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In 13 seasons nobody has brought the fire marshal to our stage more times than our next guest.在13季节目中 没有人能超越接下来的这位嘉宾 只有他带多次带领消防队出现在我们的舞台上Please welcome back our science guy, Steve Spangler.欢迎我们的科学达人史蒂夫·格勒的再次到来I was in West Virginia training teachers to be better science teachers,我在西弗吉尼亚周进行教师培训 以成为更好科学教师and there#39;s a lot of history of coal mining in West Virginia.西弗吉尼亚有悠久的煤矿历史Mm-hmm. And so, they showed me this. This was a miner#39;s hat... Mm-hmm.嗯哼 所以 他们向我展示了这个 这是一个矿工的帽子 嗯哼And then they gave me this, and this was very cool. This is an antique.然后他们给了我这个 这个非常酷 这是一个古董This is, like, a miner#39;s lantern.这是 呃 一个矿工的灯So, look at what happens. This is long before they ever had batteries. Right.那么 看看会发生什么 在他们有电池之前的很长一段时间 对They would actually put a chemical in the bottom...他们会在底部放一点化学品Uh-huh. And then drip water in and light this on fire. On their head?啊哈 然后他们向其中滴水 点着它 在他们的头上?On their head. Wow. So, that#39;s what we#39;re gonna do.在他们的头上 哇 所以 这就是我们将要做的All right, so put on your safety glasses. This is gonna--no, no we#39;re gonna do it in here.好吧 带上你的安全镜 这是要…不 不 我们要在这里进行So, watch what happens. The secret is, this stuff here called calcium carbide--look at the little rocks.那么 看看会发生什么 秘密就是 这里的东西 叫做电石 看这个小石头Mm-hmm. See #39;em? Yeah. Those little rocks, when they get added to water,嗯哼 看到他们了么?嗯 这些小石头 当将它们加入水中时produce acetylene gas--eh, kinda smell weird. Very strong smell. Yeah.会产生乙炔气体 呃 闻起来有点奇怪 很强烈的气味 对And the water goes in like this, so that#39;s perfect.把水像这样放进去 就很完美了So now--here hold out your hand. You#39;re gonna hold on to the acetylene.那么现在 伸出你的手 你要抓住乙炔I mean, you#39;re gonna hold on to the calcium carbide.我的意思是 你要抓住电石Okay, when I ask you to, you#39;re gonna dump it in here, and then I...好 当我发出命令时 你要把它丢进这里 然后我Am gonna light it on fire. Great. Okay? All right, so dump it in.我就会点火 很好 好么?好的 那就把它丢进去How far do I run after that? No, you don#39;t have to run.做完之后我得跑多远 不 你不用跑Okay. Okay. Okay, just stick--you#39;re gonna be okay. Okay.好的好的 嗯 只是伸出… 你不会有事的 好吧See, it#39;s just bubbles. See, it#39;s nothing. All right, yes. Nobody cares.看 这只是泡沫 看 没什么 好吧 没人在意的Okay. And see you just--you li--See how you light it on fire? Wow.好吧 看 你只要 你 看怎么点火 哇Now here#39;s the craziest thing. Imagine that on your head.现在是最疯狂的事 想象一下在你的头上So, this thing is burning on your head... Yeah. Which is crazy.那么 他要是在你的头上燃烧 好吧 太疯狂了Yeah. But that#39;s what they had to go through. Here I can do this.是啊 但是这是他们必须经历的 我可以在这做See, isn#39;t that great? Mm, wonderful. Okay, perfect. So, I was just thinking--看 是不是很棒 恩 很精 好的 完美 嗯 我在想Thank you. All right, so, that#39;s not reallyI know that you#39;re not--谢谢你 好的 那么 这不是真的 我知道你不是Well, it doesn#39;t really last long, I mean...嗯 他不会持续很长时间 我的意思是I mean, no. They have to keep doing that and walk another foot. Yeah, no, no, no.我意思是 不是 他们得一边干这个 一边用另一只脚走路 嗯 不 不 不It was much better. It was a beautiful flame, but I was thinking this would be more fun.这个更好 它有美丽的火焰 但是我在想这样可能会更有趣So, look, I#39;m gonna do it now with a juice container.恩 看啊 我要用一个果汁容器做实验So, if we put some water in this juice container,恩 如果我们在果汁容器内放入一些水and then we add the rocks... Mm-hmm. We#39;re gonna produce acetylene gas.然后加入电石 嗯哼 我们会生产出乙炔气体Now I have to wait for the perfect amount of oxygen现在我们等等让它里面充满足够的氧气to get in there, and then, you are gonna light it on fire.然后 你来点火Great. Okay, so I just wanna make sure--here. Make sure that you can strike it. Ready? So, it#39;s--yeah.好的 恩 我只是想要确定 这 确定你能 使用它 准备好了么?嗯 是的That#39;s perfect. So, when I ask you to, you#39;re gonna touch that little hole that#39;s back there.很好 那么当我发出命令时 你要接触这个后面的小洞Mm-kay? Like--No! Not yet. Not yet. No, no, I know, but--Yeah, that#39;s it.好么 就像… 不 还没好 还没好 嗯嗯 我知道 但是 是 就是这样That#39;s what you#39;re gonna touch. So, watch. See how the rocks go in.这是你将要接触的地方 然后 看 当把电石放进去So, you see the bubbling action that#39;s inside?你看到里面正在冒泡了么?Yeah. Right. So, it#39;s building that up, but then I thought I#39;d make it do something fun,嗯 对 他正在发生反应 我觉得我应该做些有趣的事情so that#39;s why the bandana gets shoved down inside like this.我要将这个大手帕像这样塞进去#39;Cause we gotta build up some pressure. Ha! You oughta wear the...来帮我们创造一点压力 哈 你需要戴Should So, now. Can I wear something? They said it#39;s gonna be loud.应该 那么 现在 我能戴一些东西么?他们说这个可能会很吵Oh, you can wear those if you want. Yeah, that#39;s fine. All right. Okay.噢 如果你想的话你可以戴这个 好 很好 好的Well, they told me I should. Well, that#39;s good.嗯 他们说我应该戴 嗯 很好I#39;ve lost my he--okay, light it. Uh-huh. Okay, and now, light it on fire. Ready?我失去了我的…好的 点燃它 啊哈 好 现在 点火 准备好了么?See how it goes? What? Huh? See, now this is useful看我说的怎样 什么 啊? 看 这个是有用的because it#39;s not just shooting a bandana in the air.因为它不仅可以发射大手帕You have been so nice. Every time I#39;m on, you give me underwear.你一直很好 每次我来 你都会给我内衣Yep. So, now, I have 18 pair of underwear, and I brought them back, so--and we#39;re just gonna use #39;em.是 现在我有18条内裤 我把他们带回来 我们要用他们来做实验Yeah. These are--Yep. I didn#39;t wear all of these. No, thank goodness. Just one.好的 这些是 嗯 我没有穿过他们哦 还好 谢天谢地 只有一个Okay. So, here#39;s what we#39;re gonna do.好吧 这个是我们将要做的All right. In just a second, I put water in all of these, and then I#39;ve got好吧 第二 我要把水 都倒进这里面去our little calcium carbide rocks that are here.然后这里是一些小电石So, you and I are gonna drop those in all the way across. Mm-hmm.那么 咱俩要把他们扔进 这些通道里 嗯哼And then we#39;re gonna jam the underwear down inside.然后我们要把这些内衣塞进这里面去And then--yes that#39;s very good. That#39;s gonna be even louder. Yes.恩 这样很好 这个的声音会更大And then--here. I brought this for you as well.然后 这里 我把这个给你Here#39;s your torch. Okay, so you need a torch. Where#39;s that going?这是你的火炬 好 你需要一个火炬 它要用在哪Well, the torch is gonna touch the hole that#39;s right there,恩 火炬需要接触这里的洞but then we#39;re gonna aim #39;em down to the audience like this. Perfect. You got it? Yeah.但是我们得把它们像这样瞄准台下的观众 完美 你明白了么? 当然All right, so why don#39;t you stand on this side of me好的 你为什么不站在我的这一边呢?over here like this. This is not the way they want to get Ellen underwear. This is not--像这样站在这里 这不是他们 想要得到艾伦的内衣的方式 这不是It#39;s a great way to get Ellen underwear.这是得到Ellen的内衣的好方式All right, so here#39;s what we#39;re gonna do.好吧 这是我们将要做的Watch this--so, this is gonna go down inside.看这个 我们得把它扔进去They#39;re bubbling right now, so here#39;s the little bubbling.他们现在在冒泡 这里有小泡泡Good, and now you#39;re gonna put on your headphones.好的 现在你得戴上你的耳机Okay, sorry to stand in front of you, but that#39;s great, and so, now--here.好吧 抱歉站在你的前面 但是很好 现在 这里If you don#39;t mind, hang onto those and just--yeah.如果你不介意 抓住那些 只要 对A color at a time will be perfect, so here we go.一种颜色一次将会很完美 那么我们开始吧A little bit of black underwear in this one. This is perfect.这个是有点黑色的内衣 这很完美These are always fun at school. All right, so this is good.这些在学校里总是很有趣 好的 这很好Kids love--oh, that#39;s a party at home. All right, so this is good.孩子们喜欢 噢 这是在家里的一个派对 好的 这个很好Bam. Bam. Bam. Bam. Bam. Ellen, hit that one.嘣 嘣 嘣 嘣 嘣 艾伦 点这个Light it like this and then touch it, y? Okay, touch it.像这样点燃它 然后接触它 好了么?好的 接触这个Hit that one! Go! Get that one right there! Bam! Ta-da! Wow.点这个 继续 点这边这个 嘣 哒哒 哇So, look what we#39;re gonna do here.那么 看看这里我们将要做的Now watch this, I just want you--if you don#39;t mind, stand right here. I don#39;t mind.看这个 我想要你 如果你不介意的话 站在这里 我不介意Okay, so here what#39;s gonna happen. See the liquid nitrogen that#39;s here?好的 这是将要发生的 看到这里的液氮了么?So, now the liquid nitrogen goes into the bucket.现在把液氮倒进桶里Now, we#39;ve taken the liberty of putting liquid nitrogen in all of those other buckets.关于这个我们已经获得许可 把那些液氮都倒进其他所有桶里So, there#39;s 20 liters in each of those buckets.这里每个桶都有20升Look at--they#39;re frozen. The cans are frozen. They#39;re very very very very very cold.看这个 他们冻住了 罐子被冻住了 他们非常 非常 非常冷So, now the next part is gonna be the best part,下一部分将是最精的一部分and that#39;s this, is that we have really hot water他是这样 我们的桶里有非常热的水in the buckets, right? So, now the hot water will be对么 那么现在 热水将被in the buckets and then I#39;m going to--on three. I go, ;Three, two, one, go.;倒进桶里 然后我将要 在数三声之后 我说;3 2 1开始; 然后开始We#39;re gonna dump the hot water in the bucket. Mm-kay? Uh... All right, so, good.我们要把热水倒进桶里 好吧? 呃 好的 那么 很好Haven#39;t you been through enough aly? Hey, hey! Put your safety glasses on.你没过够么?嘿 嘿 带上你的安全镜I#39;m in here. Well, I#39;d still put #39;em on if I were you. All right this is awesome.我在这里了 嗯 如果我是你的话 我还是会带上它 好吧 这很可怕You guys y? We#39;ll commence as I#39;m gonna go, ;Three, two, one, go,; and we#39;re gonna do it.你们都准备好了么?我喊开始我们就要开始了 三 二 一 开始 然后我们就这么做Got it? Ready? Don#39;t they put their things down? Shields down. Okay...明白了么?准备好了么?他们不把他们的那个放下来么?放下防护罩 好的Pick up your water. Are you feeling good? Feeling good? Here we go. Count us down.拿起你们的水 你们感觉还好么?感觉可好?我们开始了 开始倒数Three...two...one...go! Freaking so cool! Wow. Now... Uh...三 二 一 开始 太他妈酷了 哇 现在 啊Go to our website to learn more about Steve and his science kit of the month club.在我们的网站上可以了解更多关于史蒂夫的事 以及他的月俱乐部的科学装备 Article/201707/516012Ten years ago, I had my first exhibition here.10年前,我在这里举办了第一次展览。I had no idea if it would work or was at all possible,当时我对于能否成功毫无信心,but with a few small steps and a very steep learning curve, I made my first sculpture, called ;The Lost Correspondent.;但经过几次尝试后,我进步很快,我完成了第一件雕塑作品,名为“失落的记者”。Teaming up with a marine biologist and a local dive center,通过与一名海洋生物学家和当地潜水中心的合作,I submerged the work off the coast of Grenada, in an area decimated by Hurricane Ivan.我将这个雕塑沉到了格林纳达的海底,飓风伊万曾经摧毁过那个区域。And then this incredible thing happened. It transformed. One sculpture became two. Two quickly became 26.之后不可思议的事情发生了。它发生了大变化。一尊雕像变成了两尊。两尊很快变成了26尊。And before I knew it, we had the world#39;s first underwater sculpture park.在不经意间,世界上第一个水下雕塑公园就诞生了。In 2009, I moved to Mexico and started by casting local fisherman.2009年,我搬到了墨西哥,开始以当地渔民的形象进行创作。This grew to a small community, to almost an entire movement of people in defense of the sea.这些雕像渐渐形成一个小规模社区,几乎完整呈现了一场人们保护海洋的运动。And then finally, to an underwater museum, with over 500 living sculptures.最后,它们都被送到了海底物馆,一共有超过500尊生机勃勃的雕塑。Gardening, it seems, is not just for greenhouses.看起来,园艺不一定只能出现在温室里。We#39;ve since scaled up the designs: ;Ocean Atlas,; in the Bahamas, rising 16 feet up to the surface and weighing over 40 tons,之后我们将设计升级了一个层次:“海洋巨人”,在巴哈马完成,高16英尺,重量超过40吨,to now currently in Lanzarote, where I#39;m making an underwater botanical garden, the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean.目前位于兰萨罗特,我在那里建了一座水下植物园,是大西洋里的第一座。Each project, we use materials and designs that help encourage life;每一件作品,我们都使用对动植物友好的材料和设计,a long-lasting pH-neutral cement provides a stable and permanent platform.用酸碱中性的坚固水泥,制作结实耐用的平台。It is textured to allow coral polyps to attach.质地适合珊瑚虫附着。We position them down current from natural reefs so that after spawning, there#39;s areas for them to settle.我们将雕塑沉入靠近珊瑚礁的水下,这样(珊瑚虫)产卵之后,能有地方供卵附着。The formations are all configured so that they aggregate fish on a really large scale.排列的方式也经过设计,这样能使聚集过来的鱼群达到一个很大的数量级。Even this VW Beetle has an internal living habitat to encourage crustaceans such as lobsters and sea urchins.就连这辆大众甲壳虫内部也是一个栖息地适合甲壳纲动物生活,比如龙虾和海胆。So why exhibit my work in the ocean? Because honestly, it#39;s really not easy.为什么我要把作品在海底展出呢?因为说实话,这事一点也不轻松。When you#39;re in the middle of the sea under a hundred-foot crane, trying to lower eight tons down to the sea floor,当你立在海里,头顶上是100英尺高的起重机,试着将8吨重的东西放到海底,you start to wonder whether I shouldn#39;t have taken up watercolor painting instead.你可能会想,当初为什么没去学水画呢?But in the end, the results always blow my mind.但是,最后的结果总能让我惊喜。The ocean is the most incredible exhibition space an artist could ever wish for.海洋是最理想的展出场所,是艺术家梦寐以求的。You have amazing lighting effects changing by the hour, explosions of sand covering the sculptures in a cloud of mystery,那里有时刻都在变化的光影效果,盖住雕像的细沙,仿佛神秘的面纱,a unique timeless quality and the procession of inquisitive visitors, each lending their own special touch to the site.静止在时光之外,还有数量众多好奇的参观者,每一位都会在上面留下自己特殊的印记。But over the years, I#39;ve realized that the greatest thing about what we do, the really humbling thing about the work,但随着时间流逝,我才意识到这件事的伟大之处,它充满了谦卑的情怀,is that as soon as we submerge the sculptures, they#39;re not ours anymore,从我们将雕像沉入水中的那一刻起,它们就不再属于我们,because as soon as we sink them, the sculptures, they belong to the sea.因为从下沉的那一刻开始,这些雕像,就归属了海洋。As new reefs form, a new world literally starts to evolve, a world that continuously amazes me.随着新的珊瑚礁形成,一个新的世界开始进化,那是一个不断带来惊喜的世界。It#39;s a bit of a cliché, but nothing man-made can ever match the imagination of nature.也许这话有点陈词滥调,但人造之物,终究比不上大自然的鬼斧神工。Sponges look like veins across the faces. Staghorn coral morphs the form.海绵动物看起来像脸上的血管。鹿角珊瑚组合成美丽的形状。Fireworms scrawl white lines as they feed. Tunicates explode from the faces.火蠕虫进食后留下了白色的线条。海鞘在雕像脸上,仿佛花朵绽放。Sea urchins crawl across the bodies feeding at night. Coralline algae applies a kind of purple paint.海胆在夜晚爬过雕像的身躯进食。珊瑚藻将雕像涂成某种紫色。The deepest red I#39;ve ever seen in my life lives underwater.我见过的最深的红色就位于水下。Gorgonian fans oscillate with the waves. Purple sponges breathe water like air.柳珊瑚随着水流翩翩起舞。紫海绵像呼吸空气一样呼吸海水。And grey angelfish glide silently overhead.灰色的天使鱼在头顶安静地游过。And the amazing response we#39;ve had to these works tells me that we#39;ve managed to plug into something really primal,我们从这些作品里获得的回应是神奇的,我们成功地将作品嵌入了大自然原始的进程,because it seems that these images translate across the world,这些图像看起来能被全世界理解,and that#39;s made me focus on my responsibility as an artist and about what I#39;m trying to achieve.这使得我得以专注于艺术家的职责,专注于我想达成的目标。I#39;m standing here today on this boat in the middle of the ocean,今天我站在这里,在大洋中央的一艘船上,and this couldn#39;t be a better place to talk about the really, really important effect of my work.我觉得这是个绝佳的位置,来讲述我的工作最最重要的意义所在。Because as we all know, our reefs are dying, and our oceans are in trouble.因为众所周知,我们的珊瑚礁在死去,我们的海洋遇到了大问题。So here#39;s the thing: the most used, searched and shared image of all my work thus far is this.下面重点来了:到目前为止,我的所有作品中被引用,搜索和分享最多的是这幅图像。And I think this is for a reason, or at least I hope it is.我想这是有原因的,或者至少我希望是这样。What I really hope is that people are beginning to understand that when we think of the environment and the destruction of nature,我希望人们开始明白,当我们在思考环境污染问题时,that we need to start thinking about our oceans, too.不要忽略海洋。Since building these sites, we#39;ve seen some phenomenal and unexpected results.从建立这些公园开始,我们就看到了许多神奇的意想之外的结果。Besides creating over 800 square meters of new habitats and living reef,我们为海洋生物创造了超过800平米的新栖息地和活的珊瑚礁,visitors to the marine park in Cancun now divide half their time between the museum and the natural reefs,此外,去坎昆海洋公园的游客开始将一半的时间用在参观物馆和珊瑚礁,providing significant rest for natural, overstressed areas.让那些游客压力过大的自然区域能够得以喘息。Visitors to ;Ocean Atlas; in the Bahamas highlighted a leak from a nearby oil refinery.这是到巴哈马参观“海洋巨人”的游客在展示附近炼油厂泄漏的原油。The subsequent international media forced the local government to pledge 10 million dollars in coastal cleanups.随后迫于国际媒体的压力,当地政府拨出1000万美元来清理海滩。The sculpture park in Grenada was instrumental in the government designating a spot -- a marine-protected area.而格林纳达的雕塑公园,在政府选址建立海洋保护区时发挥了重要作用。Entrance fees to the park now help fund park rangers to manage tourism and fishing as.公园门票被用于资助公园巡逻员监控游客数量和量。The site was actually listed as a ;Wonder of the World; by National Geographic.这个公园还被《国家地理》杂志列入“世界奇迹”名录。So why are we all here today in this room? What do we all have in common?那么我们今天为什么会相聚在这里呢?我们有什么共同点吗?I think we all share a fear that we don#39;t protect our oceans enough.我认为,我们都心怀忧虑,担心我们对海洋的保护做得不够。And one way of thinking about this is that we don#39;t regard our oceans as sacred, and we should.为什么会这么认为,原因之一是我们没有将海洋看作神圣之地,这很不应该。When we see incredible places -- like the Himalayas or the La Sagrada Família, or the Mona Lisa,当我们看到美妙的景色时--比如喜马拉雅山或者圣家堂,甚至是蒙娜丽莎,even -- when we see these incredible places and things, we understand their importance.当我们看到这些奇妙的景色或者物品时,我们懂得它们的重要性。We call them sacred, and we do our best to cherish them, to protect them and to keep them safe.认为它们是神圣的,我们视其为珍宝,尽力保护,生怕有任何闪失。But in order to do that, we are the ones that have to assign that value;但要做到这一点,我们就需要站出来,赋予它们价值,otherwise, it will be desecrated by someone who doesn#39;t understand that value.否则,它们可能就会被那些不懂其价值的人破坏。So I want to finish up tonight by talking about sacred things.所以,最后我想谈谈神圣的东西。When we were naming the site in Cancun, we named it a museum for a very important and simple reason:当我们给坎昆的这个地点命名时,我们之所以称其为物馆,原因很重要却也简单:museums are places of preservation, of conservation and of education.物馆的功能是保存,保护和教育。They#39;re places where we keep objects of great value to us, where we simply treasure them for them being themselves.物馆是用来保存珍宝的地方,以便我们能在那里欣赏它们。If someone was to throw an egg at the Sistine Chapel, we#39;d all go crazy.如果有人在西斯廷小教堂扔鸡蛋,我们都会强烈谴责。If someone wanted to build a seven-star hotel at the bottom of the Grand Canyon, then we would laugh them out of Arizona.如果有人想在科罗拉多大峡谷底部建一家七星级酒店,我们会把他们踢出亚利桑那州。Yet every day we dredge, pollute and overfish our oceans.然而我们每天都在糟蹋海洋,开采,污染,过度捕捞。And I think it#39;s easier for us to do that, because when we see the ocean, we don#39;t see the havoc we#39;re wreaking.我觉得这也可以理解,因为当我们望向海洋的时候,我们看不到我们造成的破坏。Because for most people, the ocean is like this.因为对大多数人来说,海洋看起来是这样的。And it#39;s really hard to think of something that#39;s just so plain and so enormous, as fragile.很难想象,海洋如此纯粹,如此巨大,却又如此脆弱。It#39;s simply too massive, too vast, too endless. And what do you see here? I think most people actually look past to the horizon.它太过广袤无垠,无边无际。你们能看到什么?我觉得大部分人会直接望向远处的地平线。So I think there#39;s a real danger that we never really see the sea, and if we don#39;t really see it,因此我觉得有件事很危险,那就是我们从未真正看清海洋,而如果我们没有看清,if it doesn#39;t have its own iconography, if we miss its majesty, then there#39;s a big danger that we take it for granted.没有对海洋形成全面的认识,没有看到它的雄伟庄严,那我们就会(把向海洋索取)视为理所当然,这很危险。Cancun is famous for spring break, tequila and foam parties.坎昆是一个著名的春假旅游地,以龙舌兰酒和泡泡轰趴闻名。And its waters are where frat boys can ride around on Jet Skis and banana boats.年轻人在那里骑快艇,或者坐香蕉船滑水。But because of our work there, there#39;s now a little corner of Cancun that is simply precious for being itself.但由于我们在那里的工作,现在坎昆有那么一个小小的角落,因为保持了自然原貌而备受珍视。And we don#39;t want to stop in Grenada, in Cancun or the Bahamas.我们并不满足于在格林纳达,坎昆或者巴哈马止步。Just last month, I installed these Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the Thames River, in central London, right in front of the Houses of Parliament,就在上个月,我将“启示录四骑士”放在了泰晤士河,就在伦敦市中心,正对着国会大厦,putting a stark message about climate change in front of the people that have the power to help change things.我想把气候变化的信息明确地传递给那些有能力做出改变的人。Because for me, this is just the beginning of the mission.对我而言,这仅仅是一项长期任务的开始。We want to team up with other inventors, creators, philanthropists, educators, biologists, to see better futures for our oceans.我们打算联合发明家,创作家,慈善家,教育家,生物学家,为我们的海洋创造更好的未来。And we want to see beyond sculpture, beyond art, even.我们想做的不仅仅是雕塑,甚至不仅仅是艺术。Say you#39;re a 14-year-old kid from the city, and you#39;ve never seen the ocean.假设你是一名14岁的城里孩子,从未见过海。And instead of getting taken to the natural history museum or an aquarium,我们不打算带你去自然历史物馆,或者水族馆,you get taken out to the ocean, to an underwater Noah#39;s Ark, which you can access through a dry-glass viewing tunnel,而是带你到真正的海洋,到一艘水下的诺亚方舟,你可以通过一个透明的玻璃观景通道进入其中,where you can see all the wildlife of the land be colonized by the wildlife of the ocean. Clearly, it would blow your mind.在那里,你能看到陆地上的野生动植物雕塑,被海洋生物当成了殖民地。显然,这会让你大开眼界。So let#39;s think big and let#39;s think deep. Who knows where our imagination and willpower can lead us?因此,让我们尽情想象吧。谁知道我们的想象力和意志力能将我们带往何处?I hope that by bringing our art into the ocean,我希望,我们将艺术品放入海洋,that not only do we take advantage of amazing creativity and visual impact of the setting,不仅仅能因为奇妙的创意和视觉冲击而获得回报,but that we are also giving something back, and by encouraging new environments to thrive, and in some way opening up a new同时我们也能有所回馈,创造新的环境(让海洋生物)实现繁荣发展,以全新的方法or maybe it#39;s a really old way of seeing the seas: as delicate, precious places, worthy of our protection.也许是回归最古老的方法来看待海洋:海洋是精致而优雅的,值得我们保护。Our oceans are sacred. Thank you.我们的海洋是神圣的。谢谢大家。 Article/201706/515457Alison just flew in here from New York. You had the premiere for your movie last night. Yes. You had an incident.艾莉森刚刚从纽约飞来。你昨天出席了新电影的首映礼。是的。中途出现了一个小插曲是吗?Yes, I had a very dramatic incident.对,一个非常戏剧化的小插曲。We have a photo of said incident here. Can you talk me through what happened?关于这个小插曲,我们这里有张照片。你能告诉大家发生了什么事吗?Yes. Yes. You#39;ll appreciate this since you act in action movies.好的,好的。想到这件事,我很庆幸拍的是动作片。This is probably the most action-packed moment in my life.这大概是我人生中最惊心动魄的一刻。I was leaving. We were doing press for the movie. I was going down an escalator innocently enough当时我正准备离开。我们要去参加新电影的新闻发布会。我开开心心地准备站在下行电梯上,and my heel got caught. We were pretty close to the bottom aly.然后我的鞋跟被卡住了。我们当时离电梯尽头已经很近了。You know I couldn#39;t get it out. I was struggling. One foot was loose. The teeth were getting closer.我的鞋被卡着出不来。我试着把鞋拔出来,脚已经出来了。电梯梳齿板离尽头越来越近。I had to leap from the shoe. There was no time to save the shoe. I had to save myself. Like a modern day Cinderella.我只得赶紧跨过那只鞋跳过去。根本没时间去挽救我的鞋子,我必须先挽救我自己。这情节像是现代版的《灰姑娘》。And then Dave Franco turns up and is like whoever this shoe fits will become my wife.然后戴夫·弗朗克出现了,他说,谁能穿上这只鞋,谁就会成为我的妻子。This is amazing! It is a modern day fairy tale.简直完美!简直就是童话的现实版!The shoe ended up breaking the escalator. Just stopped it immediately. Louis Vuittons are super strong.那只鞋最后把电梯卡住了。电梯马上就停了。LV实在是太结实了。Tell me about it...There was a woman line me on the escalator who had like a boot, a walking cast on her foot came hobbling down.这还用说...电梯上有个站在我后面的女人脚上打着石膏,像是穿着一双靴子一样,走起路来一瘸一拐的。She was like you know, I aly had a broken foot!她说,你看,我脚都断了还能走!Oh, like you#39;re meant to do...You know, I almost lost a foot myself here! Can I have a little sympathy?哦,你差点那样...我的脚差点儿就断了好吗!能有人同情我一下吗?And she is one of the ugly sisters. This is all coming together! This is an amazing movie!那她就是灰姑娘那些恶毒的之一了。所有人物都齐活了!简直像电影一样!Renner turns up on a horse. Trademarked, right? We have said it on TV. No one can steal it.然后雷纳骑着马出现了!我们这就相当于申请了专利了是吧?我们都在电视上说了。那就没人能剽窃我们的创意了。 Article/201706/512769According to my preliminary analysis,根据我的初步分析it seems that these animals do not seem to show any differentiation between the dinosaurs from the Northern and Southern Hemisphere在南北半球的这些恐龙之间,似乎并没有表现出明显的区别and this is the time more or less directly before the final split of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere,这段时期差不多刚好是在南北半球分裂之前the final separation of North and South America.也就是南北美洲分离之时One continent, one type of meat-eater.一块大陆,一种食肉恐龙It was just as the vicariance theory predicted,这正是地理分隔理论预测的结果but then they had to compare dinosaurs for signs of vicariance from after the super-continent split up.但他们还得比较大陆刚分裂后的恐龙,寻找地理分隔的相关据If the theory was right, there should be some differences between dinosaurs from the north and the south,如果这一说法正确,那么南北恐龙之间必然存在着一些不同点but because the split had only just happened但是由于大陆刚分裂不久these differences would only be slight and very hard to spot这些差异非常细小,很难被发现and at first he couldn#39;t find anything significant.一开始他们没能找到一点重要线索In the end he looked again at the radioactive dinosaur.最后他决定再次研究放射性的恐龙骨骼Of all the fossils this was the youngest, from well after the super-continent split up.它是所有化石中最年轻的,来自超大陆刚分裂之时。Now the interesting thing about this fossil is这块化石值得关注的原因是that this comes from a part of the rock sequence that we actually now believe to be younger than the other fossils that we#39;ve seen我们认为它挖掘出来的岩层比我们找到的其它化石的岩层都要年轻and with this kind of fossils hopefully then we can answer the question,有了这类化石,我们就有希望找到问题的。whether the dinosaurs took different evolutionary pathways in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere.南北半球的恐龙是否真的沿着不同的轨道进化。 Article/201706/515394

What was the most difficult job you ever did?你曾经做过的最难的工作是什么?Was it working in the sun? Was it working to provide food for a family or a community?是曾在大太阳底下工作?是给家庭或者整个社区提供餐饮?Was it working days and nights trying to protect lives and property?是要昼夜不分地保护生命和财产?Was it working alone or working on a project that wasn#39;t guaranteed to succeed,是你曾独自一人工作?还是你在一个前途未卜的项目中,but that might improve human health or save a life?但却可以改善人类健康或者救死扶伤?Was it working to build something, create something, make a work of art?这份工作是不是去建造,去创新,打造一个艺术作品?Was it work for which you were never sure you were fully understood or appreciated?这份工作是不是让你觉得不确定自己是否会被人们所理解和感激?The people in our communities who do these jobs deserve our attention, our love and our deepest support.那些在我们社会里,正做着上述工作的人们,理应受到我们的关注,关爱和切实的持。But people aren#39;t the only ones in our communities who do these difficult jobs.但是人类并不是我们社会里唯一从事困难工作的群体。These jobs are also done by the plants, the animals and the ecosystems on our planet,还有很多其他工作是植物,动物和地球上生态系统在做的。including the ecosystems I study: the tropical coral reefs.这之中的生态系统就包括了我所研究的:热带珊瑚礁。Coral reefs are farmers.珊瑚礁是辛勤的农民。They provide food, income and food security for hundreds of millions of people around the world.它们提供食物,收入和食物安全性给全世界数亿的人们。Coral reefs are security guards.珊瑚礁是安全卫士。The structures that they build protect our shorelines from storm surge and waves,它们打造的结构保护了我们的海岸线不受风暴潮和海浪的侵袭,and the biological systems that they house filter the water and make it safer for us to work and play.而且这种生态系统能过滤海水,让我们能安全地在水里工作和玩耍。Coral reefs are chemists.珊瑚礁是药剂师。The molecules that we#39;re discovering on coral reefs are increasingly important in the search for new antibiotics and new cancer drugs.珊瑚礁上发现的分子对研究新的抗生素和癌症治疗药物非常重要。And coral reefs are artists.珊瑚礁还是艺术家。The structures that they build are some of the most beautiful things on planet Earth.它们创造的这种结构是地球上最漂亮的景致之一。And this beauty is the foundation of the tourism industry in many countries with few or little other natural resources.这种美丽是旅游业的基础,特别是对于很多没有其他自然资源的国家来说。So for all of these reasons, all of these ecosystem services,那么针对这么多有利的原因和生态系统的务,economists estimate the value of the world#39;s coral reefs in the hundreds of billions of dollars per year.经济学家估算了这种珊瑚礁的价值,每年可以达到几千亿。And yet despite all that hard work being done for us and all that wealth that we gain,尽管珊瑚礁为我们做了所有这些艰辛的工作,尽管我们获得了所有的财富,we have done almost everything we possibly could to destroy that.我们却已经几乎不遗余力地破坏了它们。We have taken the fish out of the oceans and we have added in fertilizer, sewage, diseases, oil, pollution, sediments.我们从海洋里获取鱼类,与此同时,我们加入了肥料和废水,以及疾病,石油,污染物,还有沉积物。We have trampled the reefs physically with our boats, our fins, our bulldozers,我们的船舶,船舵和推土机已经践踏了珊瑚礁,and we have changed the chemistry of the entire sea, warmed the waters and made storms worse.我们已经改变了整个海洋的化学结构,导致海水温度升高,风暴变得更加猛烈。And these would all be bad on their own,这其中的每一项本身就是有害的,but these threats magnify each other and compound one another and make each other worse.而它们还会相互作用,彼此强化,让各个因素的负面效果愈演愈烈。I#39;ll give you an example. Where I live and work, in Curacao, a tropical storm went by a few years ago.我给你们举个例子。Curacao是我生活工作的地方,这里几年前被一个热带风暴侵袭过。And on the eastern end of the island, where the reefs are intact and thriving,在岛的最东端,珊瑚们保存完好,生长得很繁茂,you could barely tell a tropical storm had passed.你很难相信一个热带风暴潮刚刚经过这里。But in town, where corals had died from overfishing, from pollution,但是在城镇中心,那里的珊瑚早已死于过度和污染,the tropical storm picked up the dead corals and used them as bludgeons to kill the corals that were left.热带风暴潮夹带起死去的珊瑚,用它们撞击并消灭了其他活着的珊瑚。This is a coral that I studied during my PhD -- I got to know it quite well.这是一种我在读士期间研究过的珊瑚,我很了解它。And after this storm took off half of its tissue,在风暴潮过后,它只剩了半边组织,it became infested with algae, the algae overgrew the tissue and that coral died.它开始被海藻侵蚀,海藻在珊瑚身上过度生长,然后珊瑚就死了。This magnification of threats, this compounding of factors is what Jeremy Jackson describes as the ;slippery slope to slime.;这样的巨大威胁,这种混合因素,正是Jeremy Jackson描述的那样;滑向烂泥深渊的斜坡。;It#39;s hardly even a metaphor because many of our reefs now are literally bacteria and algae and slime.这可能都不是只是个隐喻了,因为很多礁石都是由细菌,海草和烂泥组成的了。Now, this is the part of the talk where you may expect me to launch into my plea for us to all save the coral reefs.现在你们可能觉得我马上就要开始提出关于保护珊瑚礁的倡议了。But I have a confession to make: that phrase drives me nuts.但是我必须要承认:保护珊瑚礁这词让我很受不了。Whether I see it in a tweet, in a news headline or the glossy pages of a conservation brochure, that phrase bothers me,无论我在微,报纸头条,或是设计精美的环保宣传册上看到,那些辞藻都让我觉得很反感,because we as conservationists have been sounding the alarms about the death of coral reefs for decades.因为我们这些自然环境保护者几十年来一直在散播关于珊瑚礁死亡的警告。And yet, almost everyone I meet, no matter how educated, is not sure what a coral is or where they come from.但是现在,几乎我遇到的所有人,无论他们受教育程度如何,居然都不知道什么是珊瑚,或不知道它们从哪里来。How would we get someone to care about the world#39;s coral reefs when it#39;s an abstract thing they can barely understand?那么我们要如何让人们来关心世界上的珊瑚礁呢?对大众来说它们只是抽象的词汇,又怎么会被人们所了解呢?If they don#39;t understand what a coral is or where it comes from,如果大众不知道珊瑚是什么,从何而来,or how funny or interesting or beautiful it is, why would we expect them to care about saving them?或者它们多么有意思,亦或不知道它们有多美丽,那为什么我们要期待大众去保护它们呢?So let#39;s change that. What is a coral and where does it come from?那么,我们要改变一下现状了。什么是珊瑚,它们从哪来?Corals are born in a number of different ways, but most often by mass spawning:珊瑚可以通过很多种方式诞生,但通常是通过大量产卵:all of the individuals of a single species on one night a year,所有这些同一类的珊瑚虫个体在每年的一个晚上,releasing all the eggs they#39;ve made that year into the water column, packaged into bundles with sperm cells.释放它们当年产的所有卵到水柱中去,并和精子细胞打包在一起。And those bundles go to the surface of the ocean and break apart.那些卵包到了海面,散开。And hopefully -- hopefully -- at the surface of the ocean, they meet the eggs and sperm from other corals.之后在海面上,咱们只能是希望,它们可能遇到了其他珊瑚虫的卵子和精子。And that is why you need lots of corals on a coral reef而这就是为什么一个珊瑚礁上需要大量的珊瑚虫so that all of their eggs can meet their match at the surface.这样它们所有的卵才能在海面上找到精子。When they#39;re fertilized, they do what any other animal egg does: divides in half again and again and again.当这些卵受精后,它们就像其他动物的卵一样:一遍又一遍地分裂。Taking these photos under the microscope every year is one of my favorite and most magical moments of the year.在显微镜下拍到这些照片,成为了我每年最喜欢的,最神奇的时刻之一。At the end of all this cell division, they turn into a swimming larva在所有这些细胞分裂结束后,它们变成了游动的幼虫a little tiny blob of fat the size of a poppy seed, but with all of the sensory systems that we have.小小的一团,肥的像个罂粟种子,但已经具备我们人类所有的感觉系统了。They can sense color and light, textures, chemicals, pH. They can even feel pressure waves; they can hear sound.它们可以感知颜色和光,材质,化学物质和酸碱值。它们甚至可以感觉到压力波;可以听到声音。And they use those talents to search the bottom of the reef for a place to attach and live the rest of their lives.而且它们可以用这些天份,去寻找珊瑚礁的底端附着上去,并在珊瑚礁上度过它们的余生。So imagine finding a place where you would live the rest of your life when you were just two days old.那么想像下找到一个地方去度过你们的余生,而当时你只诞生了两天。They attach in the place they find most suitable, they build a skeleton underneath themselves,它们附着在它们觉得最适合的地方,在自己身体下面创造架,they build a mouth and tentacles, and then they begin the difficult work of building the world#39;s coral reefs.一起建造一张嘴和很多触手,然后就开始了艰难的工作,去建造全世界的珊瑚礁。One coral polyp will divide itself again and again and again,一只珊瑚虫将自己分裂一次又一次,leaving a limestone skeleton underneath itself and growing up toward the sun.在其腹下产生一个石灰岩的骨架,然后朝着太阳的方向的生长。Given hundreds of years and many species,数百年之后,万物纵生,what you get is a massive limestone structure that can be seen from space in many cases,一个巨大的石灰结构形成了,在太空上都能从很多地方看到,covered by a thin skin of these hardworking animals.表面还覆盖着薄薄的一层这些辛勤工作的珊瑚虫。Now, there are only a few hundred species of corals on the planet, maybe 1,000.现在,仅有几百种珊瑚存于世间,也可能1000种。But these systems house millions and millions of other species,但是这种珊瑚的石灰结构却是亿万其他生物的栖息地,and that diversity is what stabilizes the systems, and it#39;s where we#39;re finding our new medicines.而其多样性造就了这个生态系统的稳定性,也让我们找到了新型的药物。It#39;s how we find new sources of food.我们在其中还找到了新的食物来源。I#39;m lucky enough to work on the island of Curacao, where we still have reefs that look like this.我很幸运能在Curacao岛上工作,在那里我们仍能找到像这样的珊瑚礁。But, indeed, much of the Caribbean and much of our world is much more like this.但是,事实上在加勒比海和世界上大多数地方,却是这般光景。Scientists have studied in increasing detail the loss of the world#39;s coral reefs,科学家们更深入地研究了这种退化的本质原因,and they have documented with increasing certainty the causes.他们已经记录了不断被确定的原因。But in my research, I#39;m not interested in looking backward.但是在我的研究中,我对过去不感兴趣。My colleagues and I in Curacao are interested in looking forward at what might be.我和我同事在Curacao岛上对将来可能会发生什么很感兴趣。And we have the tiniest reason to be optimistic.我们只能用最微不足道的原因去保持乐观。Because even in some of these reefs that we probably could have written off long ago,因为即使在某些我们早就不抱希望的珊瑚礁中,we sometimes see baby corals arrive and survive anyway.我们有时仍会看到珊瑚虫的幼虫到达这里,并挣扎生存下来。And we#39;re starting to think that baby corals may have the ability to adjust to some of the conditions that the adults couldn#39;t.随后,我们开始思考,这些小珊瑚虫们可能有某种能力去适应一些成年珊瑚虫可能适应不了的地方。They may be able to adjust ever so slightly more ily to this human planet.它们可能可以调整自身去不断适应这个被人类占领的星球。So in the research I do with my colleagues in Curacao,所以在Curacao的研究中,we try to figure out what a baby coral needs in that critical early stage,我和同事们努力去找出小珊瑚虫生长需要的因素,特别是在关键的早期生长过程中,what it#39;s looking for and how we can try to help it through that process.这些小珊瑚虫到底在找些什么,以及我们怎么才能帮助它们渡过这些难关。I#39;m going to show you three examples of the work we#39;ve done to try to answer those questions.我将向你们展示我们工作中的三个例子,并以此来解答我刚提出的那些困惑。A few years ago we took a 3D printer and we made coral choice surveys -- different colors and different textures,在几年以前,我们用3D打印设备,进行了珊瑚选择鉴定研究,给出不同颜色和材质的环境,and we simply asked the coral where they preferred to settle.我们简单地观察珊瑚虫,想知道哪些环境是它们最喜欢的。And we found that corals, even without the biology involved,之后我们发现珊瑚虫甚至在没有任何生物手段干预的情况下,still prefer white and pink, the colors of a healthy reef.仍然选择了白色和粉红,代表着健康礁石。And they prefer crevices and grooves and holes,它们喜欢裂缝,凹槽,还有洞,where they will be safe from being trampled or eaten by a predator.在那些地方它们可以免受外界侵扰,也不会被捕食者吃掉。So we can use this knowledge, we can go back and say we need to restore those factors所以我们可以用这些知识,回到实验室,提出我们需要重构这些因素that pink, that white, those crevices, those hard surfaces -- in our conservation projects.粉红的,白色的,有裂缝的,坚硬的表面--列入到我们的保护项目之中。We can also use that knowledge if we#39;re going to put something underwater, like a sea wall or a pier.我们也能把这些知识,运用到建造海底墙体和码头上,把合适的材料放在水下。We can choose to use the materials and colors and textures that might bias the system back toward those corals.我们可以选择用这些材料、颜色、纹路,让整个生态系统有利于珊瑚虫的生存。Now in addition to the surfaces, we also study the chemical and microbial signals that attract corals to reefs.除了研究合适的表面,我们也研究了可以吸引珊瑚虫附着在礁石上的化学和微生物因素。Starting about six years ago, I began culturing bacteria from surfaces where corals had settled.大约六年前,我就开始培养珊瑚礁表面有珊瑚栖息的区域的细菌。And I tried those one by one by one, looking for the bacteria that would convince corals to settle and attach.我一个一个地试,想要找到那些能诱导珊瑚虫聚集吸附的细菌种类。And we now have many bacterial strains in our freezer现在我们有很多细菌株在冷冻柜里,that will reliably cause corals to go through that settlement and attachment process.这些细菌是珊瑚虫信赖的,愿意去附着和生长的菌类。So as we speak, my colleagues in Curacao are testing those bacteria to see就在演讲的这段时间里,我的同事们正在Curacao测试那些细菌,if they#39;ll help us raise more coral settlers in the lab,去研究它们是否能帮助我们在实验室建造珊瑚的栖息地,and to see if those coral settlers will survive better when we put them back underwater.以及这些有珊瑚附着的结构能够在海水中更好地生存。Now in addition to these tools, we also try to uncover the mysteries of species that are under-studied.除了这些工具,我们也在努力解开不为我们所熟知的物种的秘密。This is one of my favorite corals, and always has been: dendrogyra cylindrus, the pillar coral.这是其中我最喜欢的珊瑚中的一种,一直都是:系统柱状的,柱状珊瑚。I love it because it makes this ridiculous shape,我喜欢它,因为它有着无与伦比的形状,because its tentacles are fat and look fuzzy and because it#39;s rare.因为它的触须胖嘟嘟,看起来毛茸茸,还因为它很稀有。Finding one of these on a reef is a treat.能找到这样一种珊瑚绝对是一种慰藉。In fact, it#39;s so rare, that last year it was listed as a threatened species on the endangered species list.实际上,它是真的太稀有了,以至于它去年被认为是濒危物种,出现在了濒危物种列表上。And this was in part because in over 30 years of research surveys, scientists had never found a baby pillar coral.这不难理解,因为在过去30年的研究中,科学家从未发现过一只幼年柱形珊瑚虫。We weren#39;t even sure if they could still reproduce, or if they were still reproducing.我们之前都无法确信它是否还可以继续繁衍,或者当时是否还在繁殖。So four years ago, we started following these at night and watching to see if we could figure out when they spawn in Curacao.所以四年前,我们开始在夜间观察,看它们什么时候会在Curacao产卵。We got some good tips from our colleagues in Florida, who had seen one in 2007, one in 2008,我们从佛罗里达的同事那里得到了一些好的建议,他们在2007年和2008年分别看到了一只柱状珊瑚,and eventually we figured out when they spawn in Curacao and we caught it.终于我们发现了它们在Curacao产卵的时间,我们捕捉到了这个时刻。Here#39;s a female on the left with some eggs in her tissue, about to release them into the seawater.左边是一只母珊瑚虫和一些卵,正要把这些卵释放到海水中。And here#39;s a male on the right, releasing sperm.而右边是一只公的珊瑚虫在释放精子。We collected this, we got it back to the lab,我们收集了这些卵子和精子,带回实验室进行培育,we got it to fertilize and we got baby pillar corals swimming in our lab.于是就有了柱状珊瑚虫在我们实验室里里游来游去。Thanks to the work of our scientific aunts and uncles,感谢我们的科学界的前辈们,and thanks to the 10 years of practice we#39;ve had in Curacao at raising other coral species,也要感谢我们在Curacao岛上十年培育其他珊瑚虫种类的经验,we got some of those larvae to go through the rest of the process and settle and attach, and turn into metamorphosed corals.我们有了一些珊瑚幼虫可以完成余下的步骤,让它们在礁石上附着和生存下来,并形成变质珊瑚礁。So this is the first pillar coral baby that anyone ever saw.这是所有人见过的第一只年幼的柱状珊瑚虫。And I have to say -- if you think baby pandas are cute, this is cuter.我不得不说--如果你们认为熊猫宝宝很可爱,那这些小珊瑚虫更可爱。So we#39;re starting to figure out the secrets to this process,我们正在研究珊瑚繁殖过程的秘密,the secrets of coral reproduction and how we might help them.我们要找出如何帮助它们繁殖。And this is true all around the world; scientists are figuring out new ways to handle their embryos,全世界都面临着同样的情况;科学家们正在找出新的方法去处理珊瑚虫的胚胎,to get them to settle, maybe even figuring out the methods to preserve them at low temperatures,让它们栖息生长,甚至在想办法让它们能够在低温下生长,so that we can preserve their genetic diversity and work with them more often.这样我们就可以保护它们的基因多样性,并且有更多机会对它们进行研究。But this is still so low-tech. We are limited by the space on our bench,但是这个过程的技术含量太低了。我们实验室的空间有限,the number of hands in the lab and the number of coffees we can drink in any given hour.人手也不够,连休息时间提供的咖啡都少得可怜。Now, compare that to our other crises and our other areas of concern as a society.现在,与我们人类遇到的其他危机,以及其他社会问题比较一下。We have advanced medical technology, we have defense technology,我们有先进的医疗技术,防御技术,we have scientific technology, we even have advanced technology for art.我们也有科学手段,甚至还有先进的艺术科技。But our technology for conservation is behind. Think back to the most difficult job you ever did.但是我们的环保技术却远远落后了。想想你们做过的最艰难的工作。Many of you would say it was being a parent.你们很多人肯定会说是为人父母。My mother described being a parent as something that makes your life far more amazing我的妈妈描述了为人父母,会让自己的生命更加精,and far more difficult than you could#39;ve ever possibly imagined.也更加艰辛,相比任何所能想象的工作。I#39;ve been trying to help corals become parents for over 10 years now.我已经从事让珊瑚虫们做父母这项工作超过十年了。And watching the wonder of life has certainly filled me with amazement to the core of my soul.见这些生命的奇迹,让我的内心十分充实,在灵魂深处也惊叹不已。But I#39;ve also seen how difficult it is for them to become parents.但是我看到了珊瑚虫们想成为父母有多么困难。The pillar corals spawned again two weeks ago, and we collected their eggs and brought them back to the lab.那些柱状珊瑚虫两周前在此产卵,我们取了它们的卵,并带回了实验室。And here you see one embryo dividing, alongside 14 eggs that didn#39;t fertilize and will blow up.这里你们可以看到一个胚胎在分裂,马上就会炸裂开,而旁边其他的14个卵还没有任何分裂迹象。They#39;ll be infected with bacteria,这些珊瑚虫卵会被细菌感染,they will explode and those bacteria will threaten the life of this one embryo that has a chance.爆裂开来,而这些细菌也会侵害那只能够分裂的胚胎。We don#39;t know if it was our handling methods that went wrong我们不知道是我们的处理过程有问题,and we don#39;t know if it was just this coral on this reef, always suffering from low fertility.还是只有这种珊瑚虫在礁石上繁育率一直很低。Whatever the cause, we have much more work to do before we can use baby corals to grow or fix or, yes, maybe save coral reefs.无论这种低产率的原因是什么,在我们能用这些珊瑚虫去培育、修复、或者保护珊瑚礁之前,我们还有更多的工作要做。So never mind that they#39;re worth hundreds of billions of dollars.不要在意它们是否价值连城。Coral reefs are hardworking animals and plants and microbes and fungi.珊瑚礁由是辛勤工作的动植物和细菌组成的。They#39;re providing us with art and food and medicine.它们给予了我们艺术,食物和药物。And we almost took out an entire generation of corals.我们几乎毁掉了整整一代的珊瑚。But a few made it anyway, despite our best efforts,但是仍有一些幸存了下来尽管我们一直在不遗余力地破坏着,and now it#39;s time for us to thank them for the work they did所以现在我们应该去感谢这些物种,and give them every chance they have to raise the coral reefs of the future, their coral babies. Thank you so much.并且给予它们所有能在未来长成珊瑚礁的机会,保护珊瑚幼虫。非常感谢你们。 Article/201706/515089

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201608/457806

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