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An Indian warship is to take part in exercises with the Vietnamese navy this week in the tense waters of the South China Sea, where maritime disputes between China and its neighbors have intensified.一艘印度军舰本周将与越南海军一同在南中国海(South China Sea, 中国称南敏感水域参加军演,中国及其周边国家在这一地区的海事纠纷目前愈演愈烈。The guided-missile stealth frigate INS Shivalik also made a port visit at Haiphong in northern Vietnam as part of a three-day goodwill trip to the Southeast Asian country, the Indian navy said Tuesday.据印度海军周二表示,其导弹隐身护卫舰INS Shivalik号还造访了越南北部的海防市港口,这是其对越南为期三天的“善意访问”内容之一。Indian navy spokesman D.K. Sharma said the visit, as well as maneuvers in the Pacific Ocean last month by India, the U.S. and Japan, is a fine demonstration of the operational reach of Indias armed forces.印度海军发言人D.K. Sharma表示,此次造访海防市以及印度、美国和日本上个月在太平洋进行的军演,很好地展现了印度军队的行动能力。Worried about an increasingly assertive and stronger China, New Delhi has sought greater cooperation with Beijings rivals and has been bolstering its navy, which recently took delivery of its second aircraft carrier.由于担心中国越来越强硬,新德里方面寻求与中国的对手开展更多合作,并不断增强其海军实力,印度海军最近获得了第二艘交付的航空母舰。But India, wary of provoking instability in the region and along its own disputed border with China, has generally moved cautiously and tried to avoid any appearance of working with the U.S. or others to contain Chinas rise.但是印度一直谨防在地区以及与中国存在争议的边界地带挑起争端,该国通常都小心行事,避免表现出它有与美国或其他国家联手遏制中国崛起的企图。In May, India expressed concern over a dispute between China and Vietnam over Chinas deployment of an oil rig in a disputed area, prompting a curt response from Beijing that Indians may not worry too much about the current situation in the South China Sea, according to the Press Trust of India.5月份,印度对中国在争议海域部署钻井平台引发中越对峙表达了担忧。据印度报业托拉Press Trust of India)称,北京对此给予了敷衍回应,称印度不需要对当前的南中国海局势过于担心。Rahul Roy-Chaudhury, an expert in maritime affairs at the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies, said the Indian navys Vietnam visit is part of an effort to deepen Indias engagement in East Asia.总部设在伦敦的国际战略研究所(International Institute for Strategic Studies)的海事问题专家Rahul Roy-Chaudhury说,印度海军造访越南说明印度意欲加强对东亚事务的参与In terms of Chinas assertive actions, theres certainly a feeling in India that it should build on some of its traditional relationships in the region, Mr. Roy-Chaudhury said.Roy-Chaudhury指出,考虑到中国的强硬行动,印度必然会感觉到自己应当与一些传统地区盟友加强联系。Some Indian experts and officials have argued India should build close ties with Vietnam like those China has with Indias neighbor and rival, Pakistan. But successive Indian governments have taken a more measured approach.一些印度专家和官员认为,印度应当与越南建立起紧密联系,就像中国与印度邻邦兼对手巴基斯坦所做的那样。但是多届印度政府一直对此采取更谨慎的立场。India and China, which fought a brief 1962 war over their Himalayan border, have in recent years grown increasingly suspicious of the others activities in waters they consider their own strategic backyards.印度与中国曾962年因喜马拉雅地区边界问题发生过短暂军事冲突,两国近些年则互相对对方在自身视为战略后方的水域的活动愈发感到怀疑。Chinas growing presence in the Indian Ocean and infrastructure investments in nations surrounding India has spooked some in New Delhis security establishment.中国在印度洋活动的增加,以及中国在印度周边国家基础设施投资的增长已经使得新德里安全部门的一些人士感到紧张。India has sparred with China over activities in the South China Sea, including gas and oil exploration off the coast of Vietnam. China claims nearly the entire South China Sea, clashing with other nations such as Vietnam and the Philippines that have competing claims over the mineral-rich region.印度与中国已经因南中国海地区的活动问题出现过争执,这些活动包括越南海岸附近的油气勘探。中国声称对整个南中国海地区拥有主权,与同样在这一矿产资源丰富地区声称主权的越南和菲律宾等国家出现冲突。China in 2011 warned Indias state-run Oil amp; Natural Gas Corp. against carrying out exploration activities there. But the Indian company has continued to operate in the region.中国曾于2011年就印度国有公司Oil amp; Natural Gas Corp.在南中国海的勘探活动发出警告,不过这家印度公司仍继续相关活动。That year, Indian officials said, an Indian naval vessel sailing toward a port in Vietnam was contacted on an open radio channel by a caller who identified himself as a Chinese official and said the Indian ship was in Chinese waters.印度官员称,当年一艘驶向越南港口的印度军舰收到一个公共无线电频道的呼叫,对方称自己是中国官员,并表示这艘印度船只正处于中国水域。来 /201408/320041

Seen in historical perspective, Russia’s latest turn to the east is not new. “From the shores of the Pacific and the heights of the Himalayas, Russia will dominate not only the affairs of Asia but those of Europe as well.The Russian statesman who wrote those words was not Vladimir Putin, as some might suspect, but Count Sergey Witte, Alexander III’s finance minister, in a memo to his monarch in 1893. Witte, the architect of Russia’s industrial revolution, launched the trans-Siberian Railroad, aimed at opening up the resources of the eastern two-thirds of Russia and giving Moscow the means to establish its presence as a great power in the Pacific.以历史的眼光来看,俄罗斯最近“战略重心向东方转移”并不新鲜。“从太平洋之滨到喜马拉雅山之巅,俄罗斯不仅将主导亚洲的事务,还将主导欧洲的事务。”这句话并非如一些人或许在怀疑的那样、出自弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)之口,而是出自沙皇亚历山大三世(Alexander III)的财政大臣谢尔盖#8226;维特伯爵(Count Sergey Witte)893年,他在给君主的奏折上写下了这句话。维特是俄罗斯工业化革命的设计师,曾推动修建西伯利亚大铁Trans-Siberian Railway),以求开发俄罗斯东部三分之二国土蕴含的资源,并且让莫斯科能够确立俄罗斯作为太平洋大国的存在。In fact, the Russians have been “turning toward Asiaever since they first crossed the Urals in the late 16th century; and successive rulers tsars and commissars alike have kept going. It is no accident that the name of the port city of Vladivostok, home to Russia’s Pacific Fleet, means in Russian, “Rule the East事实上,自从16世纪末第一次翻越乌拉尔山起,俄罗斯就一直在将战略重心“向亚洲转移”,历代统治者——无论是沙皇还是苏联领导人——都在沿着这条道路前进。俄罗斯太平洋舰Pacific Fleet)基地所在的港口城市符拉迪沃斯托克(即海参崴——译者注),在俄语中的意思是“统治东方”,这并非巧合。Yet for the Kremlin today, the turn to the east has a special urgency. The break-up of the Soviet Union was a blow to the Russian economy as a whole, but for East Siberia and the Russian Far East it was a disaster. Jobs disappeared as military industry, the mainstay of the region, shut down. In Vladivostok, the fleet rusted at anchor. Today the regions are depressed and increasingly depopulated. Along a coastline equal in length to the entire North American seaboard from Florida to Quebec, Russia’s Pacific Coast has fewer than 5m inhabitants. China, to the south, has 1.3bn. From Moscow’s perspective, it is no longer a question of “dominating the affairs of Asia but of keeping Russia intact.然而,对今日的克里姆林宫而言,战略重心向东方转移具有特殊的紧迫性。当年苏联解体,对整个俄罗斯经济造成了巨大冲击,但对西伯利亚东部和俄罗斯远东地区,这一事件堪称一场灾难。撑这一地区经济的军工企业一家家关停,就业岗位随之消失。在符拉迪沃斯托克,人们听任停泊在港口的军舰锈烂。如今,这一地区经济萧条,人口越来越少。俄罗斯的太平洋海岸线在长度上等于从佛罗里达到魁北克的整个北美海岸,却只有不00万居民。俄罗斯以南的中国有13亿人口。从俄罗斯政府的角度来看,问题已不再是它能否“主导亚洲的事务”,而是能否保持俄罗斯本身的完整。Since Mr Putin’s return to the presidency in 2012, his focus on Russia’s east has steadily intensified. The recently concluded gas agreements signed this year with China, after nearly 20 years of inconclusive negotiations, are the centrepiece of his eastern policy. When the first of these, the “Power of Siberiapipeline to eastern China, reaches capacity it will ship a volume equal to nearly one-quarter of Russia’s 2013 gas exports to Europe. If and when the second pipeline the “Altayroute to western China is built, the total could eventually exceed 40 per cent.自普012年重掌总统大权以来,他对俄罗斯东部的关注稳步增强。经过近20年毫无结果的谈判,俄罗斯终于在今年与中国签署了几项天然气协议,这是普京“东方政策”的最亮眼成果。第一条天然气输气管道,即通往中国东部的“西伯利亚力量”管道(东线),最终的年输气量将接近俄罗斯2013年对欧洲天然气出口的四分之一。如果第二条管道,即通往中国西部的阿勒泰管道(西线)建成,两条管道的年度总输气量将超过俄罗斯2013年对欧洲总输气量0%。But heading east is not the same as getting there. There are considerable obstacles. Gasfields and pipelines are enormous, expensive structures, with lead times measured in decades. Historically, Russia’s entire gas industry has been concentrated in the western third of the country. Shifting its centre of gravity eastward requires developing a whole new industry from scratch, and it will not happen quickly. Even on the most ambitious timetable, the Power of Siberia line will not reach its full capacity of 38bn cubic metres a year until the mid-2030s.然而,将战略重心向东方转移是一回事,能否转移成功则是另一回事。俄罗斯面临一些重大障碍。开发天然气田和建设输气管道都是浩大的工程,需要巨大的投入和长达数十年的工期。传统上,俄罗斯整个天然气工业的重心都在西部三分之一国土上。将重心东移,需要从零开始、在东部创建一套全新的工业体系,这不可能一蹴而就。即便按照最雄心勃勃的估算,“西伯利亚力量”管线最早也要到本世0年代中期才能达到每年380亿立方米的设计输气能力。Hence there is a powerful logic to the second Russian-Chinese gas agreement, signed two weeks ago, adding the Altay route, which ths the narrow gap between Mongolia and Kazakhstan, and links up with the western end of China’s west-east pipeline.因此,第二份俄中天然气协议顺理成章地诞生了。这份协议于11月初签署,拟在西面再建一条阿勒泰管道,这条管道将沿着俄罗斯夹在蒙古和哈萨克斯坦之间的那块狭长国土通往中国,接入中国西气东输管道的西头。This route has definite advantages from the Russian point of view: it draws from the country’s nearly limitless reserves in west Siberia; it branches off from an existing pipeline system; it enables the Russians to swing between the European and Chinese markets. It also helps offset the possibility of a more constricted market for gas in Europe.从俄罗斯的角度来看,西线当然更有优势:它利用的是西伯利亚西部几乎用之不竭的天然气资源,它是现有天然气管道系统的一个分,它让俄罗斯能够随时在欧洲和中国市场之间取舍。它还有助于对冲欧洲天然气市场受限的可能性。All this will require a great deal of money by some estimates up to bn for the eastern route alone. Now western sanctions have added one more obstacle. Although Gazprom, the Kremlin-controlled energy group, is not directly subject to the US and European measures announced to date, the sanctionsindirect impact on Russia’s ability to borrow has been unexpectedly severe. To carry out the Power of Siberia project, Gazprom will have to go to international markets for financing, and the prospects are uncertain.这些工程需要大量资金,有人估计,仅东线需要的资金最多就可达550亿美元。眼下西方对俄罗斯的制裁又增加了一个障碍。尽管美国和欧洲迄今宣布的制裁措施并没有直接针对俄罗斯政府控制的俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom),但制裁对俄罗斯借款能力的间接影响迄今严重得出人意料。要推进“西伯利亚力量”项目,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司必须到国际市场上去融资,而这方面的前景是不确定的。Witte had a similar problem. His trans-Siberian Railway took more than 15 years to build, cost scores of lives and ran more than twice over budget. To finance it, he had to float big foreign loans at high interest rates.维特当年也曾面临类似的问题。他推动建设的西伯利亚大铁路花了15年多才建成,几十人在铁路建设过程中失去了生命,工程出超出预算两倍多。为筹集建设铁路资金,他不得不向海外发行高息债券。Thus Russia’s 21st-century pivot to Asia represents, both metaphorically and physically, the latest stage in Russia’s long turn to the east. But, as in the past, it will unfold at a decadal rate. For all of Mr Putin’s desire to align Russia more explicitly with China against the US “hegemon Russia for the foreseeable future will remain anchored in the west and turned toward Europe in its gas trade, much of its industry and most of its population. Russia will not escape its engagement with Europe.因此,俄罗斯1世纪的这次战略重心向亚洲转移,无论在比喻意义上还是在现实意义上,都是俄罗斯转向东方的长期过程的最新阶段。然而,如过去的情形一样,其推进速度将以十年计算。尽管普京渴望让俄罗斯更为公然地与中国结盟、对抗美国“霸权”,但在可预见的未来,俄罗斯仍将被固定在西方、以欧洲为重心,其天然气贸易将以对欧洲出口为主、主要工业布局和绝大部分人口也在西部。俄罗斯无法逃脱其欧洲宿呀?来 /201412/345453

U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter called on North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program during a visit Sunday to the Demilitarized Zone that separates the two Koreas.美国国防部长卡特呼吁朝鲜放弃其核武器项目。他在星期天访问了分割朝鲜和韩国的非军事区。Carter traveled to the DMZ from Seoul and walked up to Observation Post Ouellete, the closest point where South Koreas side of the DMZ meets with the Norths.卡特从首尔前往非军事区,并走到一个最靠近北朝鲜一方的韦莱特观察哨。Pyongyang abandoned negotiations on its nuclear program in conducted with five other nations, including China, Japan, Russia, South Korea and the ed States. Carter said Washington remains committed to the negotiations, and called on the communist country to return to the talks.平壤009年放弃了有关它的核项目的谈判。参加谈判的除了平壤之外,还包括中国、日本、俄罗斯、韩国和美国。卡特说,华盛顿依然致力于谈判,并呼吁平壤返回谈判;They should be on a path of doing less, and ultimately zero, in the nuclear field,; Carter told reporters.他对记者说,“朝鲜应当减少并最终终止其核项目。”Carter will attend a joint U.S.- South Korea security meeting in Seoul later Sunday.卡特星期天晚些时候将在首尔参加美韩双方联合安全会议。来 /201511/407136

Greece’s political woes re-erupted as a threat to global financial stability yesterday, triggering the biggest drop on the Athens stock exchange since the 1980s and sending reverberations through world markets.希腊昨日再度爆发政治危机,对全球金融稳定构成威胁,引发雅典交所出现自上世纪80年代以来最大跌幅,冲击波回荡世界市场。Concerns about Greece fed into a broader fall in global stock markets, aly spooked by sliding oil prices and yesterday’s sharp drop in Chinese equities. The Samp;P 500 fell 1 per cent shortly after opening while the EuroStoxx index of eurozone companies fell for the second day, down 2.5 per cent.对希腊的担忧加剧了全球股市的整体下跌;市场本已受到油价不断下滑和中国股市昨日大幅下跌的惊吓。美国标00(Samp;P 500)指数开盘不久就下跌1%,而追踪欧元区公司的Euro Stoxx指数连续第二天下跌,跌幅.5%。The trigger for the plunge was prime minister Antonis Samaras’s announcement of a snap presidential election. If he fails to win sufficient support for his candidate a general election could follow, which investors fear might bring to power the radical left Syriza party.触发此次暴跌的事件是希腊总理安东尼斯#8226;萨马拉斯(Antonis Samaras)宣布提早举行总统选举。如果他未能为自己提名的候选人争取到足够持,就可能引发一场大选,而投资者担心,大选可能让极左政党——激进左翼联Syriza)上台。Such an outcome would reignite fears about Greece’s place in Europe’s monetary union. Syriza wants to renegotiate the country’s sovereign debt and increase public spending, moves that would put Athens at loggerheads with its creditors.这样的结局将重燃对于希腊在欧洲货币联盟内地位的担心。激进左翼联盟想要重新谈判希腊主权债务,并增加公共出。这些举措将导致雅典方面与债权人不和。The Athens exchange closed 12.8 per cent lower yesterday, the biggest one- day fall since December 1987. Greek banks led the decline, with shares in Attica Bank losing more than 26 per cent and Piraeus Bank 17 per cent.雅典交所昨日收盘下跌12.8%,创下自19872月以来最大单日跌幅。股领跌,其中阿提卡(Attica Bank)股价暴跌6%,比雷埃夫斯(Piraeus Bank)股价下跌17%。Anxiety over the latest turmoil in Greece also led investors to price in a greater chance of it defaulting on its debt, pushing short term government borrowing costs above long term rates.围绕希腊最新动荡的焦虑感,也使投资者认为该国有更大的几率出现债务违约,结果将短期政府借款成本推升至高于长期利率的水平。来 /201412/348043

BEIJING -- If you think water is in short supply in California, you should see whats happeningin China. The situation is so dire that next month, the communist governmentwill turn on the taps in the worlds biggest water-diversion project.北京——如果你认为加州缺水,那你应该去中国看看。中国所面临的情况是如此的严峻,以至于下个月共产主义中国政府将开启世界上最大的引水工程。The Yongding River, which once fed Beijing,ran dry along with 27,000 other rivers in China that have disappeared due to industrialization, dams and drought.曾经供养北京的永定河和中国其7000条河流都干涸消失了,主要原因是工业化,大坝和旱灾;Some of the large parts of the north China plane may suffer severe water shortages,; said environmentalist Ma Jun. ;Some of the cities could literally run out of water.;“中国北方的某些平原可能面临严重的水危机,”环保主义者马军如是说。“有些城市可能面临水干涸。”To try to solve the problem, Chinas government is planning to spend nearly billion to build nearly 2,700 milesof water ways -- almost enough to stretch from New York to Los Angeles.为了解决这个问题,中国政府正计划耗资800亿美元建700英里长的水路——几乎是从纽约到洛杉矶的距离。Four-fifths of Chinas fresh water lies inits south. The idea behind the project is to move some of that water to the parched - and populous - north by connecting existing bodies of water. Thats meant relocating 350,000 people to settlements.中国五分之四的淡水资源分布在南方。这个项目的理念是通过连接现有水体的方式将南方的水资源输送到干旱和人口众多的北方。这意味着要对35万人进行移民。Zhang Xiaofeng, who was moved to a settlement, was asked if she wanted to come to this place.;It does not matter if youre willing or not,; said Zhang. ;We had to move here. If we didnt our homewould be under water.;一名叫做张小凤的移民被问及是否愿意搬到这个地方时,他说:“愿不愿意都不重要,我们不得不搬到这里来,如果不搬的话,我们的房屋就会被淹没在水里。”She used to sell jade but now scrapes by selling whatever she can from a small shop in her ;relocationvillage; -- dubbed ;Harmony; by the local government.她以前以卖玉为生,但是现在在移民村里开了一家小店勉强维生,当地政府授予这个移民村以“和谐之村”的称号。She walked us through her new home but said she misses her old one. Still, she said, her suffering is worth it for more people to have water. But was she being serious or just being polite?她带我们看了看她的新家,但是她说想念自己的老房子。但是她说他的牺牲是值得的,因为可以让更多人获得水资源。但是她真的是这么认为的吗,还是只是出于礼貌;As a Chinese citizen we all ought to be like this,; answered Zhang. ;We can survive anywhere.;“作为一名中国公民,我们都应该这么做。我们可以在任何地方生存。”Back in Beijing, Ma Jun feels the projectis a short-term ;emergency measure.;而在北京的马军认为这个项目是一种短期的“应急措施”;It will help to buy some time,;said Ma Jun. ;I wouldnt call this a real final solution because the current volume of transfer will not be enough to fill up the gap.;“这或许会给我们争取点时间,但是我不认为这是最终的解决方案,因为目前所输送的水量还无法满足空缺。”The water supply for some cities, he fears,may someday run out.他担心有些城市的供水可能最终会耗尽。来 /201412/345461


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