此项研究作者之一若利恩?范德赫拉夫(Jolien van der Graaff)称,青春期男性在13到16岁之间一种相关的能力──“情感同理心”(即识别他人的感受并对此做出反应的能力)实际上会暂时减弱。幸运的是,男孩体恤他人感情的能力会在青春期后期恢复。女孩的情感同理心在整个青春期都会稳定在较高的水平。The riptides are often noticeable to parents. Susan Burkinshaw has tried to cultivate empathy in her two teenage sons, 16 and 18, since they were toddlers, encouraging them to think about others#39; feelings. Yet one #39;went through a period in eighth grade where he was just a bear to deal with. He always had an attitude,#39; says Ms. Burkinshaw, of Germantown, Md. #39;Then as quickly as it came on, it turned back off again.#39;家长们通常能注意到这种剧变。马里兰州日耳曼敦(Germantown)的苏珊?布尔金肖(Susan Burkinshaw)的两个儿子一个16岁,一个18岁,她从儿子蹒跚学步时就开始努力培养他们的同理心,鼓励他们考虑他人的感受。但布尔金肖说,“一个儿子上八年级时有段时间很难相处。他总是个性特别强。不过这种状况来得快去得也快,之后他又恢复常态了。”The findings reflect a major expansion in researchers#39; understanding of cognitive growth during adolescence, according to a 2012 research review co-authored by Ronald Dahl, a professor of public health at the University of California at Berkeley. Researchers used to believe that both forms of empathy were fully formed during childhood.加州大学伯克利分校(University of California at Berkeley)的公共健康教授罗纳德?达尔(Ronald Dahl) 2012年与他人共同撰写的一篇研究综述显示,相关发现反映出研究者对青春期认知发展的理解有了重大拓展。研究人员曾认为,这两种形式的同理心都完全形成于儿童时期。Now, it#39;s clear that #39;the brain regions that support social cognition, which helps us understand and interact with others successfully, continue to change dramatically#39; in the teens, says Jennifer Pfeifer, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Oregon in Eugene. Preliminary research in her lab also suggests cognitive empathy rises in teens. The discoveries serve as a new lens for exploring such teen behaviors as bullying and drug abuse.俄勒冈大学尤金分校(University of Oregon in Eugene)的助理心理学教授珍妮弗?普法伊费尔(Jennifer Pfeifer)表示,如今我们已经清楚地认识到,“持社交认知的大脑区域(帮助我们成功地理解他人并与他人交往)在青春期持续发生戏剧性变化”。她所在实验室的初步研究还暗示,认知同理心在青春期有所增强。这些发现为我们探索青少年恃强凌弱和滥用毒品等行为提供了新的视角。Kids who develop affective and cognitive empathy form healthy relationships and argue less with their parents, research shows. Perspective-taking continues to be central for adults on the job, helping in designing and selling products and services, building user-friendly devices, and working smoothly with others with diverse viewpoints and backgrounds.研究显示,情感同理心和认知同理心发展良好的孩子能够与父母建立健康的关系,争执也比较少。换位思考能力在成年人的工作中仍扮演着中心角色,能够帮助人们设计和销售产品和务,开发用户友好型设备并帮助他们与观点、背景各异的其他人顺利合作。Affective empathy is grounded in the limbic region of the brain, which regulates emotions. This capacity begins developing in infancy when parents respond sensitively to babies#39; emotions. Children learn to practice empathy by watching their parents and by experiencing it themselves-being treated well by adults who respond warmly to their feelings, says Anthony Wolf, a Longmeadow, Mass., psychologist, author and speaker.情感同理心植根于大脑的边缘区,这一区域的功能是调节情绪。在婴儿时期,当父母对宝宝的情绪做出体贴入微的回应时,这种能力就开始发展了。马萨诸塞州朗梅多(Longmeadow) 的心理学家、作家兼演说家安东尼?沃尔夫(Anthony Wolf)称,儿童通过观察父母行为及亲身体验(受到对他们的感受做出热情回应的成年人的关爱)来学习换位思考。Cognitive empathy arises from a different part of the brain, the medial prefrontal cortex, which continues developing later, through adolescence. But the two are linked; children#39;s affective empathy predicts their level of cognitive empathy as teens, says a forthcoming study by Caspar Van Lissa, a doctoral candidate at Utrecht#39;s adolescent-research center.认知同理心源自大脑的另一部位──脑内侧前额叶皮质,这种能力之后会继续发展,贯穿整个青春期。但这两种同理心是有联系的;乌特勒大学青少年研究中心的士生卡斯帕?范利萨(Caspar Van Lissa)即将发表的一项研究显示,儿童时期的情感同理心能够预测青少年时期的认知同理心水平。Parents can help instill affective empathy by encouraging children to walk in others#39; shoes. If Ms. Burkinshaw#39;s kids saw a child being teased or treated badly, she asked them, #39;If that had been you, what would you have wanted your friends to do to help?#39;父母可以通过鼓励儿童设身处地来培养他们的情感同理心。如果布尔金肖的孩子看到其他孩子被取笑或者受到不友善的对待,她会问他们:“如果是你的话,你希望你的朋友们怎么帮助你呢?”Her 12-year-old daughter Alexandra recently told her that several classmates had hurt another girl#39;s feelings by blocking her from following them on Instagram. #39;I said, #39;What could you do to help her?#39; #39; Ms. Burkinshaw says. Alexandra talked with her friends, and another mother also intervened. The girls apologized and invited the victim back into the group.她12岁的女儿亚历山德拉(Alexandra)最近告诉她,有几个同班同学伤害了另一个女孩的感情,因为她们阻止她在Instagram上关注她们。布尔金肖表示:“我对女儿说:‘你会做些什么来帮助她呢?’” 亚历山德拉与她的朋友谈了谈,另一位母亲也进行了干预。这些女孩最终道了歉,并邀请受伤害的女孩回到她们的圈子里。Adolescents#39; brains work particularly hard on perspective-taking; teens make heavier use than adults of the medial prefrontal cortex, says Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a professor of cognitive neuroscience at University College London. That may be because understanding others#39; viewpoints takes more conscious effort for teens, while it becomes automatic for adults, Dr. Blakemore says. Perspective-taking continues to develop through age 21.伦敦大学学院(University College London)的认知神经学教授萨拉-杰恩?布莱克莫尔(Sarah-Jayne Blakemore)说,青少年的大脑要费很大功夫来换位思考;他们对脑内侧前额叶皮质的使用得比成年人多。布莱克莫尔士称,这可能是因为青少年理解他人的观点需要更多有意识的努力,而成年人则无须刻意努力。换位思考能力的发展会持续到21岁。The decline in affective empathy among young teenage boys may spring at least partly from a spurt during puberty in testosterone, sparking a desire for dominance and power, says the study in Developmental Psychology. Boys who were more mature physically showed less empathy than others.这项刊登在《发展心理学》上的研究称,青春期前期的男孩情感同理心减弱可能至少在一定程度上是由于青春期睾丸素激增,从而激发了控制欲和权力欲。生理上更成熟的男孩比其他男孩的同理心要弱。Boys also feel pressure from peers and some adults to #39;act like a man,#39; which they often define as being detached, tough, funny and strong, says Rosalind Wiseman, Boulder, Colo., author of #39;Masterminds and Wingmen,#39; a new book about teen boys. They may suppress feelings of empathy so they can join in joking and teasing with peers, she says. #39;Humor is the social glue among boys, and empathy would be a brake on what they can and cannot joke about.#39; So some kids #39;stop listening to their gut.#39;科罗拉多州尔德(Boulder)的罗莎琳德?怀斯曼(Rosalind Wiseman)是《策划者和幕僚》(Masterminds and Wingmen)一书作者,这是一本关于青春期男孩的新书。怀斯曼表示,男孩还会从同龄人和一些成年人处感受到“要表现得像男人”的压力,他们通常理解为要表现出冷漠、强硬、风趣和强壮。她说,他们可能会压抑想要换位思考的冲动,这样才能和同龄人一起开玩笑和调侃。她说:“幽默是男孩的社交粘合剂,而同理心是区别他们能开什么玩笑,不能开什么玩笑的制动器。”这样一来,一些孩子就“不再倾听他们内心的声音了”。Also, some teens may appear insensitive because they#39;re actually struggling to avoid being overwhelmed by their own feelings of empathy, says Brad Sachs, Columbia, Md., a psychologist, author and speaker. #39;Teens who seem aloof, hard-hearted or unkind may in reality be quite the opposite.#39;此外,马里兰州哥伦比亚(Columbia)的心理学家、作家和演说家布拉德?萨克斯(Brad Sachs)表示,一些青少年显出一副冷漠的样子,其实可能是因为他们在努力避免被自己的同理心征。他说:“看起来孤索离群、铁石心肠或者不友好的青少年其实可能恰好相反。”Fathers seem to play a special role. Teens whose fathers are supportive, who say they feel better after talking over their worries with their dads, are more skilled at perspective-taking, says a 2011 study of 15- to 18-year-old boys in Developmental Psychology.父亲似乎扮演着特殊的角色。《发展心理学》 2011年一项针对15-18岁男孩的研究显示,那些能得到父亲热情相助、宣称与父亲倾诉心中烦恼后情绪好转的青少年,更善于换位思考。Yu Oen of Princeton Junction, N.J., encourages his sons Grant, 19, and Sean, 15, to take others#39; perspective by discussing current events with them-including how the people involved must have felt. After the Boston Marathon bombing, they talked about how a runner who lost her legs must have felt when entering a restaurant where everyone else was wearing shorts.新泽西州普林斯顿章克申(Princeton Junction)的友?温(Yu Oen)的儿子格兰特(Grant)和肖恩(Sean)一个19岁,一个15岁,他通过与两个儿子讨论近期发生的事件(包括讨论卷入其中的人会有什么感觉)来鼓励他们换位思考。波士顿马拉松爆炸事件发生后,他们讨论了一位失去双腿的跑步选手走进一家人人都穿短裤的餐馆时会有什么感觉。#39;You can see their reaction: #39;Wow, that is really tough,#39; #39; Mr. Oen says. #39;They feel it: #39;What if that had been me?#39; #39; Mr. Oen and his wife Shirley #39;feel it too,#39; he says. #39;And we take time to talk about these things.#39;温说:“你能看到他们的反应:‘哇,那真的很不好受。’他们感觉到:‘要是这件事发生在我身上会怎样?’”他说,他自己和妻子雪莉(Shirley)“也有同感”。他还表示:“然后我们花了些时间来谈这些问题。” /201311/264619宝鸡第一人民医院胃病胃肠多少钱陕西省新安中心医院胃肠科怎样预约Regular exercise is supposed to boost a person#39;s energy levels. So why do so many fitness fans complain of feeling fatigued during the afternoon? Making things worse, this workout-induced weariness can make it difficult to stick to a workout regimen. 有规律的锻炼按说能让人精力更加充沛,可为什么那么多健身爱好者却抱怨下午有疲乏感觉呢?更糟糕的是,这种由体育锻炼引发的疲劳感会让人很难把健身计划坚持下去。 Researchers and fitness trainers say whether you exercise in the morning, afternoon or evening, small changes in your routine can keep you from suffering midday blahs. 对此,研究人员和健身教练表示,不管你是早晨、下午还是晚上锻炼,只要对例行健身计划稍作调整,就能防止中午出现疲倦感。 Midday is the ideal time to exercise, some fitness experts say. A workout then can give you an energy boost lasting three to four hours, says James McKenna, a professor of physical activity and health at Leeds Metropolitan University in England. A study published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in 2011 monitored 171 employees at a large Swedish public dental-health group who were assigned to an exercise program during work hours. They reported increased productivity and fewer missed workdays. 英国利兹都市大学(Leeds Metropolitan University)的身体活动和健康教授詹姆斯#12539;麦克纳(James McKenna)称,中午锻炼带来的提神效果能够持续三到四个小时。在《职业和环境医学期刊》(Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine) 2011年刊登的一篇论文中,研究人员对瑞典一家大型大众口腔健康集团171名加入工作时间健身项目的雇员进行了监测。这些雇员称,他们的工作效率有所提高,工作时间请假也减少了。 If you prefer working out in the evenings, it#39;s best to avoid exercising two to three hours before bedtime to avoid sleep disruption, the National Institutes of Health says. On the other hand, if you are a morning exerciser and not getting seven to nine hours of sleep, Lona Sandon, a Dallas fitness instructor and assistant clinical nutrition professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, suggests getting to bed earlier or exercising in the evening. 美国国家健康研究院(National Institutes of Health)称,如果你更喜欢晚上健身,最好避免在就寝前两到三小时锻炼,以免干扰睡眠。另一方面,达拉斯的健身指导、德克萨斯大学西南医学中心(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)临床营养学助理教授洛纳#12539;桑登(Lona Sandon)建议,如果你喜欢早锻炼,而且一天的睡眠时间达不到七至九个小时,可以早一点就寝或者改为晚上锻炼。 To avoid midday fatigue and preserve energy throughout the day, most trainers recommend doing more moderate workouts, meaning those in which you hit 70% to 80% of your target heart rate. #39;Listen to what your body is telling you,#39; says Ms. Sandon. #39;If you have a high-stress work environment then vigorous workouts may not make you feel better. You might be better off with restorative yoga so your brain can slow down.#39; 要避免中午感觉疲乏,让全天都能保持充沛的精力,多数健身教练的建议是多做些中等强度的锻炼,也就是让心跳达到目标心率70%至80%的运动。桑登说:“要倾听你身体发出的声音,如果你处在压力很大的工作环境中,那么剧烈运动或许不能让你感觉更舒。做修复瑜伽效果可能会更好,这样你的大脑能够放松下来。” An ideal schedule would be two to three high-intensity workouts during the week, mixed in with lighter workouts like yoga, walking or weight training, say fitness experts. 健身专家称,理想的安排是一周进行两到三次高强度锻炼,并加入瑜伽、健走或负重训练等强度较低的项目。 And mix up your workouts throughout the week -- either with cardio, core and flexibility each time, or a rotation of workouts emphasizing endurance, strength and stretching. It not only keeps you energized, it also helps you burn calories throughout the week, says Annie Malaythong, a certified personal trainer in Atlanta who teaches fitness workshops around the U.S. for National Academy of Sports Medicine in Chandler, Ariz. 此外,在一周的锻炼中把不同项目结合起来──可以每次同时进行有氧运动、核心肌群训练和柔韧性训练,也可以轮换进行耐力、力量和伸展性训练。亚特兰大的注册个人健身教练安妮#12539;马莱通(Annie Malaythong)称,这种安排不仅能让你保持充沛的精力,还能帮助你在整整一周的时间里燃烧卡路里。马莱通受亚利桑那州钱德勒(Chandler)的美国国家运动医学学院(National Academy of Sports Medicine)委派,在全美的健身工作室进行教学。 Nutrition is just as important as moving to keep from feeling fatigued, Ms. Malaythong says. She suggests eating something every three hours, including a snack such as a small piece of fruit an hour before a workout and a meal of protein and carbohydrates within the hour after. 马莱通表示,要想不感觉疲乏,营养和运动同等重要。她建议每三小时吃点东西,包括在健身前一小时吃点零食,比如一小片水果,并在健身后一小时之内吃一餐含蛋白质和碳水化合物的膳食。 The wrong food can leave you feeling depleted. #39;That breakfast pastry or a fast food lunch can sap your energy,#39; says Samantha Heller, an exercise physiologist and a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University. 吃得不合适会让你感觉精疲力尽。纽约大学(New York University)的运动生理学家、高级临床营养学家萨曼莎#12539;赫勒(Samantha Heller)表示:“早餐吃糕点或者午餐吃快餐会消耗你的精力。” And remember to sip water during workouts and throughout the day, says Ms. Heller. #39;When you#39;re not hydrated, you will feel fatigued,#39; she says. #39;You may not know why, but you will feel it.#39; 赫勒说,还要记得在健身间隙喝点水,一天之中也要不断喝水。她说:“当你缺水时会感到疲乏。你可能不知道原因,但你确实会有疲乏的感觉。” So why do so many people suffer from the midday blahs? 那么,为什么有这么多人中午感到疲乏呢? According to Charles Czeisler, director of Harvard Medical School#39;s Division of Sleep Medicine, the internal biological clock in the brain#39;s hypothalamus guides daily rhythms of your body temperature, melatonin, blood pressure, sleep and wakefulness. 哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)睡眠医学部(Division of Sleep Medicine)的负责人查尔斯#12539;蔡斯勒(Charles Czeisler)表示,位于丘脑下部的体内生物钟调控着你每天的体温、褪黑素分泌、血压、睡眠和清醒节律。 As the drive for sleep builds up during the day, it produces midday sleepiness for many people, Dr. Czeisler says. It also causes a surge in alertness that peaks in the late evening, he says. Exposure to artificial light in the evening can extend that second wind into the night, making it difficult to fall asleep and deepening the midday trough in alertness, he says. 蔡斯勒称,白天睡眠动力不断增强,导致许多人中午犯困,还会导致警觉清醒程度在傍晚时分急剧上升,达到高峰。他还称,晚间接触人工照明会将这种精力恢复的状态延长到夜晚,让人难以入睡,并加剧中午的觉醒低谷。 Sitting for a long stretch of time can make people feel more tired, says Natalie Muth, a San Diego primary-care pediatrician and health-care solutions director at the American Council on Exercise, a nonprofit that provides fitness certification and training. Moving your body, even for just a few minutes, can get the blood pumping in your body. #39;The heart begins to beat faster, delivering more blood and oxygen to working cells,#39; says Dr. Muth. This increases the release of hormones like endorphins, which not only help people feel good, but also reverses fatigue. 迭戈的家庭儿科医生、美国运动协会(American Council on Exercise)(这是一家提供健身认和训练的非盈利机构)医疗保健解决方案负责人纳塔莉#12539;穆特(Natalie Muth)称,久坐会让人感觉更加疲惫。活动一下身体,哪怕只有几分钟,也能够让血液注入你的身体。穆特称:“心脏开始加速跳动,向工作细胞输送更多血液和氧气。”这会促进内啡?等荷尔蒙的释放,不仅能让人感觉更舒,还能消除疲劳。 Ms. Malaythong says staying energized involves trial and error, perhaps tweaking the intensity of a weekly workout routine, trying to eat more nutritiously, staying hydrated and getting enough sleep. And she emphasizes the importance of moving throughout the day. She tells clients to climb stairs, do upper-body stretches, go for brisk 10-minute walks, or write the A#39;s with their big toe at their desks. #39;I encourage as much activity as they can handle,#39; she says. 马莱通表示,要想保持充沛的精力,需要不断试错,也许要调整每周例行锻炼方案的强度,设法吃得更营养,保持充足水分,获得充足的睡眠。她还强调了在一天中多活动的重要性。她让客户爬楼梯,做上身伸展运动,用10分钟做短时散步,或者用拇趾在办公桌上写字母。她说:“我鼓励人们尽可能地多活动。” /201309/258046西安胃泰胃病科医院正规的吗

西安交大一附院胃病科专家地址电话西安胃泰专科医院电话号码是多少这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:感恩之节,感恩的心,感谢命运——吃饱是幸福之源!译者:koogle西安中医院肠胃科专家咨询陕西省胃泰医院怎么样好吗

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