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龙岩检查输卵管造影医院福州输卵管复通哪里好In the 1939 film classic The Women, much is made of the alluring quality of a specific color of nail polish: “Jungle Red.” It turns out that the characters’ faith in the product was not misplaced.在1939年的经典影片《女人们》中,主角们常常说到一种特殊的指甲油颜色——“丛林红”特别具有诱惑力。科学明,这些电影角色对这种指甲油色号的笃信并非没有根据。New research suggests the color red on a woman does indeed signal sexual availability—not only to men, but also to other women.现在科学研究指出,女性身上红色的装饰确实会向他人发送诱惑的信号——不仅向男性,也会向其他女性发送这种信号。As we have noted previously, studies have found that men tend to view women in red as more sexually attractive. But, ladies, if you were thinking wearing that color would send a subliminal signal only males would pick up on, you’re out of luck.我们已经知道,研究发现,男性往往认为穿红衣的女性更具有吸引力。但是姑娘们,如果你以为穿红衣只会对男性发送微妙的信号,那你就错了。“Our results suggest that women perceive and behave toward other women in red as if these other women are actively advertising” their openness to the possibility of a sexual encounter, writes a research team led by University of Rochester psychologist Adam Pazda.罗彻斯特大学的心理学家亚当·帕扎达所带领的研究团队指出,“我们的研究成果表明,当某些女性穿着红衣的时候,其他女性就会认为她们正在积极地招蜂引蝶,她们对这些红衣女士的态度和交流方式都会有所不同。”Pazda and his colleagues describe a experiment conducted on two different continents that provide evidence that wearing red sets off certain alarm bells. In the first, 196 women recruited online viewed a photo of “a moderately attractive women in her late 20s.”帕扎达的团队在两块不同的大陆上进行了三项实验,这些实验的结果实,穿红衣的女性会发出警示信号。在第一项实验中,科学家们请196名参与实验的女性观看一张“具有现代美的二十八九岁的女性”照片。Half saw an image of her wearing a white dress; the rest viewed an otherwise identical image of her in a red dress. Afterwards, all responded on a sliding scale to a series of statements such as “This person is sexy.”一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着白衣;另一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着红衣。实验结果是,所有的参与者都认为“这个人很性感”,但是性感的程度却有明显的高低之分。As expected, the woman was seen as more sexy if she was wearing red. This held true whether or not the study participants were in a committed relationship.如科学家们所料想的,穿红衣的姑娘被认为更加性感。无论实验参与者是否单身,他们的观点都是这样的。The researchers caution that, needless to say, “not all women displaying red are actively advertising sexual availability.” For those who are not, it’s valuable to understand the ways their wardrobe choices are being interpreted—both by men, and by their female acquaintances.研究者们提醒道,“并不是所有女性在穿红衣的时候都在故意显露性感。”——这一点毋庸置疑。对那些无意穿红色衣的姑娘们,你们有必要知道:你衣着的颜色不仅会向男性、也会向女性同胞们发送某种信息。 /201407/311662龙岩做人工受精去那好 The “old man” was angry. His lips were pursed, his head held high, his Olympian gaze stony. When Nelson Mandela finally started speaking, his words were even more clipped than usual. This was not an irrational fury. Rather, it was the admonitory wrath of a headmaster. It was infused with the empathy of one who appreciated all too well the rage of his audience, yet knew that if South Africa was somehow to emerge intact from the ravages of apartheid it had to be tamed.“老人”愤怒了。他撅着嘴唇,高昂着头,目光威严而坚定。当纳尔逊#8226;曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)终于开始说话时,他的言语比往常更加简短干脆。这不是失去理智的怒火,而是一个领袖警告式的愤怒。曼德拉的话充满体谅;他深知听众们的怒火,但他也明白:如果南非要安然无恙地从种族隔离的疮痍中走出,就必须要平抑这股怒火。It was August 1993. Three and a half blood-soaked years had passed since that diamond-bright afternoon when Mandela was released after 27 years in prison under apartheid. The first all-race elections set for the following April seemed impossibly distant against the backdrop of threats of secession from the white Afrikaner right and daily bloodshed in the townships. Before Mandela in a ramshackle stadium in one of Johannesburg’s desolate townships, thousands of “comrades” rattled makeshift weapons and bayed for revenge. Scores had died in the previous few days in street battles against a rival party. Yet the silver-haired septuagenarian gave no ground.这是1993年8月。距离曼德拉获释的那个钻石般耀眼的下午已经三年半了,曼德拉在种族隔离制度下度过了27年牢狱生涯后出狱,但此后的南非却沐浴了血雨腥风。在南非右翼白人威胁分离、市镇里每天爆发流血冲突的背景下,定于1994年4月举行的不分种族大选似乎遥不可及。曼德拉讲话的地点是约翰内斯堡一座荒凉小镇上的破旧体育场,他面对的是成千上万名挥舞着简易武器、高呼报仇口号的“同志们”。就在此前几天,许多人在与敌对党派的巷战中丧生。但这名70多岁的银发老人态度坚决。“If you have no discipline, you are not freedom fighters and we do not want you in our organisation,” he said in his distinctive reedy tones.“如果没有纪律,你们就不是自由战士,我们的组织不需要你们这样的人,”曼德拉用他那独特而尖锐的嗓音说道。“I am your leader. If you don’t want me, tell me to go and rest. As long as I am your leader I will tell you where you are wrong.” He stared, they muttered, shuffled their feet – and backed down.“我是你们的领袖。如果你们不需要我,那就让我离开休息。只要我是你们的领袖,我就会指出你们的错误。”他凝视着人群。人群嘟哝着,跺着脚,但还是听从了曼德拉的命令。For long years Mandela had been a shadowy symbol of hope, known only from his fiery record in the 1950s and 1960s, his inspirational speech from the dock when on trial for his life, and a grainy picture of him in the exercise yard on Robben Island prison in Cape Town’s Table Bay. As the day of his release in February 1990 had drawn near, some confidants worried he might disappoint. Many in the African National Congress were outraged he had been negotiating with the apartheid rulers and feared he had gone soft. Business people fretted he would be a Rip van Winkle figure clinging to the socialism he had espoused before being imprisoned. He had, after all, a record as something of a firebrand.多年来,曼德拉象征着希望,但只是个模糊的影子——人们只知道他在二十世纪五六十年代轰轰烈烈的斗争活动,在码头受审(被判处终身监禁)时那鼓舞人心的讲话,以及他在开普敦桌湾(Table Bay)罗本岛监狱操场的斑驳照片。随着他在1990年2月出狱的日期临近,一些心腹密友曾担心他可能会让人失望。许多非国大(ANC)成员不满他与施行种族隔离的统治者谈判,担心他的立场软化。商界害怕他成为瑞普#8226;凡#8226;温克尔(Rip van Winkle)那样的人,在出狱后坚持自己在入狱前持的社会主义。毕竟,他有着从事激进活动的记录。How wrong they all were. Far from embittering or ossifying him, captivity had steeled him for the challenges ahead, he made clear. While unbending when he wanted to be, as his sometime adversary FW de Klerk ruefully recalls, and deeply loyal to ANC traditions, he had the vision and courage time and again to break with his party’s orthodoxies – in particular over negotiating with his jailers, and jettisoning socialism. He was to be even more remarkable than the ANC had suggested. His history as a freedom fighter and political prisoner was merely the warm-up act to his greatest role of all: the apostle of reconciliation who would seduce the Afrikaners into relinquishing power and lead South Africa back into the world.他们大错特错。曼德拉明确表示,牢狱生涯既没让他心生怨恨,也没令他头脑僵化,而是锻炼了他,让他坚强地面对眼前的挑战。他曾经的敌人德克勒克(FW de Klerk)曾经感伤地回忆道,虽然曼德拉会在下定决心时毫不妥协,并且深深恪守非国大的传统,但他有远见、有勇气,不止一次打破非国大的正统做法——尤其是与囚禁自己的人谈判以及放弃社会主义这两件事。曼德拉比非国大描述的还要非凡。自由战士和政治犯的经历,不过是为他最伟大的角色做铺垫罢了:他成为民族和解的领路人,劝诱南非白人交出权力,引领南非重回世界怀抱。In the bleak years between his release and democracy he was an itinerant prophet of reconciliation, delivering homily after homily intended to bind his divided nation together. He could be a ponderous speaker. Yet the force of his leadership far outweighed his oratory. One day he would lecture enraged radicals. The next he would address white irredentists. Time and again, all but the most embittered would balk at confronting him as he worked his magic: one moment grand and aloof, every inch the descendant of his family’s chiefly clan, the next joking and teasing, the ultimate street politician yet always a model of old-fashioned courtesy. Now that the country has safely navigated 19 years of democracy it is too easy to forget there was nothing inevitable about South Africa’s fairy tale.在曼德拉获释和南非实现民主化之间的艰难岁月中,他扮演起民族和解先知的角色,奔波于各地,发表一场场演说,以期将这个分裂的国家团结起来。他的言辞或许沉闷,但他的领导力远比演说有力。第一天,他还在劝导愤怒的激进分子;第二天,他便在对意欲收复失地的白人晓以利害。曼德拉上演着自己的魔法:上一刻,他高贵淡然,浑身散发部落统治家族后代的气息;下一刻,他幽默风趣,将街头政治家的手段发挥到极致,但举止间总不乏老式的礼貌。正因此,人们总是不愿顶撞他(除了那些怨气最深的人)。南非已经安然度过了19年的民主时期,这让我们很容易忘记一点:南非的童话并不是听任历史发展就有的必然结果。His unwavering style of leadership has led many to regard him as a modern Gandhi. Yet while he at times revelled in the rapture, this description irked him. He was the first to say he was not a saint. He after all championed the ANC’s adoption of the “armed struggle” – even if this was initially a largely symbolic move. He neglected his family in pursuit of his drive to end apartheid, a source of deep sadness later in his life. He was to the end an immensely human figure who loved life and laughter and was subject to the same weaknesses and foibles as the rest of us.曼德拉坚韧的领导风格令许多人将他视为现代版的甘地(Gandhi)。然而,他虽偶尔陶醉于欣喜中,这种标签却令他烦恼。他第一个表示自己并非圣人。毕竟,他持过非国大的“武装斗争”策略,即便此举最初在很大程度上是名过于实。他为了终结种族隔离的事业,而忽视了家庭,为此在后来的生活中遗憾不已。归根结底,他是极富有人情味的人,热爱生活和欢笑,但也拥有与其他人一样的弱点和缺陷。Desmond Tutu, his friend and fellow Nobel Peace laureate, was one of the first to question the world’s sanctification of “Madiba” – his clan name, and how he liked to be known. Archbishop Tutu appreciated long before it became a commonplace that the cult of Mandela risked blinding people to the colossal problems facing South Africa. “He is only one pebble on the beach, one of thousands,” he said halfway through Mandela’s term in office. “Not an insignificant pebble, I’ll grant you that, but a pebble all the same.”曼德拉的朋友、同为诺贝尔和平奖得主的德斯蒙德#8226;图图(Desmond Tutu)是最先质疑世界上将“马迪巴”(Madiba)神圣化的人——马迪巴是曼德拉的族名,也是他喜欢的称呼。早在其他人普遍认识到问题之前,图图大主教便发现,对曼德拉的狂热崇拜可能让人们忽视南非面临的巨大问题。“他只是沙滩上的一颗卵石,成千上万颗卵石中的一颗,”图图在曼德拉担任总统期间曾说道,“我向你保,他不是一颗显眼的卵石,但他还是颗卵石。”The “Arch” was right. The otherworldly image of Mandela may have been what the world wanted to believe but, great humanitarian and moral authority as he was, he was foremost a brilliant politician. Reconciliation was not a spontaneous miracle, as some imagined, emanating from the magnificence of his soul. Rather, the seduction of the Afrikaners was plotted in his cell as a way to win power. He pondered many times that his long imprisonment gave him the time to reflect on how he should lead. It was there that he urged fellow prisoners to learn Afrikaans, on the theory you could better defeat your enemy if you spoke their language.大主教说得对。或许世界愿意相信曼德拉具有这般超凡的形象,但不论他在人道主义和道德方面是多么伟大的楷模,他首先是一位出色的政治家。与一些人的想象不同,民族和解不是源自崇高灵魂而自发产生的奇迹。相反,曼德拉在监狱里便在筹划通过劝诱南非白人来赢得权力。他思考过许多次;长期的监禁,让他有充分的时间考虑应当如何领导运动。在监狱里,他鼓励狱友们学习南非荷兰语。他的理论是,如果会说敌人的语言,便有更大的胜算战胜敌人。“I knew that people expected me to harbour anger towards whites,” Mandela later wrote when recalling the morning after his release. “But I had none. In prison my anger towards whites decreased but my hatred for the system grew.”“我知道,人们期待我怨恨白人,”曼德拉后来曾这样回忆自己出狱后的那个上午,“但我没有。在监狱里,我对白人的愤恨减少了,但我对制度的憎恶增加了。”Twenty-three years later, the “rainbow nation”, as Archbishop Tutu exuberantly labelled the post-apartheid society, is still a work in progress. While relations are transformed, South Africa remains riven by racial and socioeconomic inequality. It was always going to take more than an inspirational leader to overcome the legacy of centuries of discrimination. Yet by force of personality and example, Mandela encouraged the belief that reconciliation really was possible.23年后的今天,当日被图图大主教兴奋地称之为“后种族隔离”社会“虹之国”的南非仍然道路漫长。虽然种族关系得到改变,但南非仍被种族与社会经济不平等割裂。克几百年歧视的后遗症,不能只靠一位鼓舞人心的领导人。不过曼德拉的确依靠人格和榜样的力量,增强了人们对民族和解可能性的信念。Sometimes there was a touch of theatre to his drive, such as when he invited the widows and wives of former Afrikaner Nationalist leaders to tea at his residence. Some in the ANC suggested he had gone too far when he travelled to a remote whites-only settlement to visit Betsy Verwoerd, whose husband Hendrik had provided the ideological underpinning of apartheid and enacted some of its most repressive laws. A wrinkled 94-year-old, she spoke with a quavering voice as she offered him coffee and syrupy koeksisters. At an impromptu press conference on her stoep in searing heat, a black journalist pointedly insinuated that Mandela was frittering away his time in office. He replied testily that his drive had cost him little time and yet bound the nation together.有时候他的举动有一些表演的意味,比如当他邀请南非白人政党——南非国民党(National Party)前领导人的遗孀和妻子前往自己的住处喝茶的时候。非国大的一些人认为,当他长途跋涉来到白人居住区拜访贝齐#8226;维沃尔德(Betsy Verwoerd)的时候,他做得有些过火,因为她的丈夫亨德里克#8226;维沃尔德(Hendrik Verwoerd)为种族隔离制度奠定了理论基础,并实施了一些最严厉的种族隔离法律。94岁高龄的贝齐满脸皱纹,嗓音颤抖地说着话,并给曼德拉端上了咖啡和油炸糖浆面圈。曼德拉冒着炙热高温在贝齐屋前的门廊上举行了一场临时记者招待会。一位黑人记者在会上含沙射影地说道,曼德拉浪费了办公时间。曼德拉恼火地回应道,他的举动没有耗费多少时间,却让国家团结在一起。Mandela knew how important it was to keep Afrikaners loyal. He also knew South Africa could ill-afford what had happened at independence in neighbouring Mozambique: a mass exodus of whites with their skills and capital. So he masked his anger over the past. His campaign reached its zenith in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a project of astonishing ambition aimed at exorcising the troubled past. Then there was the 1995 Rugby World Cup when he won the hearts of so many Afrikaners with his adoption of “their” game, rugby, inspiring the Springboks to victory against the favourites, all but by his exuberant passion alone.曼德拉知道让南非白人保持忠诚是多么重要。他也知道南非无法承受邻国莫桑比克独立时的局面:大量白人带着他们的技术和资本离开莫桑比克。因此他藏起了自己对过去的不满。他的“真相与和解委员会”(Truth and Reconciliation Commission)将和解运动推向了高潮。“真相与和解委员会”的伟大抱负在于赶走不愉快的过去。接着到了1995年橄榄球世界杯(Rugby World Cup),曼德拉赢得了如此多南非白人的心——他持“他们的”橄榄球比赛,激励南非跳羚队(Springboks)击败了众多夺冠热门球队,所有这一切仅仅是靠他洋溢在外的热情做到的。So what was the secret to the “Madiba magic” and his seduction routine? Intrinsic to his genius was his Protean persona. One day he came across as an old-fashioned aristocrat, another as an impassioned revolutionary leader, and the third as a world statesman. While like any experienced politician he knew how to play an audience, unlike so many leaders in the age of television there was little artifice about his guises.那么“马迪巴魔力”和他劝诱南非白人的秘诀是什么?他最根本的天才在于表现出丰富多变的形象。某一天他像老派的贵族,另一天又是充满的革命领导人,再一天又成了世界政治家。尽管与所有经验丰富的政治家一样,曼德拉知道如何打动听众,但与电视时代的许多领导人不同的是,他的表现一点也不显刻意做作。Rather, they were rooted in his extraordinary life. In his lectures to angry “comrades”, his genes as the scion of chiefs were to the fore. It was as if he were upbraiding a rowdy village assembly, as his forefathers must have done in the past.相反,他的一举一动全都植根于他的传奇生活。当他对着愤怒的“同志们”演讲时,他作为酋长后裔的基因凸显了出来。他的样子就像是在训斥一群吵闹的村民,他的祖先必定也这么做过。Drawing on the precepts he learnt as a child, and also from his missionary teachers, he had an old-world charm. He could be a stickler for protocol. He chided MPs in the German Bundestag for not wearing ties and lectured his ministers and ANC members on punctuality. Yet this was the man who launched a sartorial revolution with his loose-flowing “Madiba shirts” and who was famous for his abhorrence of pomposity and love of the gentle tease. Who else could telephone the Queen and address her as “Elizabeth”?他从孩童时期就学到一些信条,从他的传教老师那里也学到一些,这些信条让他拥有老派的传统魅力。他有时可能会严格遵循礼仪。他曾指责德国联邦议员不打领带,并要求他的部长和非国大党员们守时。然而正是这样一个人,却穿着宽松飘逸的“马迪巴衬衫”发起了一场衣着革命,并以憎恶浮华和喜欢轻松调侃而闻名。还有谁能够给英国女王打电话,称呼她“伊丽莎白”?The ability to make people like you is merely the first lesson for aspirant politicians. But even so, Mandela had a particular genius for the glad-handing side of politics, primarily because his warmth seemed genuinely uncontrived. His smile and laugh exuded the joy of one who appreciated every day as a boon.对有抱负的政治家而言,有能力让人们喜欢你只是第一课。但曼德拉在发出政治家式的热情问候时仍表现出格外的天赋,这主要是因为他的热情看上去确实不是装出来的。他的微笑和爽朗的笑声散发出由衷的快乐——这是一个将每天视为上帝恩惠的人。His presidency was not an unalloyed golden age, as his friends concede. He had an autocratic streak. He neglected key policy areas, most critically the fight against HIV/Aids, an omission for which he berated himself in retirement. He had concluded on Robben Island that when in power he should adopt the consensual politics of his forebears’ royal household. This eased the smooth running of the ANC, an amalgam of races, classes, religions and politics, but he was too loyal to underperforming ministers.他的总统任期并非完美无瑕,正如他的朋友不情愿地承认的那样。他有独裁的倾向。他忽视了关键的政策领域,尤其是在抗击艾滋病方面——他在离任后对这一疏漏自责不已。曼德拉在罗本岛监狱时就断定,如果能够掌握权力,他应该采用他的王室祖先实行的共识政治。这有利于由不同种族、阶级、宗教和政治背景的人组成的非国大平稳运转,但对于不称职的部长们,他也过于忠诚了。There were other blemishes. As the years passed it emerged he had had to make his share of compromises. His close relationships with business people were from time to time called into question. He also displayed an almost naive tolerance for the fawning of celebrities. To the distress of some advisers, the first big celebration of his 90th birthday occurred on a London stage alongside the scandal-wracked Amy Winehouse.曼德拉还有其他瑕疵。随着时间的推移,他不得不做出自己的让步。他与商界人士的密切关系不时引发质疑。他还对名人们的讨好表现出近乎天真的容忍。让一些顾问感到痛苦的是,在曼德拉90岁生日于伦敦举行的首场大型庆典上,丑闻缠身的艾米#8226;怀恩豪斯(Amy Winehouse)也出现在舞台上。Yet as South Africa falters at confronting some of the messy issues of the post-apartheid era, his record rightly appears if anything more magical even than when he was president. His ANC generation has a mythical status: Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu and so many more. Amid the intermittent stumbles of his successors, the benefits of South Africa’s having embarked on democracy under a man who led with such clarity and principle were all the clearer.当南非跌跌撞撞地遭遇后种族隔离时代的一些麻烦时,曼德拉担任总统时的历史甚至显得愈加神奇。他那一代的非国大党员都是神话般的人物:曼德拉、奥利弗#8226;坦(Oliver Tambo)、沃尔特#8226;西苏鲁(Walter Sisulu)等等许多人。当他的继任者不时地遭遇挫折时,南非早已在曼德拉明确而有原则的领导下实行民主的好处,便更加凸现出来。The failure of leadership is arguably the greatest curse to have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa since it won independence. The history of the continent in the second half of the 20th century is littered with the examples of “big men” independence leaders who came to power vowing to liberate their people from the tyranny of the colonial past and then never left office, invariably deploying the rhetoric of liberation to justify misdeeds. The lesson was clear: once undermined, the independence of democratic institutions is hard to recover.领导失败可以说是自撒哈拉以南非洲地区独立以来遭受的最大诅咒。这片大陆在20世纪后半叶的历史充斥着这样的例子:那些领导独立运动的“大人物”上台时,承诺将本国人民从殖民地专制统治下解放出来,之后却绝不下台,千篇一律地以解放为由为其种种恶行辩解。教训是清楚的:一旦民主机构的独立性遭到破坏,便很难恢复。So Mandela’s unflinching support for the independence of the courts, the media and state institutions set a vital precedent. He respected their rulings even when white judges from the old era ruled in favour of apartheid leaders. He himself appeared in court when subpoenaed in a dispute over the national rugby squad – and more agonisingly when petitioning for divorce from his second wife, Winnie. For such a private man it was patently painful to have to testify about the intimacies of their relationship. Yet there he stood, stiffly upright in the simple courtroom, testifying in a quavering voice, as the law required.因此曼德拉对法院、媒体和国家机构独立性的坚定持确立了一个重要的先例。即便旧时代的白人法官做出过有利于种族隔离领导人的判决,他也尊重这些判决。他自己也曾亲自出庭应诉,一次是因一场围绕国家橄榄球队的争议而接到法院传票,另一次更令他痛苦的是,第二任妻子温妮(Winnie)要求离婚。对这样一个退隐的人来说,出庭阐述两人的婚姻关系显然非常痛苦。然而他站到了那里,按照法律的要求,笔直地站在简朴的法庭上,以颤抖的声音讲述词。Strikingly, he did not indulge in the ruinous relativism that had led to so many abuses in Africa passing unrebuked in the continent. But most important of all, he believed in leading by example. He was the last of Africa’s liberation leaders to take charge and was acutely aware of the need to buck their trend by serving just one term. It was a parting gift of incalculable value to a fledgling democracy. He was indeed the father of the nation.更引人注目的是,他没有让自己沉溺于破坏力巨大的相对主义(导致了新种族主义,编者注)。相对主义在非洲大陆导致了大量任意妄为,它们甚至没有受到责难。但最重要的是,他信奉以身作则。他是非洲解放运动领导人中最后一位掌权的,并且敏锐地意识到有必要抵制长期掌权的趋势,因此只担任了一任总统。它是曼德拉赠送给南非新生民主体制的礼物,价值无法估量。他实际上是南非之父。Don’t put me on a pedestal, I am human, he liked to say. He once bemoaned his image as a demigod. Yet who could dispute that he presides over the pantheon of great leaders of the 20th century?他喜欢说,别盲目崇拜我,我只是个普通人。他曾经为自己半人半神的形象哀叹。然而谁又能否认,在20世纪最伟大的领导人中,他的确是首屈一指的?The writer, the FT’s news editor, was a correspondent in South Africa from 1993 to1998 and 2006 to 2008本文作者是英国《金融时报》新闻编辑,曾于1993-1998年和2006-2008年在南非担任记者。 /201312/268643With so many books and so little time, re-ing seems an indulgence. So why is it so popular? Hephzibah Anderson reveals why we do it – and why it’s such a joy.在这个快节奏的时代,大量图书被印刷出来,我们忙得没时间去看新书,而重读旧书似乎更是在浪费时间。但是为什么有越来越多的人翻开了旧书?英国广播公司(B)网站的海瑟堡·安德森向我们揭示了原因,并深入探讨了重读旧书的乐趣。How many times have you your favourite book?你一定有最喜欢的书吧,你一共读过几遍?As parents learn with frustration, as small children we love immersing ourselves in the same story over and over. But in adulthood that joy tends to become a forgotten pleasure. We have so little time to and there are so many great books that we’ve yet to get around to (War and Peace looms large on my literary guilt list#8722; never mind the ceaseless tide of new releases). You could a book a day for the rest of your life and still not make it through even a quarter of the titles published in 2013 in the UK alone. With the shelves thus groaning, pulling down a well-thumbed favourite feels an unconscionable indulgence.好比父母重复犯错后会吸取教训,小孩子则会沉浸在同一个故事的情节里。但成年后,我们逐渐忘却了读旧书的乐趣。我们忙得没时间去看书,但仍有许多经典书籍我们尚未翻阅(我为未读的文学作品专门列了一张清单,其中包括《战争与和平》这样的经典,其他那些不断出版的新书就更别提了。)。英国2013年一年就出版了许多新书,假设你每天看一本书,直到去世,你可能都看不完其中四分之一。如今书店里到处都是新书,你若选择翻阅旧书那几乎可以说是在浪费时间。Yet if my admittedly unscientific research on Facebook is anything to go by, furtive re-ers are everywhere in our midst. For certain fans, re-ing The Lord of the Rings is an annual ritual. Devotees of The Great Gatsby, Pride and Prejudice and Tess of the D’Urbervilles also return regularly to the book they prize above all others. One friend told me that Jane Austen’s Emma can still surprise him, despite his having ing it over 50 times.但如果我在脸书(Facebook)上做的非科学调查有那么一丁点参考价值的话,我想我们之中仍然有许多人在重拾旧书。那些魔戒(Lord of the Rings)迷每年必回看原著,对他们来说,这是一个仪式。许多人对《了不起的盖茨比》(The Great Gatsby),《傲慢与偏见》(Pride and Prejudice)或是《苔丝》(Tess of the D’Urbervilles)称赞有加,他们也会定期重读经典。我的朋友告诉我他已把简·奥斯丁(Jane Austen )的《艾玛》(Emma)翻了起码五十遍,但每次读都会有新发现。Now, two new bibliomemoirs have arrived to showcase the insights – both literary and personal – that are to be gained from that ultimate guilty pleasure: re-ing. Journalist Rebecca Mead, a long-time Englishwoman in New York, first encountered George Eliot’s Middlemarch at 17. Since then, she has it again every five years. With each re-ing, it has opened up further; in each chapter of her life – as she itched to leave home, as she moved to America, had love affairs and become a mother – it has resonated differently.两位藏书爱好者发表了他们的看法,即花时间重看旧书也许是种奢侈,但却能收获文学和精神上的感悟,新闻记者丽贝卡·米德出生于英国却在美国呆了很久,她在十七岁时第一次接触到了乔治·艾略特(Middlemarch)的小说《米德镇的春天》(Middlemarch)。自那以后,她每五年就重读一遍该书。每当她的人生到达新的阶段,米德都会翻看书重读,而每次阅读都能给她带来新的感悟——从渴望外出闯荡的少年时期,到最后移民美国,再到经历了多段感情,最后成为一名母亲,该书始终与她的心灵契合。Reaching her 40s, Mead decided on a fresh approach: she would apply the tools of her day job to this private passion. Her aim was to discover what writing the novel meant to Eliot, and how ing it has shaped her own life. She chronicles her relationship in The Road to Middlemarch (published in the US as My Life in Middlemarch), a delightful book filled with sharp observations and told in a voice poised between chatty confidant and brilliant teacher.米德在四十岁时做了一个新的决定:她决定拾起笔杆,书写自己心中的情感。米德打算深入研究《米德镇的春天》这本书对艾略特来说是否有重大意义,并结合自身经历,谈谈这本书如何塑造了自己。米德成功撰写了《通往米德镇之路》(The Road to Middlemarch)一书,并融入了自己的经历(美版名为《我在米德镇的日子》),该书销路甚广,见解独到,作者像一位睿智的师长,又像一位健谈的知己,向你讲述米德镇和她的故事。Playwright Samantha Ellis has clocked up even more time with Wuthering Heights. She was 12 when she first Emily Bront#235;’s gothic romance, and without fail, she’s returned to it annually in the run-up to her birthday. This year when she will turn 39 might just be the first time that she skips it, but only because all those re-ings have now inspired a book, How to Be a Heroine.萨曼莎·埃利斯是一位剧作家,她花了许多时间研究《呼啸山庄》(Wuthering Height)。十二岁时埃利斯第一次读艾米莉·勃朗特(Emily Bront#235;)的这本哥特式浪漫小说,她立刻身陷其中,欲罢不能,从此每当生日前夕,埃利斯就要重读这本书。今年是埃利斯的第三十九个生日,但她不得不打破这一传统,因为她要完成新书《如何成为一个女主人公》(How to Be a Heroine),该书是埃利斯在反复阅读《呼啸山庄》后的有感而发之作。It begins with a heated conversation Ellis had with her best friend while on a pilgrimage to Yorkshire in the north of England, where the novel is set. Which heroine was best, Jane Eyre or Cathy Earnshaw? As they quarrelled, Ellis realised she’d spent her life trying to be Cathy when Jane was a far savvier role model. This sets her off on another journey, back to the books that shaped her ideas about how to move through the world as a woman. It’s a risky enterprise because, just as Mead knows, though the words on the page stay the same, our ings of them change.埃利斯曾与好友结伴前往英格兰北部的约克郡(Yorkshire),途中两人曾就《呼啸山庄》有过一次激烈讨论,由此定下该书的写作事宜。简·爱(Jane Eyre)和凯瑟琳·恩肖(Cathy Earnshaw)谁更伟大?讨论过后,埃利斯才意识到她将简·爱视为偶像,渴望像她一样独立,实际上却一直在向凯瑟琳看齐。为此,她又重回书中,开启一趟心灵之旅,终于了解如何像一个真正的女人那样生活。写自己的感悟其实很难,就像米德所说的,经典还是经典,我们在不同年龄阶段的感悟却不同。Both Mead and Ellis testify to the myriad ways in which really good books not only stand the test of repeat s, but also bestow fresh gifts each time we crack their spines. These kinds of books grow with us. The writers also explore the motivations behind re-ing.米德和埃利斯无数次的阅读经历都表明,好书经得起反复推敲,每一次阅读都能带给我们新的体验。这样的书足够我们读一辈子。此外,这两位作者也探究了重复阅读背后的动机。For children, it’s a comfort. As we become accustomed to a world in which change is the only real constant, the familiarity of the book at bedtime is something to cling to. Adults aren’t immune to those feelings, either. To e the septuagenarian writer Larry McMurtry: “If I once for adventure, I now for security. How nice to be able to return to what won’t change.”对于孩子来说,读书是一种享受。现实世界瞬息万变,而读书可以使我们放松。孩子一旦养成了睡前阅读的习惯便会一直保持。对成年人来说也一样。 正如老年作家拉里·麦克默特里(Larry McMurtry)所说,“从前我读书是为了寻求新奇感,现在我读书是为了寻求安全感,书中世界平稳安逸,读书能使我放松。”Except that often, that’s not quite the case. We notice fresh details. Our interpretations change as we evolve – cheerleading for the strivers, for instance, gives way to admiration for characters who are slow and steady.只是很多时候,事情往往不是这样,每次重读旧书我们都能发现新细节。随着我们思想的成熟,我们的见解也在发生改变——比如,我们会为书中努力拼搏的人喝,又敬佩那些脚踏实地,慢慢前进的人。Vladimir Nabokov had a theory about this. He believed that the process of moving our eyes from left to right, line after line, page after page, stood between us and artistic interpretation the first time round. By the fourth ing, the experience has apparently assumed more of the directness of looking at a painting. “One cannot a book: one can only re- it, ” he said.对此,弗拉基米尔·纳科夫(Vladimir Nabokov)就有相应的看法。他认为,人在第一次读一本书时眼睛需要从左向右逐行逐页的移动,这会干扰人们对文字的艺术性解读。当读到第四遍时,出于对文本的熟悉,人们再看书就像看一幅画那样直接。“读书这个说法并不恰当,一本书是不能被一次性读懂的,只能去重读。”Scientists have weighed in, too, citing the mental health benefits of re-ing. Research conducted with ers in the US and New Zealand found that on our first ing, we are preoccupied by the ‘what?’ and the ‘why?’. Second time round, we’re able to better savour the emotions that the plot continues to ignite. As researcher Cristel Russell of the American University explained of re-ers in an article published in the Journal of Consumer Research, returning to a book “brings new or renewed appreciation of both the object of consumption and their self”.经过反复验,科学家也表示,阅读旧书有益于我们的身心健康。通过对美国和新西兰的读者进行调查,发现我们读完第一遍书时,心中难免会存疑。当我们再次拿起书本,才能品味细节,才能随着情节发展,体会心潮起伏的感觉。美国一所大学的研究员克里斯特·罗素曾在《消费者研究》(Consumer Research)杂志就重读旧书这一问题发表了一篇文章,文章指出,重读旧书不仅能加深对书的理解,也能增进读者的自我认识。Heart of the matter本文重点It’s true that we often find former selves on the pages of old books (literally, if we’re fond of scribbling in the margins). But even without the aid of marginalia, these texts can carry us back to a time and place, and remind us of the kind of person that we were then.我们通过重读旧书,还可以发现我们上次的阅读思路(如果你有在书页上涂鸦的习惯的话)。其实,即使你未做任何笔记,读到熟悉的文字,你也会想起旧时旧景,以及那时的自己。We’re changed not only by lived experience but also by experience – by the books that we’ve discovered since last ing the one in our hand.多读书,多经历,都能帮助我们成长——读旧书更是如此。More so than the movie director or the musician, the writer calls upon our imaginations, using words to bid us picture this declaration of love or that betrayal. It’s not surprising that in my social media poll, of the many and varied titles that people returned to, only one was non-fiction (Enemies of Promise, Cyril Connolly’s hybrid of literary criticism and memoir). A book is a joint project between writer and er, and for its alchemy to work, we must pour so much of ourselves into ing that our own life story can become braided with the story that’s bound between the book’s covers.比起导演和音乐家,作家更能激发我们的想象力,那些爱,誓言以及背叛,种种情感都由作者寥寥数语勾勒而出,具象化地浮现在我们眼前。我在各个社交网站上发布调查,询问别人正在重读的书籍,回复中只有西里尔·康诺利(Cyril Connolly)的《希望的敌人》(Enemies of Promise)一书不是虚构故事而是文学及回忆录合集。书籍将作者与读者联结起来,而为了达到这种效果,我们必须在阅读时将书的内容与自己的生活经历相关联,以便与之产生共鸣。Perhaps what’s really strange is that we don’t re- more often. After all, we watch our favourite films again and we wouldn’t think of listening to an album only once. We treasure tatty old paperbacks as objects, yet of all art forms, literature alone is a largely one-time delight. A book, of course, takes up more time, but as Mead and Ellis confirm, the rewards make it amply worthwhile. They needn’t be anointed classics, either. Sabbath’s Theatre by Philip Roth, EL Doctorow’s Ragtime and Donna Tartt’s The Goldfinch are all on my re-ing list – just as soon as I’ve finished War and Peace, that is.也许,更多时候我们应该问问自己为什么不经常翻翻旧书。毕竟,我们会挑出自己喜欢的电影反复看,也会把一张唱片听上好几遍。我们把破旧的平装书当做宝贝,却鲜少重读它们。不可否认的是,读一本书就会占据我们很多时间,但正如米德和埃利斯所说,重读旧书会是我们收获颇丰。我们不一定要读那些文学经典,我的清单上列出的重读书目有:菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)的《安息日剧院》(Sabbath’s Theatre),EL·多克托罗(EL Doctorow)的《拉格泰姆》(Ragtime),唐娜·塔特(Donna Tartt)的《金翅雀》(The Goldfinch),——等我看完《战争与和平》(War and Peace)就去重翻这些旧书。 /201406/302881福州医科大学中医看不孕

福州二胎检查那家比较好福州博爱医院备孕体检好不好费用多少 1. Paris, France巴黎(法国)No contest. Be you a holiday-goer, if you#39;re looking for a romantic destination and you enjoy the distractions of city life, Paris should be at the top of your list.巴黎位列首位没人不。如果你要外出度假,想要寻觅一个浪漫之地,而又不嫌弃城市的纷扰,那么巴黎一定是你的首选。2. Mendoza, Argentina门多萨(阿根廷)Mendoza is wine country, and where vines grow, the living generally qualifies as romantic.门多萨是葡萄酒的国度。在那里葡萄藤蔓延着,生活绝对浪漫。3. Istria, Croatia伊斯特拉半岛(克罗地亚)The cobalt blue of the Adriatic Sea off Istria#39;s coast is almost otherworldly. This is a sailor#39;s paradise.伊斯特拉海岸边的湛蓝的亚得里亚海几乎让人觉得是另一个世界。这里是水手的天堂。4. Abruzzo, Italy阿布鲁佐(意大利)The beaches are golden, and the sea is like turquoise silk. Eagles swoop down from craggy eyries, wild peonies and gentians color the alpine meadows.金灿灿的沙滩,蓝绿色丝绸一般的海面——这是意大利阿布鲁佐。在这里你可以看到老鹰从崎岖的山崖上俯冲下来,欣赏野牡丹和龙胆的色以及高山草甸。5. Lake Atitlan, Guatemala阿蒂特兰湖(危地马拉)Aldous Huxley famously described this lake as, ;really, too much of a good thing.; It#39;s beautiful by day, stunning at sunrise and sunset, and offers a near-perfect, refreshing climate.赫胥黎曾对阿蒂特兰湖有过一段著名的描述:“美不胜收!”这里的白天非常美丽,日出和日落则相当令人震撼。而且这里的气候近乎完美,令人舒畅。6. Christchurch, New Zealand基督城(新西兰)New Zealand is one of the world#39;s premier outdoor playgrounds, clean and green, with top-notch skiing, hiking, surfing, and fishing.新西兰是世界上首屈一指的室外活动好去处,干净又环保。在这里你可以去山顶滑雪、登山,或者冲浪和钓鱼。7. Cuenca, Ecuador昆卡(厄瓜多尔)With its wealth of colonial homes with interior courtyards, thick adobe walls, and iron-railed terraces looking down on to the street, punctuated regularly by plazas and squares, this is a city made for walking.昆卡有着很多殖民时期的住宅。这些住宅自带庭院,有着厚厚的砖墙;站在雕花铁栏的阳台上可以俯视整个街道。在这里你不时会路过广场,这的确是一个适合行走的城市。8. Antigua, Guatemala安提瓜(危地马拉)The benches around the central fountain are fully occupied by young couples in love. The fountain continually splashes water from the breasts of the four young women carved in stone, with four smaller outlying fountains.恋爱中的年轻情侣们占满了围绕中央喷泉的长椅,中央的喷泉底座是四个女性的石雕,周围有四个较小的喷泉。 /201402/275983龙岩第一医院输卵管通液

福州做结扎复通那间医院好Every day, hundreds of thousands of us pop into coffee shops. While we sip our cappuccinos, we may connect our smartphones to the cafes’ Wi-Fi network, and catch up with friends via services such as Facebook.每天都有好几十万人光顾咖啡馆。我们一边啜饮着卡布奇诺,一边用手机上着免费Wifi,刷着Facebook等社交网围观朋友近况。As well as socialising, we may use the time and free access to a wireless connection to get on top of our finances. That #163;75 you owe the plumber can be paid instantly by accessing your bank’s website or app. Transferring money from your savings account to your current account is nothing more than a few taps on your screen.除了社交,我们也会利用这空闲时间和免费网络处理一下财务问题。比如说,你能登录网上或者应用来还欠水管工的75英镑,而且马上就能到账。只需要在手机屏上轻敲几下,你就可以把储蓄账户的钱转到消费账户,就是这么简单。But what coffee drinkers do not suspect is that lurking among their fellow latte lovers are bank robbers.但是慢悠悠喝着咖啡的人们从没想到,盗贼会潜伏在他们周围那些爱喝拿铁的顾客里。Unbeknown to you, this modern form of bank robber is silently harvesting all your private data. The only sign of his thievery is perhaps a little smile as your bank log-in details appear on his screen, y for him to copy and paste before plundering your account within seconds of you finishing your coffee.你不知道的是,这种新型网银盗贼悄悄地收集着你的私人数据。盗窃发生的迹象几乎是无痕的,你的网银登录信息出现在他屏幕上之后、他微微一笑,然后就可以复制粘贴你的账号密码,不等你喝完咖啡就刷光你的卡。In short, you’ve just been mugged — but you’ll only realise when you later go to a cash machine to withdraw some money, and discover that every penny in your account has been cleared out. During an anxious phone call to the bank, you’ll learn that an online thief has hacked into your account and stolen all your money.简单来说,你刚刚被盗了——但是只有你去取款机取钱、发现卡里一分钱都没有了的时候,才会发现自己被盗。等到你焦急地给打电话时,你就会明白是一个网络小偷黑了你的网银,偷光了你的钱。One route is through your phone’s wireless ‘Bluetooth’ function, which, when switched on, allows it to ‘talk’ to other enabled devices nearby. This means that a hacker sitting near you can use his Bluetooth-enabled laptop to connect to your device without your knowledge. This process is sometimes called ‘bluejacking’ or, more properly, ‘bluesnarfing’ (from the slang word ‘snarf’ which means to eat, drink or devour).网银失窃有时是通过蓝牙功能,打开蓝牙、周围也开着蓝牙功能的手机就能接收到你的信息。也就是说,一个坐在你旁边的黑客可以用他开着蓝牙的电脑来连接你的手机,而你对此一无所知。这种方式有时被叫做“蓝牙盗窃”,或者更多被叫做“蓝牙吞噬”。(所谓吞噬,就是说对方吃掉了你的信息,有时还有钱)The more common method is for crooks to use your smartphone’s Wi-Fi connection. They rely on the fact that most of us are blase about the security of the networks we connect to.更常见的盗窃手段是利用你手机的Wifi连接,他们就是欺负我们一般人对于Wifi的安全性毫不关心。For example, when you are in a coffee shop, your smartphone will present you with a list of available Wi-Fi networks that you can use to connect your phone to the internet. The majority of these networks are run by legitimate companies, but sometimes they are actually created by a criminal sitting nearby with little more than a laptop.比如说,你在咖啡馆的时候,手机能搜到一大堆Wifi,链接这些Wifi就能够手机上网了。这些Wifi中大多数都是合法的,但是也有的就是你旁边的黑客仅用一台手提电脑创建的网络。These networks are often given innocent-sounding names, such as ‘Free Public Wi-Fi’, that gull smartphone users into logging in. On the surface, everything seems normal, and you will be able to connect just as you would with a legitimate Wi-Fi service.这些Wifi一般都有个纯洁无辜的名字,比如“免费公共无线”,好骗你们上钩。表面看来一切正常,能上网能下载,和你连接合法Wifi一样。However, because you have connected to a network controlled by a thief, he can monitor everything you do, enabling him to vacuum up passwords and login details for your bank account. In fact, the process is so simple that the thieves can steal thousands of pounds in just a few hours while sitting in their local Starbucks.不过,因为你连了一个由盗贼控制的Wifi,你干嘛他都看得见,所以他就能读取到你的网银密码和登录信息。事实上,这个过程不过是举手之劳,所以小偷们只需要在附近的星巴克坐上几个小时,就能偷到好几千英镑。 /201405/302458 福州妇幼保健院治输卵管积水好不好费用多少宁德婚检哪里比较好

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