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2019年06月17日 13:47:57|来源:国际在线|编辑:安心专家
Science and technology科学技术Drug research药物研究Toxic medicine毒类药品Snake venom is being used to cure, rather than kill蛇毒用于治病,不是杀伤THERE are no poisons, only poisonous doses.Thus did Paracelsus, the greatest of the alchemists, encapsulate an important piece of medical wisdom.曾经最伟大的炼金术士帕拉塞尔苏斯创立的一条重要的医学名言如是说:没有毒药,只有毒剂。In fact, that is only half the story,然而,这只说对了一半。for many materials which are toxic at high doses, when used sparingly and directed at specific targets, are not merely harmless, but actually beneficial.很多物质量大了以后就有毒性了。当计量后专用时,不仅无害,而且有益。Plant poisons, from digitalis to curare, are routinely employed as drugs.一些植物的汁液,都可用作常规药物。And now it is the turn of animal toxins, as researchers examine venoms secreted by snakes and lizards, to see if they, too, might be turned into treatments.而现在研究人员转向研究动物的毒液―蛇和蜥蜴分泌的毒汁,检验它们是否可用来治病。Snake venom, collected from farmed reptiles, has been used to make antisera for snake bites for decades by injecting it into mammals such as sheep and horses, and collecting the antibodies thus generated.圈养的蛇可收集蛇毒。几十年来,人们一直用蛇毒制作抗血清4治疗毒蛇咬伤,还把它注射到绵羊和马这样哺乳动物体内,收取抗体。Making drugs from the venom itself, however, is a fairly new idea.虽然蛇毒制药是一个全新的概念,But that is what Stefan Hailey of the University of Delaware and his colleagues hope to do.但特拉华州大学的史蒂芬?哈利和他们同事希望如此。In a paper published recently by Toxicon, they report how a protein called eristostatin, which can be extracted from the venom of the Asian sand viper, helps peoples immune systems fight malignant melanoma.最近,他们发表了一篇名为《毒素》的论文,介绍了从亚洲沙蝰的毒液中可以提取蛇毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质可激发人类免疫系统对抗恶性肿瘤。Previous studies have shown that eristostatin stops melanoma cells colonising the liver and lungs in mice.先前的研究发现蛇毒蛋白质能阻止黑色瘤细胞5在肝脏和肺的扩散。Dr Hailey is trying to work out how this happens.哈利正解密这一过程。Eristostatins day job is to stop victims blood clotting and thus plugging up damaged blood vessels after a bite.蛇毒蛋白质的功效是人被蛇咬伤后防止血液凝固堵塞血管。By increasing blood loss, it weakens victims.受伤者失血过多,逐渐虚弱。The molecule does this by glomming onto cellular fragments called platelets that are crucial to the process of clotting, thus disabling them.抗凝分子能抑制血小板这种在血凝过程中起关键作用的细胞碎片,使其失效。Dr Hailey hopes to make use of this tendency to encourage the immune system to attack melanoma cells.哈利希望利用这种性质趋向激发免疫系统对抗黑色瘤细胞。His idea requires eristostatin to be as attracted to cancer cells as it is to platelets.他的理论需要蛇毒蛋白像抑制血小板那样吸引癌细胞。Two observations suggest it could be.两项研究结果实了其可能性。One is that eristostatin has a particular affinity for melanoma cells, which presumably have a protein on their surfaces that is similar to the one which attracts eristostatin to platelets.一是蛇毒蛋白与黑素瘤细胞有一定的亲和性,黑素瘤细胞表面可能有一种蛋白质,类似于让蛇毒蛋白吸附血小板的蛋白。The other observation is that when eristostatin is attached to a cells surface it attracts the attention of T-lymphocytes.另一项是蛇毒蛋白附于细胞表面时,可吸引T形淋巴细胞6。These are immune-system cells whose job is to kill other body cells that have been infected with viruses, or which have turned cancerous.这些免疫系统细胞能吞噬被细菌感染的细胞或是癌化细胞。If melanoma cells could, in this way, be made especially attractive to T-lymphocytes, that might clear away the tumour completely.假如能让黑素瘤细胞像这样吸引T形淋巴细胞,那么就可能完全消除肿瘤。Dr Hailey and his colleagues used a technique called atomic-force microscopy to study the interactions between melanoma cancer cells and eristostatin.哈利和其同事用原子力显微镜7技术研究黑素次瘤癌细胞与蛇毒蛋白的相互作用。This technique allows the force required to pull the two apart to be measured precisely, to see whether there is a genuine attraction—which he found that there is.这种技术可以调节原子力把两者分开进行精确测量,看看是否真的存在吸引―经他实是存在的。If eristostatin does prove an effective means to treat cancer, it will join a growing stable of medicines derived from reptile toxins.假如蛇毒蛋白真能有效地治疗癌症,就会把它归到不断扩大的蛇毒提取药类里。Tirofiban, for instance, is a modified version of another anticoagulant—in this case from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper.例如,欣维宁是从锯鳞8的毒液中提取的,是改良了的抗凝剂。It is given to people with angina, and also to those who have had heart attacks.欣维宁针对心绞痛患者以及心脏病患者。依泰德森是人工的唾液素4。Exenatide is the synthetic form of a hormone called exendin-4 that occurs naturally in the saliva of the Gila monster, a venomous North American lizard.自然状态下,存在于北美一种毒蜥―希拉毒蜥的唾液中。It works as a treatment for type-2 diabetes because it increases insulin production in those whose blood-sugar levels are high.唾液素4可用于治疗2型糖尿病10,因为它能增高高血糖患者体内的胰岛素含量。And captopril, a blood-vessel-relaxing agent widely used to treat hypertension, is based on teprotide, from Brazilian arrowhead vipers, which helps the other toxins in the venom circulate quickly, and thus reach their targets rapidly.卡托普利11―血管放松剂,广泛用于治疗高血压。它由替普罗肽组成,从巴西箭头毒蛇12提取,能加速毒液中毒素循环,迅速到达患处。The year of the snake蛇年There are other venom-based drugs in the pipeline, too.还有其它蛇毒提取药物在研发。Crotoxin, a protein from the South American rattlesnake, though not yet approved for use, may one day be employed to treat cancers.响尾蛇蛋白是从南美响尾蛇中提取的一种蛋白质,虽然还没有实临床效果,但有一天会用来治疗癌症。Crotoxin seems particularly attracted to cancer cells.响尾蛇蛋白表面看来特别能吸引癌细胞。One portion of the molecule recognises a protein on the cells membrane, and links to it.响尾蛇蛋白分子的一部分能识别细胞膜,并依附其上。The other portion damages the membrane, triggering a mechanism called apoptosis which causes the cell to kill itself.另一部分能破坏细胞膜,产生一种让细胞死亡13的机制。Celtic Biotech, based in Dublin, is running a series of tests using this molecule on cancer patients at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris.位于都柏林的凯尔特生物技术人员正进行一系列的实验,用这种分子来治疗巴黎皮蓬杜欧洲医院的癌症患者。This year, Celtic plans to try it on people with several different sorts of cancer, since the firms researchers believe it should be effective on all solid tumours.今年他们计划对患有不同种癌症的患者进行治疗,因为公司的研究人员相信治疗固体肿瘤很有效果。If those trials are successful, though, they then plan to concentrate on lung cancer, the largest market.假如成功,他们就会专攻肺癌的治疗。Perhaps the most astonishing toxin-derived drug of all, however, is hannalgesin, which is made from king-cobra venom.这是从眼镜蛇王毒素中提取,可能是蛇毒提取药中最疗效最神奇的。Kini Manjunatha of the National University of Singapore is developing this substance as a pain-relieving agent.新加坡国大的齐尼教授正把这种物质研发成镇痛剂。He claims it is between 20 and 200 times more effective than morphine.他说作用是吗啡的20到200 多倍不等。Moreover, unlike morphine, which is usually injected, hannalgesin can be taken by mouth.再者,Hannalgesin不像吗啡通过注射,可口。He is planning to run the first clinical trials at the end of 2013 or in early 2014.他计划于2013年底或2014年初进行首次临床试验。Venom, then, is proving to be a trove of useful molecules.经实毒素就是有用的分子的集合。At a time when drug companies are struggling to develop new products,让制药公司通过自然选择对原料进行验,研发新药。a novel source of raw materials that have been road-tested by natural selection, and merely need to be subverted from their original purposes rather than created afresh, must be welcome.这个新方法肯定受欢迎,因为不需要创新,而只是转换了药性。It is not turning base metals into gold, as Paracelsus and his kind once attempted.这个过程并不是像帕拉塞尔苏斯这样的术士们把贱金属转换成黄金,But as a transformation of matter, it is surely a far more valuable trick.但从物质转换的角度来讲,一定是价值连成。 /201310/261923Although there has been much debate about whether race has a biological or social basis, the bottom line is that race is a psychological reality for many people.虽然对于种族歧视究竟是关于生物种群还是社会因素仍然未果,但至少对多数人来说种族问题是一种心理现实性的反应。That is, many folks assign other individuals to racial categories based on their appearance, and then make assumptions about them. 这就是说,他们按照外貌将他人划分,然后做出假设。But racial stereotyping goes beyond classifying people into groups.但种族刻板印象还远远不止如此。When a group is assigned a negative stereotype, individuals that exhibit more of the physical characteristics identified with that group suffer more discrimination.当一个人被贴上低等族群的标签时,会遭受到更多的歧视。For example, in a recent study, participants were asked to one of four news articles about a hypothetical African American man.例如在最近的一项研究中,测试者们被要求阅读四篇关于非裔美国人关于种族印象新闻的其中一篇。The first story was about a professor receiving an award.第一篇是关于一名教授获奖。The second was about an athlete, a role stereotypically linked to African Americans.第二篇是一名非裔美国人的运动员。The third was about a white-collar criminal and the fourth about a violent criminal.最后两篇则是一名白领罪犯和一名暴徒。No matter which story they , all participants saw the same photo of the man.不论选择哪篇,文章的附图都是同一名男子。Despite that fact, when participants were asked to reconstruct the mans face on a computer, they gave the man more stereotypically African features, such as darker skin tones, if he had been portrayed negatively as the white collar criminal, or-especially--as the violent criminal.除去新闻内容,当参与者被要求在电脑上重塑这名男子的脸时,如果他曾被丑化为白领犯罪者,或者—尤其是暴力罪犯,他们赋予的是更多黑皮肤等非洲人特质。The fact that they didnt associate more African features with the athlete, who was portrayed positively, suggests the participants linked these features to negativity rather than stereotypes.事实上,他们并没有将更多非洲人的特质赋予正面的运动员形象。这就意味着参与者将这些特质与负面形象联系起来,而非刻板印象。And this happened regardless of the participants self-reported racial attitudes, which means that they werent even aware they were having these troubling responses.而这一切和参与者自己的种族观念无关,他们根本就没意识到自己的是存在问题的。If so, then its not enough to study the way the media portray racial groups.如若这样,对于媒体描述不同种族的研究仍然存在不足之处。Its also important to study how the public interprets and remembers-or misremembers-the news in a way that sustains racism. 但对于研究基于一定的种族歧视人们是如何理解、记忆或遗漏这些新闻信息的还是有其重要的价值。 201401/272178

Science and technology科学技术Social status and health社会地位与健康Misery index贫困指数Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s.可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite.因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives.实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。Cardiac arrest—and, indeed, early death from any cause—is the prerogative of underlings.心跳骤停—而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死—那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not.但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings.实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system.社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed.反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard if it were done to human beings.若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难。You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies不健康的身体,不快乐的心情Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques and split them into groups of four or five.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验,并把他们分为四到五组。The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group.根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号。The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot.研究结果有很多。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes.每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因,寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one.在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones.某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too.这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system.很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation.这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因。Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。In keeping with previous work, they found that high-and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress.与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself.同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups.表现遗传学—目前分子生物学最热的话题之一—是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals.士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life.至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed.地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use.但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around.该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201403/278292

This disused car park is a near-perfect location for raising chicks, and only a short flight from a plentiful supply of food. Skimmers get their name from their unusual feeding technique--their extended lower bill detects fish just below the water surface. 这个废弃的停车场是抚养幼鸟的一个近距离的最常场所,这里距离丰富的食物来源仅地有一段很短的飞行距离。燕鸥因它们独特的捕食技巧而命名——它们延伸的下喙可以探测出距离水面不深处的鱼。The heavy use of east coast beaches by people has threatened skimmer numbers. It’s ironic that this man-made car park made out of crushed oyster shell should become a substitute.人们大量使用东海岸的沙滩威胁到了燕鸥的数量。很讽刺的是,这个停车场充满了人造的牡蛎壳碎屑,现在却成为了燕鸥的替代栖息地。Skimmers raise their chicks on a fish diet. But they serve their portions whole which can cause problems for their young. 燕鸥用鱼喂养它们的幼鸟。但是他们确是为大部分提供的,因此会对幼鸟产生不好影响。The increasingly human landscape of North America can make wildlife spectacles a rare event. But there are situations when it brings nature closer to people. That’s exactly what has happened here in this power plant in Florida. These are West Indian manatees, residents of the Florida coast. People and manatees don’t usually get along. Increasing boat traffic has become a big threat to manatees and some bear the scars of painful encounters with boat propellers.由于北美人类用地的增加,很难看到野生动物聚集的景象了。但是在有些情况下,这也使自然离人们更近了。在佛罗里达的这个发电厂的景象正能反应这一点。这些是西印度海牛,它们是佛罗里达海岸的常住居民。人类和海牛不能很好相处。海上交通变得越来越拥挤,这威胁到了海牛,有的海牛被船上的螺旋桨打到,留下了深深的伤疤。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/270421

The spying trade间谍这一行Success by stealth“隐”者为赢What business executives can learn from intelligence officers企业管理者所能从情报官身上学到的Work Like a Spy: Business Tips From a Former CIA Officer. By J.C. Carleson.书名:《像间谍一样工作:前 CIA 特工教你“生意经”》作者:J.C. CarlesonTrading Secrets: Spies and Intelligence in an Age of Terror. By Mark Huband.书名:《行业秘密:恐怖时代的间谍和情报》作者:Mark HubandSPIES are often wrongly presumed to work in a shadowy and exotic world. In fact they are more like unusually crafty bureaucrats than James Bond. Their skills would be quite handy for business executives, according to J.C. Carleson, a former CIA officer. In “Work Like a Spy”, her gripping laymans guide to spycraft, she shows how adopting an intelligence officers mindset can make managers more efficient and better at handling people.人们常常认为间谍这份工作神神秘秘、认为他们总是活动于异国他乡,其实这种想法是错误的。实际上,与詹姆斯-邦德相比,他们更像是狡诈非凡的官员。前CIA 特工J.C. Carleson认为,间谍所掌握的技巧对于企业管理者来说相当受用。在《像间谍一样工作》一书中,她为大众介绍了间谍所掌握的技能,内容十分引人入胜。她为我们讲述了运用情报官的思维方式是如何会让管理者更有效率、更好地管理人力资源的。In her eight years undercover, Ms Carleson ran agents in hostile countries, getting them to risk their lives to steal secrets for America. Targeting and recruiting such people offers lessons in what might be called “strategic networking”: gaining information about customers and competitors. How do you make contact without seeming pushy? What is the hook, and what are the incentives? It turns out that offering consultancy fees and lavish entertainment rarely works; appealing to the ego is far more effective.在她八年的卧底行动中,Carleson带领特工在敌国活动,她让手下冒着生命危险为美国窃取机密。这些特工人选的寻找过程和招募过程会给我们些许启示,这些启示在管理中可被叫做“战略性人脉网”,即了解有关顾客和竞争者的信息。如何在不显得莽撞的前提下与人沟通?引鱼上钩的“钩”是什么?鼓励对方进一步配合的措施是什么?结果明:提供好处费或奢侈的款待很少能奏效;投其所好远远更加有效。While steering clear of real secrets, Ms Carleson gives an accurate account of how intelligence officers operate. Her “strategic elicitation exercise”, in which she pushes ers to get random information from a stranger, is particularly well described.尽管Carleson绕开了真正的秘笈不谈,但她准确地描述了情报官是怎么工作的。她对“战略导出练习”的描述尤其出色,在这种练习中,她迫使读者从陌生人那里获取任意信息。In a trade in which deceit is a tool, knowing when to be honest is important. Ms Carleson describes the ideal CIA officer as a “Boy Scout with a secret dark side”. Her terse remarks on ethics sound convincing, not preachy. She explains, for example, why fiddling expenses leads to instant dismissal in the CIA: if you cheat your country out of money, you may betray its secrets too. Readers doing business in places where sleaze is endemic will find these points instructive. It is wise to work out in advance the red lines you and your company will not cross—and make sure everyone involved knows what they are.在以欺骗为手段的间谍行业中,知道何时诚实很重要。Carleson把理想的中央情报局官描述为“表面老实,但有着不为人知的阴暗面”。她对伦理学所做的简洁听起来很有说力,但并无说教意味。比如说,她解释了为什么在中央情报局,如果一个人在公司开上做手脚,就会被立即开除—因为如果一个人骗了国家的钱,他就可能也会泄露国家的机密。如果你经商的地方欺诈行为泛滥,你就会感觉这些观点很有启发性。事先制定好你和你的公司不会超越的“红线”—并且确保所有规定涉及到的人知道这些“红线”是什么,才是明智的做法。While Ms Carlesons book highlights the skills of individual intelligence officers, Mark Hubands “Trading Secrets” gives a glimpse of what spy agencies actually do and how they are evolving to combat new 21st-century threats. A former journalist who now runs a security consultancy, he argues that undercover agents are often most useful not when they are spying on a countrys enemies, but when they are talking to them. He gives new details about the role that Britains Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, commonly called MI6) played in opening channels of communication with the IRA in Northern Ireland, and with Colonel Qaddafis regime in Libya.Carleson的书突出了单个情报官的技能;至于间谍机构到底是干什么的、又是怎样参与到打击21世纪人们所面临的新威胁中的,Mark Huband所著的《行业秘密》让读者得以一窥其貌。曾经是一名记者的Mark Huband现在正经营一家安全咨询公司。他认为通常来说,卧底最有用的时候,不是他们暗中监视一个国家的敌人之时,而是他们与其交谈的时候。对于英国秘密情报局在与北爱尔兰的爱尔兰共和军和与利比亚的卡扎菲政权打开了信息交流的渠道中所起的作用,作者给出了新的细节。Mr Huband also deals with fiascos, such as the political misuse of the sketchy intelligence available about Saddam Husseins weapons programmes. Spies rarely provide solid answers, he says, but offer confusing bits of a jigsaw puzzle of unknown size and shape. At best, secret intelligence removes an element of surprise from foreign affairs, but it rarely makes it clear what to do.Huband也会谈到失败的例子,像对于萨达姆的武器计划,情报人员得到的情报并不完全,结果这些情报被政府误用了。他说,间谍很少会提供可靠的,他们只会提供零零碎碎的令人困惑的信息,至于那些零零碎碎的信息所拼成的“拼图”有多大、是什么形状,谁也不知道。至多,秘密情报能让外事工作少遇到一些意料之外的事情,但很少会让人清楚该做什么。The picture he paints is tantalisingly incomplete. His reporting, based on his years as a journalist, hops across decades and between fronts, chiefly in the “war on terror” . He concludes that spooks are “awash with more information, insight and knowledge than ever before”, but that the “intrinsic power” of intelligence has waned. One reason is that some of the finest spies are being lured away by the private sector. It greatly rewards those with a background in secret government service—and not only because spycraft has given them exceptional people skills.Huband所描绘的图景并不完整,但很有诱惑力。他的报道基于他多年当记者的经历,内容跨越数十年、穿梭于不同的战线、主要集中在“反恐战争”方面。他得出的结论是:“现在的间谍所能获取的信息、所具备的洞察力和知识比以往任何时候都要多”,但是情报的“内在力量”已经衰减。原因之一是有些最出色的间谍被私营部门挖走了。私营部门会特别奖励那些有在秘密政府机构工作背景的人—不只是因为间谍工作赋予了他们超乎常人的与人相处的技巧。 /201405/301197

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