原标题: 泉州新阳光妇科医院最新中文
Poverty, crime and education贫困、犯罪与教育The paradox of the ghetto贫民窟的悖论Unnervingly, poor children seem to fare better in poor neighbourhoods令人奇怪的是,穷人家的孩子若是生活在贫困区域,表现反而更好。THE poorest people in Leicester by a wide margin are the Somalis who live in the St Matthews housing estate. Refugees from civil war, who often passed through Sweden or the Netherlands before fetching up in the English Midlands, they endure peeling surroundings and appalling joblessness. At the last census the local unemployment rate was three times the national average. But Abdikayf Farah, who runs a local charity, is oddly upbeat. Just look at the children, he says.生活在Leicester郊区最穷的人是索马里人,他们生活在St Matthews住宅区。在他们来到英国中部之前,作为内战的难民,索马里人经常穿越瑞典或者荷兰。他们忍受环境的盘剥,因没有工作而担惊受怕。在最近的人口普查中,当地的失业率是不列颠全国平均水平的三倍。但在当地从事慈善事业的Abdikayf Farah却莫名的乐观。他说,看看那些孩子就明白我为什么乐观了。Close to Mr Farahs office is Taylor Road Primary School—which, it turns out, trumps almost every school in Leicester in standardised tests. Its headmaster, Chris Hassall, credits the Somali immigrants, who insist that their children turn up for extra lessons at weekends and harry him when they seem to fall behind. Education is their ticket out of poverty. Poor district, wonderful school, well-ordered children: in Britain, the combination is not as unusual as one might suppose.紧挨着Farah办公室的是泰勒路小学——这个小学在Leicester地区的标准化测验中的成绩优于本地区绝大多数学校。该校校长Chris Hassall赞叹道,Somali的移民,坚持让他们的孩子在周末补课,而当孩子们的成绩落后的时候,就敦促校长严格要求。教育是他们摆脱贫困的通行。贫困的街区、完美的学校、秩序井然的孩子们:在不列颠,如此的组合并不是人们通常想的那么稀奇。Britain has prized the ideal of economically mixed neighbourhoods since the 19th century. Poverty and disadvantage are intensified when poor people cluster, runs the argument; conversely, the rich are unfairly helped when they are surrounded by other rich people. Social mixing ought to help the poor. It sounds self-evident—and colours planning regulations that ensure much social and affordable housing is dotted among more expensive private homes. Yet “there is absolutely no serious evidence to support this,” says Paul Cheshire, a professor of economic geography at the London School of Economics (LSE).自19世纪以来,不列颠的人们就赞同这样一种理念:不同经济水平的人比邻而居。当穷人聚居起来时,贫穷和种种不便的问题也随之集聚,这引发争论;相应的,富人的邻居都是富人的时候,富人也会得到偏袒。不同阶层混居当能帮助穷人。这个想法听上去是自洽的——并且也影响了管理规则的制定。这些规定使得社交更为便利、价格更为合适的公寓布局在更为昂贵的私人住宅中。然而“绝对没有过硬的据表明这个看法是对的”,伦敦经济学院的经济地理学教授Paul Cheshire如是说。And there is new evidence to suggest it is wrong. Researchers at Duke University in America followed over 1,600 children from age five to age 12 in England and Wales. They found that poor boys living in largely well-to-do neighbourhoods were the most likely to engage in anti-social behaviour, from lying and swearing to such petty misdemeanours as fighting, shoplifting and vandalism, according to a commonly used measure of problem behaviour. Misbehaviour starts very young (see chart 1) and intensifies as they grow older. Poor boys in the poorest neighbourhoods were the least likely to run into trouble. For rich kids, the opposite is true: those living in poor areas are more likely to misbehave.并且有新的据表明这个观点是错误的。美国杜克大学的研究者追踪了研究英格兰和威尔士超过1600名儿童,从5岁一直观察到12岁。他们发现穷人家的男孩如果生活在生活裕如的邻居边上,很容易进行反社会行为,从说谎、辱骂这样的小过失到诸如打架、偷窃商品和恣意毁坏公共物品的行为。其行为评定的依据是根据常用的问题行为判断标准。这些孩子的行为不端问题起源很早,而在他们长大之后这些问题出现频繁。生活在周遭最贫困环境的男孩最不可能陷入麻烦。对于富家子弟,结论是反过来的:生活在贫穷区域的那些更容易行为不端。The researchers suggest several reasons for this. Poorer areas are often heavily policed, deterring would-be miscreants; it may be that people in wealthy places are less likely to spot misbehaviour, too. Living alongside the rich may also make the poor more keenly aware of their own deprivation, suggests Tim Newburn, a criminologist who is also at the LSE. That, in turn, increases the feelings of alienation that are associated with anti-social conduct and criminal behaviour.研究者们提出了如下的原因解释这一现象。较为贫穷的区域是警方重点布控的地方,这阻止了孩子们成为恶棍;也可能生活在高档区域的人们较少检举不端行为。伦敦经济学院的犯罪学家Tim Newburn认为,生活在富人旁边也可能会让穷人感觉到自己是被剥夺了。于是,穷人们那种被遗弃的感觉越发强烈,最终导致反社会行为和犯罪行为。Research on Englands schools turns up a slightly different pattern. Children entitled to free school meals—a proxy for poverty—do best in schools containing very few other poor children, perhaps because teachers can give them plenty of attention. But, revealingly, poor children also fare unusually well in schools where there are a huge number of other poor children. That may be because schools have no choice but to focus on them. Thus in Tower Hamlets, a deprived east London borough, 60% of poor pupils got five good GCSEs (the exams taken at 16) in 2013; the national average was 38%. Worst served are pupils who fall in between, attending schools where they are insufficiently numerous to merit attention but too many to succeed alone (see chart 2).对于英格兰学校的研究却有一些不同的情形。有资格接受学校免费午餐—贫困的标志之一 的学生在学校里(没有其他贫困学生)表现最好。这是因为老师可以给予他们足够的关注。不过,也有发现表明,在全是贫困学生的学校里,穷人家孩子的表现也是出奇得好。这也许是因为学校别无他法,只能把关注点都集中在他们身上。在东伦敦一个贫瘠的自治区,Tower Hamlets,60%的穷学生在2013年的GCSE测验(16岁开始测验)中得到5的好等级,全国平均水平是38%。表现最差的是不算很贫穷但又不是很富裕人家的孩子,在所就读的学校,他们的人数没有多到可以得到关注,但想要出人头地他们的人数又太多了。Mr Cheshire reckons that America, too, provides evidence of the limited benefits of social mixing. Look, he says, at the Moving to Opportunity programme, started in the 1990s, through which some poor people received both counselling and vouchers to move to richer neighbourhoods. Others got financial help to move as they wished, but no counselling. A third group received nothing. Studies after 10-15 years suggested that the incomes and employment prospects of those who moved to richer areas had not improved. Boys who moved showed worse behaviour and were more likely to be arrested for property crime.Cheshire认为,美国也有据表明混合社会的局限性。他认为,在始于20世纪90年代的“奔向机遇”的项目中,通过这个项目,一些穷人在搬去与富人为邻之前接受了咨询和金融券。一些人正如期待的那样得到了金融帮助,但是没有接受咨询。第三组什么也没获得。经过10年到15年之后,研究表明,收益和就业都得以保障的那些人并没有任何提升。搬过去的男孩子表现出更严重的行为问题,并且更可能因为金钱犯罪而被逮捕。In Britain, this pattern might be partly explained by the existence of poor immigrant neighbourhoods such as St Matthews in Leicester. The people who live in such ghettos are poor in means, because they cannot speak English and lack the kind of social networks that lead to jobs, but not poor in aspiration. They channel their ambitions through their children.在不列颠,这种现象可以得到部分实。诸如住在Leicester St Matthews区的贫困移民的存在就可以实这点。生活在这些地区的人们平均生活水平属于贫困状态,因为他们不会说英语,也缺乏那些可以提供工作的社会关系网络,不过他们不乏进取的勇气。他们把自己的进取之心传递给了自己的孩子。Another probable explanation lies in the way that the British government hands out money. Education funding is doled out centrally, and children in the most indigent parts tend to get the most cash. Schools in Tower Hamlets receive 7,014 (,610) a year for each child, for example, compared with the English average of 4,675. Secondary schools also get 935 for each poor child thanks to the “pupil premium” introduced by the coalition government. Meanwhile Teach First sends top graduates into poor schools. In America, by contrast, much school funding comes from local property taxes, so those in impoverished areas lose out.另外一个可能的解释跟不列颠政府的资金流向有关。教育基金的出是集约式的,最需要援助的孩子会得到最多的资金。Tower Hamlets的学校每个孩子每年可以获得7014英镑。而英格兰平均水平是4675英镑。由于联合政府的“小学生奖金”,中学的贫困学生每位也会得到935英镑。与此同时,“优先教学”项目将优秀毕业生送入贫困地区的中学。与此相比较的是,在美国,多数学校基金来自当地财政,这样的话那些欠发达地区的学校就被忽视了。As the Duke University researchers are keen to point out, all this does not in itself prove that economically mixed neighbourhoods are a bad thing. They may be good in other ways—making politicians more moderate, for example. But the research does suggest that the benefits of such districts are far from straightforward. Patterns of social segregation reflect broader social inequality, argues Mr Cheshire, who has written a book about urban economics and policy. Where mixed neighbourhoods flourish, house prices rise, overwhelmingly benefiting the rich. Spending more money on schools in deprived areas and dispatching the best teachers there would do more to help poor children. Assuming that a life among wealthy neighbours will improve their lot is too complacent.杜克大学研究者尖锐地指出,所有这些并不能明,经济混合社区就是个坏东西。他们也许会在其他方面有益—比如让政客们更为中和。不过这些发现这些区域的益处表现得并不明朗。社会分离的模式反映了更严重的社会不平等,Cheshire争论道(他写过一本关于城市的经济与政策的书)。当混合社区繁荣起来后,房价上涨,获益的毫无疑问是富人。在贫瘠地区投入更多资金,并将最好的教师分配过去会更好的帮助孩子们。生活在富人中能极大改善穷人家孩子们状况的想法,显然是过于想当然了。翻译:唐宇·无心 校对:王颖 译文属译生译世 /201502/358604Shoemaking制鞋业Asian brogue亚洲花皮鞋Exports help to revive the high end of Britains decimated shoe industry进口帮助拯救英国衰落的高端制鞋业FROM the attic of his cramped old factory in the middle of Northampton, Stephen Etheridge, the head of Churchs, a shoemaker, gazes down on the deserted bus station next door. He explains how his company will soon be expanding to fill the four-acre (1.5-hectare) site, creating 100 or so jobs in the process. The move has caused a stir in Northampton, about 70 miles north of London, as it is the first time in living memory that a shoe company is growing rather than closing. The recent success of a venerable old firm like Churchs, founded in 1873, reflects a wider revival of Northamptons luxury shoemakers, buoyed by the insatiable Asian appetite for a bit of old English craft and class.北安普顿中部,在他狭窄又老旧的工厂阁楼里, Churchs鞋业公司的老板Stephen Etheridge凝视着隔壁废弃的汽车站。他解释说他的公司将很快进行扩建,重新利用这四英亩(1.5公顷)的土地,这个过程会创造约100个工作机会。这一行为在位于伦敦北部约70英里的北安普顿引起了轰动,因为这是人们记忆中第一次有鞋厂要扩张而不是倒闭。成立于1873年的Churchs公司令人尊敬而又历史悠久,它最近的成功反映了北安普顿高端鞋业的广泛复兴,这是由亚洲源源不断地追求经典英格兰工艺和品位的欲望而提振的。There was a time when the city of Northampton and its surrounding towns did little else but produce shoes. The industry there employed tens of thousands of people in hundreds of factories, small and large; fortunes were made making millions of boots for the army during the first world war. But that era of mass manufacturing came to a calamitous end in the 1980s as production moved overseas to take advantage of cheaper labour. Now Britain imports almost all its shoes. There were fears that the whole industry might become extinct. But posh bootmakers like Churchs, Joseph Cheaney and Loake clung on. They employ hundreds of people each, rather than the thousands of old Northampton, but they have now found a very profitable niche in the global market and are prospering as never before.曾几何时,北安普顿和周边城镇专致于制鞋。在这个行业里,大大小小几百个工厂雇佣了好几万工人;一战期间因给军队制作几百万双靴子而大赚了一笔。但大规模制造的时代在20世纪80年代惨淡收尾,原因是为利用廉价劳动力,生产都挪到了海外。如今英国所有的鞋几乎都是进口的。有人担忧这整个产业也许会就此消失。但像Churchs, Joseph Cheaney和 Loake这样的奢侈鞋业公司坚持下来了。它们各雇佣几百人,而不是像以前的北安普顿一样雇佣几千人,但他们在国际市场发现了盈利之处,正在史无前例地繁荣发展着。Loake is still a family-run firm, making shoes in the same factory in nearby Kettering that the founding brothers built in 1894. Like all the areas luxury cobblers Loake only makes “goodyear welted” shoes, a 300-year-old process whereby the shoe is stitched together. This time-consuming and expensive technique gives the footwear strength and durability. As Andrew Loake, the current head of the company, explains, all shoes used to be made like this until the advent of cheaper injection-moulding. “So,” he explains, “our shoes have moved from being mass-commodity items to being specialist and different.”Loake还是一个家族企业,其制鞋厂为Loake家族三个兄弟于1894年在凯特灵附近建立,如今他们依然在这里制鞋。就像所有地方的奢侈鞋业一样,Loake只制造“固特异工艺”的鞋,这是一种将鞋子缝合在一起、拥有300年历史的工艺。这种耗时又昂贵的技术使鞋子有了强度和耐久性。现任董事长Andrew Loake解释说在更廉价的注射成型技术出现之前,所有的鞋子都是这样做的。In that sort of market, argues Mr Loake, the only way to go is to make shoes better rather than cheaper. His company now uses higher-quality leather than it did in the 1980s. Each shoe takes eight weeks to make, involving about 200 processes. Some of these havent changed for a long time. But that is exactly what new consumers, particularly in Asia, want to pay for. Exports now account for over one-third of its sales, and have been increasing steadily over the past decade. Loakes biggest export market is Sweden. Its second-biggest is South Korea, reflecting, says Mr Loake, “a hunger for high-quality goods” in Asia.Loake先生表示,在那样的市场中,唯一的方式就是让鞋子更好而不是更便宜。他的公司如今用的高质量皮革比20世纪80年代用的还好。每一只鞋都要花八周来完成,包括约200道工序。有些工艺在很长一段时间内都没有变过。但这正是新的顾客群,尤其是亚洲顾客所想花钱购买的。现在出口已经占了销售量的三分之一以上,自从过去十年来就一直在稳步增长。Loake最大的出口市场是瑞士。第二大出口国是韩国,Loake先生说这反映了亚洲对“高品质商品的渴求。”Churchs is also doing well in the East. Although it is now owned by Prada, an Italian luxury-goods company, it sells itself as the quintessential English manufacturer. To control the Churchs brand, it sells almost half of its products through its own bespoke shops—four in Hong Kong, two in Shanghai, and one in Singapore. It is trying to open one in Beijing, too. Prices are steep, rising to £1,000 (,500) a pair. But, even producing 5,000 pairs a week, the company cannot meet demand—hence the expansion of their factory in Northampton. If the 21st century does belong to Asia, at least its masters will be well-shod.Churchs公司在东方的表现也不错。尽管它现在在意大利奢侈品公司Prada的旗下,它仍以经典英国制造商为卖点。为了维护Churchs的品牌,它约半数的产品都通过店铺订做——香港有四家店,上海两家,新加坡一家。它也正规划在北京开一家店。鞋子价格不菲,涨到了约1000英镑(1500美元)每双。但是尽管每周都生产5000双鞋,该公司依然供不应求-所以才需要位于北安普顿的工厂扩建。如果21世纪确实属于亚洲,起码这个世纪的主人穿的鞋还不错。译者:王颖 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201505/375758Inner-city gentrification城市绅士化So long, Soho苏活区,坚持住好么Londons seediest district hints at some of the ways the capital is changing伦敦市最脏乱的一个区在某些方面预示着这个城市正在悄然改变IN 1847 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels earnestly debated the failings of capitalism in rooms above a pub at 20 Great Windmill Street, in Soho. Some 170 years later, patrons of Be at One, the chain which has taken over the venue, have somewhat different problems to worry about. After making their way past a bouncer, and through throngs of people to a bar dimly lit by brown lights, drinkers navigate a cocktail around 20 pages long, with eye-watering prices. “I dont like paying 8.50 for a drink,” admits Josh Rogers, an American tourist. “But Im happy to pay more if the area is vibrant and fun,” he adds, slightly despondently.1847年,马克思和恩格斯在苏活区20大风车街的一间酒吧楼上的房间里,深刻分析了资本主义的灭亡。在170多年后,Be at One—早已接管此地的连锁店—的顾客们却在担忧另外的一些问题。越过保镖,穿过拥挤的人群进入尽是昏暗灯光的酒吧,酒客们浏览着足足有20多页的鸡尾酒菜单,价格也贵的令人咋舌。“我不愿花8.5英镑(13美元)就买一杯喝的,”美国游客乔希罗杰斯说。“但若是这个地方能更化一点我还是很乐意花钱的,”他略带遗憾地补充道。Soho, an area of about half a square kilometre in the West End, has long been an anomaly in central London. At the turn of the 20th century it was full of French, German, Polish and Italian immigrants; just before the first world war one writer remarked that “when the respectable Londoner wants to feel devilish he goes to Soho”. Full of pretty Georgian houses and dark side streets, it resisted development in the 1970s, and it remains a red-light district: around 40 flats are still used for prostitution. Film and television companies cluster above bars and restaurants.苏活区,这个位于西区近0.5平方公里的地区,长久以来都是伦敦市中心的变异型。在20世纪初,这里满是法国、德国、波兰和意大利的移民;在第一次世界大战之前就有一位作家说道“当备受尊崇的伦敦人想体验邪恶生活,他们都会去苏活区。”满目尽是漂亮的乔治王时代艺术风格的房屋和昏暗的街边,拒绝跟上19世纪70年代的发展,这里仍是红灯区:有近40栋楼房仍是卖淫场所。电影电视公司都簇集在酒吧和餐厅的楼上。But the area has become far less gritty. Fewer prostitutes operate there; most shops selling pornography have closed down. At the end of November Madame Jojos, a burlesque bar, had its licence revoked, after a fight took place outside it, and the bars security team were captured on CCTV wielding baseball bats. The club had aly been approved for redevelopment by the Soho Estates, one of two large landowners in the area, but the incident speeded up its closure. Denmark Street, known as Tin Pan Alley because of the number of music shops along it, is due to be turned into a street of flats and pop-up shops. A former police station which was empty for 13 years is currently being turned into an apartment block.但是这个地方已经大不如以前那般。越来越少的卖淫场所;大多数贩卖色情产品的商店都纷纷歇业。一间名为乔乔女士的脱衣舞酒吧外曾发生了一次斗殴事件,监控中拍下了酒吧安保团队挥舞棒球杆的场面,11月末,该酒吧被吊销了营业执照。这间酒吧已经获得了苏活区地产开发—该地区两大地头蛇之一的重建许可,但是这般小插曲倒加速了它的倒闭。丹麦街,更响亮的被称为锡盘巷,因为沿街有众多的音乐制品店,即将变成尽是楼房和快闪商店的街道。一栋空了13年的前警察局如今也正在被改造成一栋公寓。In part these changes reflect how Britain itself has become more cosmopolitan. In the 1960s Soho was full of food markets selling rarities such as avocados and globe artichokes, recalls Matthew Bennett, who has lived there for five decades. Now you can get such goods “at a Waitrose in Penzance,” he sniffs. Many quirky shops were on long-term leases which have since expired, while in some parts of the West End getting a licence to open a late-night bar has become harder. The internet has chipped away at the sex industry. In 2007 the local council cracked down on “clip joints”—where men are fooled into paying for titillation that never happens.这些变化在很大程度上反映了英国是如何变得愈加国际化。在19世纪60年代,苏活区满是贩售稀有物品的食品市场,像是鳄梨和朝鲜蓟,已在那里生活了50年的马修班内特如是回忆。如今你能“在彭赞斯的任一家维特罗斯里”买到这些商品,他说。许多古怪的商店都曾有长期租约而如今已过期,另外一些西区的部分商店想要获得午夜酒吧的许可已变得愈发困难。互联网已经削弱了性产业。在2007年,当地议会严厉打击 “夜总会”—在这里,男人们经常会冲动的为从未有过的新鲜感一掷千金。An increased demand for residential properties in central London has speeded up these changes. Since 2003 the West End has lost around 180,000 square metres of office floorspace as developers turn offices into flats. Increasing numbers of rich families with younger children live in the city centre, an area that many would have shunned two decades ago. Between 2003 and 2013 the number of children under the age of 16 in Westminster, the authority which encompasses Soho, increased by 30%, nearly double the rate for that age group across London. As a result, landowners have become more active in sprucing up the area: “Our motto is: edgy but not seedy,” says Steve Norris, the chairman of Soho Estates and a former Conservative MP. Crossrail, a new train line with a station north of Soho at Tottenham Court Road, will also bring a swathe of shiny new shops and offices.伦敦市中心的居民住宅需求量增加已加速了这些变化。自2003年西区失去18万平方米的办公用地转而被开发商用作住宅楼。愈来愈多的有年幼子女的富裕家庭居住在市中心,这个人们20年前都避而远之的地区。在2003年到2013年间,威斯敏斯特—包括苏活区—16岁以下青少年数量增加了30%,是整个伦敦该年龄段人数增长率的二倍。自然地,土地所有者都纷纷打出了各种旗号:“我们的口号是:前卫但不下流,”苏活区房产开发中心老板、前保守党议员史蒂夫诺里斯说。横贯铁路,位于苏活区北边托特纳姆法院路一种带有车站的新型列车线路,也将带来更多的各式各样的商店和办公室。This irks many, however. “Soho is the last ramshackle area of the old soot-stained, post-war London,” says Rupert Everett, an actor who has campaigned for the rights of sex workers. “Once that turns into a cascade of glass, then London is gone,” he sighs. After the closure of Madame Jojos a campaign group, Save Soho, was set up; around 9,000 people have signed a petition lambasting the change of “once proud centres of subculture” into “identikit high-end boutiques”. Pete Townshend, a musician, has argued that Denmark Street should be made into a “heritage zone”.然而这一举动却引起各方怨言。“苏活区是旧式烟色战后伦敦的最后残影,” 鲁伯特埃弗雷特说,他是曾身体力行持性工作者的演员。“一旦这里变成了各式样玻璃窗,那么伦敦也就不复存在了,”他感叹道。在乔乔女士的一个活动团体的没落之后,拯救苏活区,崛起了;近9000人已签署了请愿书,抗议把“曾经骄傲的文化中心”变作了“尽是广告人物海报的高端精品店。”音乐家皮特汤森坚持认为,丹麦街应该被建成一个“遗产区”。This poses a dilemma for developers. They want to spruce up the area while retaining the vague air of bohemianism that has attracted many to it. Parts of Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco, which was the centre of the hippie-era “summer of love”, have become tourist attractions, partly because of NIMBY residents. Westminster City Council is trying to limit the number of office-to-residential conversions. Others are pushing for a “creative-industry policy” for the area, in which film companies and the like have a say about developments. Such schemes may help prevent Soho changing too swiftly. But in many cases it may be too late.这使得开发商陷入了两难境地。他们想在装饰该地区的同时还要保留这里吸引众人来此的放荡不羁的环境风格。旧金山嬉皮区,曾是嬉皮士时代“爱的夏天”的中心,该区的部分地区已逐渐成为各式景点,这一定程度上是邻避居民的原因。威斯敏斯特市议会正试图限制办公转变为住宅的数量。还有在该地区不断推进“创意产业政策”,凭该政策那些电影公司之类的都可以对发展有所谏言。这般规划可能会有助于抑制苏活区的快速变化进程。但是在很多情况下,这些规划可能已经太迟了。译者:张娣 校对:王颖 译文属译生译世 /201501/353772

Business Office communication The Slack generation How workplace messaging could replace other missives商业报道 办公通讯 Slack一代 职场通讯工具如何取代其他沟通形式STEWART BUTTERFIELD, the boss of Slack, a messaging company, has been wonderfully unlucky in certain ventures. In 2002 he and a band of colleagues created an online- game called “Game Neverending”. It never took off, but the tools they used to design it turned into Flickr, the webs first popular photo-sharing website. Yahoo bought it in 2005 for a reported m.通讯工具公司Slack的老板斯图尔特·巴特菲尔德(Stewart Butterfield)在一些创业经历中上可谓因祸得福。2002年,他和一群同事创办了名为“游戏无止境”(Game Neverending)的网络视频游戏。该产品并未成功,但他们用来设计游戏的工具后来却发展成为互联网首个广受欢迎的照片分享网站Flickr,后于2005年被雅虎收购,据称出价达3500万美元。Four years later Mr Butterfield tried to create another online game, called Glitch. It flopped as well. But Mr Butterfield and his team developed an internal messaging system to collaborate on it, which became the basis for Slack. In Silicon Valley, such a change in strategy is called a “pivot”; anywhere else it is called good fortune. Today Slack is one of the fastest-rising startups around, with 0m in funding and a valuation of around .8 billion.“I guess the lesson should be, pursue your dream and hope it fails, so you can do something else,” says Cal Henderson, Slacks chief technology officer.四年后,巴特菲尔德试图创办另一款名为Glitch的网络游戏,同样以失败告终。但巴特菲尔德和他的团队在创业过程中开发了一个内部通讯系统用于协作,奠定了Slack的基础。在硅谷,这种战略上的转变被称为“转型”,要是放在其他任何地方都会被称为运气。今天,Slack已成为上升最快的创业公司之一,融资5.4亿美元,估值约为38亿美元。“我想这给我们的经验是,追逐梦想,希望梦想失败,这样你就可以做点儿别的了。”Slack的首席技术官卡尔·亨德森(Cal Henderson)说道。It is rare for business software to arouse emotion besides annoyance. But some positively gush about how Slack has simplified office communication. Instead of individual e-mails arriving in a central inbox and requiring attention, Slack structures textual conversations within ths (called “channels”) where groups within firms can update each other in real time. It is casual and reflects how people actually communicate, eschewing e-mails outdated formalities, says Chris Becherer of Pandora, an online-music firm that uses Slack.办公软件很少能唤起什么情绪,除了厌烦之外。但有人对Slack赞不绝口,称其简化了办公通讯。Slack不是把电子邮件都堆在一个收件箱里让人处理,而是按话题(称为“频道”)组织文本对话,便于公司中的团队实时沟通。这种形式较为随意,反映出人们的实际沟通方式,并且避免了电子邮件那套过时的形式,在线音乐公司潘多拉(Pandora)的克里斯·贝赫勒(Chris Becherer)说道,该公司就使用Slack进行办公通讯。 /201606/447012

Junior doctors in England went on strike again in their prolonged dispute with the government over new contracts covering weekend work. The walkout was the fifth this year but the first in which support was not provided for emergency care.英格兰政府制定新政,内容包括周末工作,为抗议此新政,英格兰初级医生发起了自今年以来的第五次罢工。初级医生与政府的争论已持续很久,但因罢工而中断紧急护理务还是首次。Aleksandar Vucic, the prime minister of Serbia, won another term in elections. He is likely to continue many of the reforms needed for Serbia to join the EU. But the bigger challenge is the economy, which last year grew by only 0.7%.塞尔维亚总理亚历山大·武契奇(Aleksandar Vucic) 赢得大选,顺利连任。他很有可能继续推进多项改革措施促使塞尔维亚加入欧盟。但更大的挑战来自于经济,去年该国经济增幅仅为0.7%。In Spain King Felipe announced that, after exhaustive talks following the countrys inconclusive election in December, he had not been able to find a new prime minister. Instead it is likely that new elections will be held on June 26th. The polls indicate that the result may be the same.继去年12月份选举未果以来,西班牙国王菲利普(Felipe)与各派进行详尽会谈,近日他宣布无法提出新的首相人选。新一轮选举或将在6月26日举行,但民调显示这次选举结果可能与之前如出一辙。挪威政府认定法院对布雷维克的裁决侵权The government of Norway launched an appeal against a court ruling that it had violated the human rights of Anders Breivik, a far-right extremist who killed 77 people in 2011. Mr. Breivik lives in a three-room cell with windows, a tmill and a television.挪威政府认为法院关于安德斯·布雷维克(Anders Breivik)的裁决侵犯了其人权,遂提起上述。安德斯·布雷维克是一名极右派激进分子,曾在2011年杀害77人。她现今被关押在一个三室带窗的牢房内,同时狱方还为其配置了跑步机和电视。A leading gay-rights activist in Bangladesh was hacked to death along with a friend. The prime minister blamed the killings on the opposition, but the local branch of al-Qaeda claimed responsibility. Two days earlier, Islamic State said it was behind a similar murder, of a professor of English. Four Bangladeshi liberals have now been murdered by Islamists this month.一位知名孟加拉国同性恋权益活跃分子与其同伴惨遭砍杀身亡。该国总理指责反对党是该案凶手,但当地基地组织宣称对此事件负责。两天前,IS宣称用同样的方式杀害一名英文教授。至此,伊斯兰极端分子4月份共杀害了4名孟加拉自由派人士。India made an embarrassing diplomatic U-turn when it reneged on issuing a visa to Dolkun Isa, a peaceful Uighur activist whom China regards as a terrorist. The Indians had seemed y to welcome Mr. Isa in a tit-for-tat measure: they were angry that China was reluctant to apply the terrorist label to a man they blame for actual terror attacks in India.印度外交政策发生令人尴尬的大转变,撤销发给多里坤·艾沙(Dolkun Isa)的赴印签。艾沙是“世维会”的积极分子(译者注:西方国家普遍认为“世维会”是一个旨在争取维吾尔族独立的、和平的少数民族团体),但中国将其列为恐怖分子。早先中国不愿认定一名对印度实施恐怖袭击的人士为恐怖分子,印度政府对此感到愤怒,欲借欢迎艾沙来印与中国针锋相对。North Korea declared the launch of a ballistic missile from a submarine off its coast to be a “great success”. The rogue states foreign minister said it would suspend its programme of nuclear tests if America ceased its joint military exercises with South Korea. Barack Obama refused.朝鲜通过潜水艇在其海岸附近发射了潜射弹道导弹,并称其是一个“巨大的成功”。这个流氓国家的外交部长表示如果美国中断与韩国的联合军演,朝鲜将推迟其核试验计划。奥巴马拒绝这一提议。Papua New Guineas Supreme Court ruled that Australias controversial detention camp for migrants on its Manus Island was illegal. The judges said the privately run camp, which houses around 850 men, breached PNGs constitutional guarantee of personal liberty. Australia said there would be no change in its policy.澳大利亚在马努斯岛(Manus Island)为移民搭建收容所一直以来都饱受争议,该岛是巴布亚新几内亚(Papua New Guinea)的属岛。近日巴布亚新几内亚最高法院裁定这一行为违法。法官表示这一私人经营的收容所大约可容下850人,这违背了巴布亚新几内亚宪法保的人身自由。澳大利亚则表示不会对这一政策作出任何修改。Saudi Arabias deputy crown prince published what he called a “vision” for the kingdom in 2030. The plan aims to curb dependence on oil by boosting non-oil businesses, and to part-privatise Saudi Aramco in order to set up a huge sovereign-wealth fund that will invest at home and abroad. Prince Muhammad bin Salman also wants to raise the participation rate of women in the workplace from a paltry 22% now to a still-paltry 30% by 2030.沙特副王储穆罕默德·本·萨尔曼(Muhammad bin Salman)公布了“沙特2030愿景”。计划旨在推动非石油产业的发展,逐渐摆脱对石油的依赖,并部分私有化沙特阿美石油公司(Saudi Aramco)以便筹集巨额主权财富基金进行国内外投资。王子同时还表示希望到2030年将妇女在劳动力市场的比重由现在的22%提高到30%,但这一比重仍然微不足道。Hopes were tentatively raised that a durable peace might break out in South Sudan when the fledgling countrys chief rebel, Riek Machar, returned to Juba, the capital, after more than two years away. Standing next to the president, Salva Kiir, with whom he has been in bitter dispute, he was sworn in as vice-president. A unity government was supposed to take shape within days.新兴国家南苏丹反对派领导人芮克·马沙尔(Riek Machar)结束两年多的逃亡生涯后重返首都朱巴(Juba),这为南苏丹实现长久和平带来一线转机。一直以来,马沙尔与总统萨尔瓦·基尔(Salva Kiir)两人之间冲突不断,现今马沙尔在基尔的见下宣誓就任副总统一职。联合政府将在未来几天内组建完毕。In a rare conviction for corruption, a former member of a Nigerian state legislature was sentenced to 154 years in jail. But the judge ruled that he should serve his sentences concurrently for 77 crimes, including the embezzlement of around m, so he should be free in two years.尼日利亚前国家立法机构成员涉嫌贪污被判处154年监禁,这一判决实属罕见。但法官裁决该成员同时还须因包括挪用约700万美元等在内的其他77项罪名刑,如此一来,该名官员将于两年后释放。翻译:张力文amp;殷美玲 译文属译生译世201605/442791Young and workless年轻人与失业Youth employment年轻人就业Recent figures confirmed that government labour-market policies, such as the age discrimination act of 2006 and the equality act of 2010, have enabled older workers to stay in the labour market longer. Two-thirds of the increase in employment since May 2010 has been among those aged 50 and over. Younger workers meanwhile experienced the biggest relative drop in employment during the recession and have not yet recovered to pre-2008 levels. Youth unemployment is still higher than pre-recession levels even though participation for the age group is lower.如上图所示,近期的一些调查数据已经实了政府的一系列劳务市场政策(如2006年的年龄歧视政策还有2010年的平等政策)确实保了老一辈从业者们能在市场中‘生存’更长的时间。从2010年5月份之后,就业率增长的人群中有三分之二集中在50岁及以上的从业者中。与此同时,年轻的职场人士在经济危机中则面临相对来说最大的就业困难,就业率一直未能恢复到2008年前的水平。在入职年龄降低的前提下,年轻人的失业率依然还是超过了经济衰退前的水平。A recent report found that young people might be held back by a lack of “employability” skills including literacy, numeracy and self-management and that a positive, proactive approach to work was lacking. Attitude and ability appear to hinder them more than age.一份近期的报告发现,当代年轻人正因缺少就业技能(包括读写,计数,自我管理,积极性以及工作中的前瞻性)而受阻。 同时相对于年龄,就业态度和才能也阻碍了他们前进。译者:曾擎禹 校对:胡雅琳译文属译生译世 /201504/370583

A servileance camera at an Idaho high school appears to have caught evidence of a ghost.爱达荷州一所高中的监控摄像头似乎拍下了鬼Later,officials examined the milky white image and concluded it was just another resident of Idaho.稍后 官方检查了乳白色的图像 得出结论称 不过是一位普通的爱达荷州居民Thats Steve.This is crazy.This never happens anymore.This is a strange story.是史蒂夫啊 疯狂的消息 前所未闻 奇怪的消息On Monday,a Delta flight from Cleveland to New York took off with just two passengers.周一 一架从克利夫兰飞往纽约的西北航空飞机载着两名乘客就起飞了Two passengers on the whole plane.Yet somehow they spent the whole flight fighting over the arm rest.As if they wouldnt sit together,but they did.整架飞机只有两名乘客 但他们一路上却都在为扶手打架 按理说他们不会坐在一起呢 但偏偏就坐一起了Everyones ok,everyones ok.But instead of sending his kid to school with his lunch,a man sent him to school with 18,000 dollars worth of drugs and knives.人都没事 但一名男子送孩子去学校的时候给他带的不是午饭 而是价值18,000美元的毒品和刀The kid was 3 years old,sent to him school with drugs and knives.孩子才3岁 给他拿了一堆毒品和刀就送他去学校了The man is in jail and the 3 year old has cornerd the cookie and juice market.男子被送入监狱 他3岁的儿子压制了饼干饮料的销售Dont mess with that kid.He will cut your face.别惹那孩子啊 他会砍伤你的脸Weird story,a man who fell overboard off a royal Caribbean cruise ship was rescued hours later by a Disney cruise ship.奇怪的新闻 一名男子从一艘皇家加勒比邮轮上坠海 几小时后 他被一艘迪士尼的游轮救了起来The Disney ship was playing the ;Frozen; Soundtrack,so he immediately jumped back overboard.迪士尼船上在播放《冰雪奇缘》的原声碟 所以他立刻又跳海了Hes dead.I dont know why youre that happy.He died in the frigid waters.他都死了 真不知道你们为什么这么开心 他死在冰冷的水里201609/466400Last week we sent our PA Ari to Ohio State University to surprise the sorority.上周 我们派助理阿力去俄亥俄州立大学 给会的一个惊喜Six of the sorority members are in the audience today.会中有六人来到了现场Ladies, come on down.You have Mics on chairs back there and everybody have got a Mic here.女士们 上台来吧 麦克风就在你们椅子后面 这也有一个麦给你们You just clip it on.And,you got it? I dont know.I dont know how to do this.你们只要夹上就行 然后 找到了吗 我不知道 我不知道怎么找I think is on the seats right behind you.Oh, Im shaking. - On your sit...应该就在你椅子上 找找你后面 天 我在发抖 在你椅子上You got it?This is right. Here.Its all right.找到了吗 找到了 我来吧 别紧张Now we run out of time. Thanks for....All right.So welcome, hi.时间不够用了 谢谢 好了 欢迎你们So are you went surprising.are you missing class for...看来你们还有点不知所措 你们缺课了 为了Thanks for being here for missing your school.谢谢你们 为了来这都缺课了We... I always skip classes for your show, so its okay.我为看你的节目一直逃课 所以无所谓啦Oh great. She held multiple talks We coming to you since totally okay.好吧 她和很多人说了 我们会来你的节目 所以这完全没问题Really? Well, first of all, ah.This is the first time you are here?真的吗 首先 这是你们第一次来我的节目吗Or I think you have been here before. Yeah, I还是说你们以前来过我的节目 是的 我Not in here. Yeah, I have been here before but not inside.不是在这里 我来过 但是没有进来这里I came on spring break, and this amazing woman let me go around the studio我在春假的时候来的 然后 有很好的 让我参观了演播室She is a tour guide, she let me go in.她是个导游 让我进来了And I bought so much merch they gave me discount.We got really bad.然后我买了很多东西 他们还给我打了折 我们当时真的很开心and I got view of your parking spot. It was amazing.而且我还参观了你的停车位 太不可思议了 /201603/430955The genetic history of Britain英国的基因史Who do you think you are?你认为自己是谁?An analysis of Britons genes confirms some myths and explodes others对英国人基因的一项分析论了神话中的虚与实THE waves of invasion and immigration that have, from time to time, swept over the British Isleshave led some to refer to Britons as a mongrel nation. A study just published in Nature by Peter Donnelly of Oxford University and his colleagues shows there is some truth in this, and that the palimpsest of those events is visible in peoples genes—or, at least, that it was still discernible in the late 19th century.外部入侵与移民浪潮时常席卷不列颠群岛,因此,有人将英国称为混血国。牛津大学教授彼得·多纳利与其同事在《自然》杂志上刚发表了一项研究,该研究表明:混血国的说法有一定的真实性,并且这些风云变幻的历史在人们的基因中有所体现(或者,至少在19世纪晚期依然可辨)。Dr Donnellys team looked in detail at the DNA of 2,039 Britons from all parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of whose grandparents had all been born within 80km of each other. They thus, in effect, sampled the distribution of genetic material in the country in 1885 (the average year of the birth of these grandparents), before the large-scale internal population movements of the 20th century had had a chance to confuse the issue. The results divided into 17 genetic clusters, illustrated on the map, which form a pattern that conforms quite well with what an historian might have predicted, but with some interesting wrinkles.多纳利士的研究团队对来自大不列颠岛和北爱尔兰岛各个地域的2039名英国人基因进行了详细研究,研究对象的祖父母均出生在距离对方80公里以内的地方。20世纪国内人口出现大规模流动,因此,该团队实际抽取了英国1885年(研究对象祖父母平均出生的年份)的基因材料作为样本分析,以防止出现失真的情况。研究结果分为17个基因群,其分布情况与一位历史学家的预测完全一致,但同时存在一些有趣的难题。The map is dominated by a DNA cluster that might reasonably be described as “English”. Comparison with continental Europe shows, as might be expected, that this English cluster is related to northern Germany, where the Anglo-Saxons came from—though the admixture is less than 50%, which indicates (again, as expected) that there was much interbreeding between interlopers and natives.可合理称之为“英格兰人”的基因群在地图上的分布数量最多。对照欧洲大陆后发现,正如所料,此基因群与安格鲁-撒克逊人的来源地德国北部相关联。混血基因范围不到一半,但这(再次如其所料)表明入侵者与本土人之间出现大量通婚现象。Others kept themselves to themselves. Yorkshiremen and women will be gratified to note that the west of their county clusters separately from the rest of England, and Lancastrians similarly horrified that Yorkshires tendrils extend into much of theirs.Cornwall, too, clusters separately from England. Indeed, as all good Cornish would have suspected, it clusters separately even from Devon (which is itself also genetically different fromEngland).而其他地域只是内部通婚。约克郡男女得知英国西部的基因群不同于英格兰其他地区后会满心欢喜,而兰开夏郡人则为约克郡人的触手深入自己的地盘感到万分惊骇。康沃尔(英格兰西南部)的基因群也不同于英格兰。的确如此,该郡的基因群甚至不同于德文郡(其基因亦与英格兰不同),这一点一直为善良的康尔沃人所怀疑。The whole so-called Celtic fringe, of areas in the west and north of Great Britain that were not invaded by the Saxons, is far more genetically diverse than its mythopoeic appellation suggests. Orkney, which has three clusters of its own, looks Norse. That is no surprise. It was, after all, part of Norwayfor 600 years. But north and south Wales are different from each other, and mainland Scotland has several clusters (two of which—a consequence, presumably, of the 17th-century plantations organised by King James VI and I—extend into Northern Ireland). The marcher lands between Englandand Scotland, and between England andWales, harbour still further indigenous clusters.所谓的凯尔特郡边缘地带整体包括萨克逊人未曾侵入的大不列颠西部和北部地区,其基因多样性远多于其神话时代名称所指的数量。自身分布有三个基因群的奥克尼郡极像挪威。这不足以为奇。它毕竟在挪威的统治下600年。但威尔士南北部互不相同,同时,苏格兰本土分布着几个基因群(其中两个据推测为17世纪詹姆斯国王一世和六世组织种植园的结果,并蔓延至北爱尔兰)。英格兰分别与苏格兰、威尔士的接界处还分布有土著基因群。The original Celts occupied a huge swathe of western Europe before the Roman conquest, so perhaps this diversity is not so surprising after all. Indeed, Dr Donnellys analysis found traces of genetic connections throughout the land with modern Belgium(which is named after a Celtic tribe, the Belgae) and various parts of France—or Gaul, as the Romans knew it. He did not, though, find any traces of the Vikings beyond those in Orkney, even though they held sway for some time over the eastern part of England. Maybe their fearsome reputation for uninvited sexual congress with local maidens was yet another myth.土著凯尔特人在罗马人征英国之前占有欧洲西部的大片区域,因此,基因存在多样性也许是情理之中的事情。确实,多纳利士经此次分析认为,有迹象表明该地区与现今比利时(该名取自凯尔特地区的贝尔格族)以及法国多个地区—罗马人所熟知的高卢—存在基因关联。然而,尽管维京人在一段时间内统治英格兰东部地区,但除奥克尼以外,他没有发现维京人的其他任何迹象。或许,他们与当地少女私下交配这一可怕的名声还是另一个谜。翻译:石海霞 校对:胡雅琳 译文属译生译世 /201503/367152

But the herons have had their fill.但是苍鹭已经吃饱了。They simply couldnt eat another baby turtle.它们吃不下另一只小海龟了。Its been a narrow escape for this one.这只海龟逃过一劫。The first wave of hatchlings has taken the brunt of the attacks,but the sacrifice of a few hundred ensures the following thousands have a better chance to get to the sea but some babies go the wrong way, just like their mothers.第一波小海龟已经冲破了捕食者的猛烈的攻击,但是几百只小海龟的牺牲,保了接下来的几千只能有更好的机会到海里,但是一些小海龟走错了路,就跟它们的父母一样。The wall of rocks an even bigger obstacle for the hatchling than it was for the adult.岩石是对于小海龟回到海里,是比对成年龟更大的障碍。And theres something even more sinister up ahead.在前面有甚至更危险的东西。Rock crabs,they like baby turtles too.岩石蟹,它们也喜欢小海龟。 译文属201512/415552Hi.I met you.I know you did, yes.Hi, well, hi嗨 终于见到你了 是的 没错 .嗨So whats its like see yourself on TV you watch,Did you watchthe segment you were on?在电视上看到自己是什么感觉 你在电视上看过你的那期吗Oh my gosh, I watch it every day.天哪 我每天都看I watch it every day.I cried every single time I see it.每天都会看 每次看我都会哭Every single time I do the ugly cry,like the really really ugly cry.But its so amazing.每次我都会哭得很惨 哭得稀里哗啦 这太棒了 是啊Its ama...ah... So, yeah, so could you move your family out so that you could give your daughter a better life.所以你们搬家 是为了给你女儿提供更好的生活Yeah. So you sold just about everything did you?是的 你们差不多卖掉了所有的东西吗Yeah.What did you sell? You sold...是的 你们卖了什么 卖了……We sold everything.Everything.我们卖掉了所有的东西 所有My car, clothes, furniture. Everything.But it was so worth it.车 衣 家具 所有 但是这很值得cause we wanna move forward,and we wanna provide a better life for our daughter.因为我们想向前看 我们想给女儿提供更好的生活Yeah you are,and I think, heres the thing,你们做到了 我想说 事情是这样的I know a little more about you.我还知道一点关于你的事We learned that you are eating dinner on a blow up mattress.我们了解到你们在一张充气床垫上吃晚餐Yeah on a mattress.It has a hole in it though.It has a hole in it.对的 在一张床垫上 不过床垫上有个大洞 有个洞 /201509/401275

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