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2019年07月23日 05:17:44 | 作者:网上在线 | 来源:新华社
The rate of myopia among the Chinese population is projected to reach 50 percent by 2020, with 70 million people suffering from severe myopia, according to a report released by the School of Public Health at Peking University, Youth.cn reported on May 19.据中国青年网5月19日报道,北京大学公共卫生学院的一份报告显示,到2020年时,中国人口的近视率将达到50%,7000万人将患严重近视。Especially of note, children aged between 6 and 10 who have myopia are more likely to suffer from severe myopia in the future. In addition, a whopping 90 percent of college students now have some form of myopia.特别值得注意的是,6到10岁近视的孩子将来更有可能患上严重近视。此外,目前高达90%的大学生都患有某种形式的近视。There are at least 10 million people in China with severe myopia, and they are predisposed to getting pathological myopia in middle age.中国目前至少有1000万人患有严重近视,且到中年时倾向于患上病理性近视。Pathological myopia can#39;t be treated with glasses or surgery, and it is one of the biggest factors that leads to blindness, Xu Xun, director of the ophthalmology department at Shanghai General Hospital, pointed out.据上海中心医院眼科主任徐讯指出,病理性近视不能用戴眼镜和做手术的方式治好,是导致人们失明的最大原因之一。Experts explain that the high rate of myopia among Chinese people can be attributed to two principle factors. One is high academic pressure, and the other one is excess use of electronic devices over a long period of time.专家解释称,导致中国人近视率高的最主要原因可以归结为两个。其一是学业压力大,其二是长期使用电子设备。Genetics, on the other hand, are not the main reason, as only 20 percent of Chinese people had myopia in the 1960s.另一方面,基因并不是导致近视的主因,因为在上世纪60年代的时候中国近视率还只有20%。;Teenagers are now faced with severe academic pressure, which means they often study without natural light. This increases their risk of becoming nearsighted,; Xu said.徐讯说道:“青少年现在面临着繁重的学业压力,这就意味着他们经常要在没有自然光的情况下学习,而这大大增加了近视的风险。”Although authorities have issued documents urging relevant agencies to take action against the growing problem, it is the students themselves, along with their parents, who must change their behavior to fix the problem.虽然政府已经发布文件,敦促有关机构采取措施应对日益严重的问题,但是真正必须改变自己的行为来解决这个问题的人是学生自己和他们的父母。 /201705/511731GENEVA — Weather-related disasters in the past two decades have killed more than 600,000 people and inflicted economic losses estimated at trillions of dollars, the ed Nations said on Monday, warning that the frequency and impact of such events was set to rise.日内瓦——联合国周一表示,在过去二十年里,与天气有关的灾害夺去了60多万人的生命,并造成数万亿美元的经济损失。它还发出警告,此类灾害发生的频率未来还会加大,其影响力也会进一步增强。The figures were released before a ed Nations-backed climate meeting, starting next Monday in Paris, at which more than 120 national leaders will try to rein in greenhouse gas emissions and slow the rise in global temperatures.这些数字是在联合国持召开的全球气候会议前夕发布的。该会议将于下周一在巴黎揭幕,届时120多个国家的领导人将一起商讨对策,竭力控制温室气体排放,减慢全球气温上升的速度。According to the report from the ed Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, the ed States has suffered the highest number of weather-related disasters in the past two decades, but China and India have been the most severely affected, enduring floods that had an impact on billions of people.联合国减灾办公室(ed Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction)发布的这份报告显示,在过去二十年里,美国出现的与天气有关的灾害数量最多,但中国和印度是受影响最大的国家,有数十亿人遭受过洪灾。As well as killing hundreds of thousands, weather-related disasters wounded 4.1 billion others and inflicted economic costs well in excess of .9 trillion over the two decades, the report found.该报告还发现,在过去二十年里,除了导致数十万人丧生,与天气有关的灾害还导致另外41亿人受伤,并带来超过1.9万亿美元的经济损失。The ed Nations office recorded an average of 335 weather-related disasters every year over the two decades, double the level in the previous 10 years. The report counted events that had killed 10 or more people, affected more than 1,000 and generated appeals for external assistance.据联合国减灾办公室统计,过去二十年,美国每年平均有335起与天气有关的灾害发生,与之前十年的水平相比,频率翻倍。该报告统计的是死亡人数至少为十人,影响人数逾千并需要外部援助的事件的数量。“Predictions of more extreme weather in the future almost certainly means that we will witness a continued upward trend in weather-related disasters in the decades ahead,” the report said.“对未来更加极端的天气状况的预测显示,接下来的几十年,我们几乎必然会看到,与天气相关的灾害持续增加,”文中写道。In a foreword to the findings, Margareta Wahlstrom, the head of the disaster reduction office, said the findings “underline why it is so important that a new climate change agreement emerges” from the summit meeting in Paris.在这份报告的前言中,联合国减灾办公室负责人玛格丽塔·瓦尔斯特伦(Margareta Wahlstrom)表示,这些发现“突显出”在巴黎举行的气候峰会上“达成新的气候变化协议为何如此重要”。Citing the rising temperature of the oceans and melting glaciers as two central drivers of extreme weather, Ms. Wahlstrom said that agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions would help reduce the huge damage and losses inflicted by disasters linked to climate.瓦尔斯特伦指出,海洋温度上升和冰川融化是极端天气状况出现的两大核心因素,而削减温室气体排放的协议将有助于减少与气候有关的灾害带来的巨大伤亡和损失。The connection between extreme weather and climate change is not always clear. There is strong evidence that the warming climate is creating more frequent and intense heat waves, causing heavier rainstorms, worsening coastal flooding and intensifying some droughts, but for many other types of weather occurrences, the linkage is less clear.极端天气和气候变化之间的联系并不总是那么明确。有强有力的据表明,气候变暖在制造频次更多、强度更大的热浪,引发更严重的风暴,加重沿海洪灾和一些地区的旱灾。不过,在很多其他类型的天气状况方面,就不大能确定它们是否和气候变化有关。Floods accounted for close to half of all the weather-related disasters, affecting 2.3 billion people, mostly in Asia, the report found. Storms had taken the heaviest toll of lives, however, causing about 242,000 recorded deaths, including 138,000 killed by Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar in 2008.该报告显示,与天气有关的灾害有将近一半是洪灾,波及23亿人,大多数是在亚洲地区。不过,造成人员伤亡最大的是风暴,它导致的有记录的死亡人数约为24.2万,其中单单2008年缅甸遭遇的热带气旋“纳尔吉斯”(Cyclone Nargis)就造成了13.8万人死亡。Droughts, most acute in Africa, had affected more than a billion people in the past two decades, leading not only to hunger, malnutrition and disease but also to widesp agricultural failure that resulted in long-lasting underdevelopment, the report said.该报告称,过去二十年,干旱问题——在非洲最为严重——影响了逾10亿人。它不仅会使人饥饿、营养不良和患病,还会导致广泛的农业欠收,致使该地区长期落后。Heat waves had killed 148,000, mostly in Europe, and wildfires had emerged as another climate-related risk, according to the report. About 38 major wildfires in the ed States were estimated to have affected more than 108,000 people and caused recorded losses of over billion — numbers the report said were sure to rise when fires that were raging after August 2015, the cutoff point for data, were taken into account.报告还显示,热浪导致了14.8万人死亡,大部分是在欧洲,而山火作为另一种与气候有关的隐患,也开始显现。美国大概发生了38起重大山火灾难,影响人数超过10.8万人,造成的经济损失逾110亿美元。报告提示,考虑到统计截止时间是在2015年8月,而之后此类灾害肆虐,这些数字显然还会升高。The figure of .9 trillion for the worldwide cost of the disasters was drawn up for the ed Nations by the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, based in Belgium. The center said that figure was a minimum, however, as data was available for only a little more than a third of the recorded disasters.全球灾难带来的19万亿美元的损失这一数字,是由位于比利时的灾害流行病学研究中心(Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters)得出的。不过该中心表示,这个数字仅为最低值,因为他们只拿到了将将超过三分之一的灾难统计数据。 /201511/412252Korean Official, Calling for Class System, Hears Woofs, Oinks and Outrage韩国官员称“99%民众都应被当作猪”惹众怒SEOUL, South Korea — By Tuesday, the message board of the South Korean Education Ministry’s website had become a virtual pigsty and dog pen, with commenters venting anger in the form of “Woof! Woof! Oink! Oink!”韩国首尔——到了本周二,韩国教育部网站的留言板变成了虚拟的猪圈和窝,有不少者以“汪汪!汪汪!哼哼!哼哼!”的字样发泄他们的愤怒。The messages were an expression of the widesp outrage at a senior education official who had told reporters that the country should put in place a class system in which 99 percent of South Koreans should be treated “like dogs and pigs.”此前,韩国的一名高层教育官员告诉记者,本国应该实行等级制度,其中99%的韩国人应该“像猪一样”被对待。这一言论引发众怒,留言板中的讯息就是这种情绪的表达。“Hi, I am a South Korean citizen who lives as a dog and pig,” one commenter said. “That may be O.K., but I can’t take it when you say my dear son and daughter should also be treated like a dog or pig.”“你好,我是一名像猪一样生活着的韩国公民,”一名者写道。“这或许没问题,但我无法接受你说我亲爱的儿女也该受到猪一样的对待。”Another wrote: “If we are dogs and pigs, what does that make you, who live off our taxpayers’ money? Parasites?”另一名写道:“如果我们是猪,那你这种靠纳税人养活的算什么?寄生虫?”Many commenters ended their messages with “Woof! Woof! Oink! Oink!” Some suggested that the ministry change its name to the Ministry of Livestock.很多者以“汪汪!汪汪!哼哼!哼哼!”结束自己的留言。一些人建议教育部将名字改为牲畜部。The education official’s remarks, first reported by the daily newspaper Kyunghyang Shinmun on Friday, stirred so much public outrage that Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn was compelled on Tuesday to apologize for the official’s behavior. Also on Tuesday, the Education Ministry announced that it was firing the official, Na Hyang-wook, who was in charge of its policy-making bureau.这名教育官员的言论起初由韩国日报《京乡新闻》(Kyunghyang Shinmun)于上周五报道,随之激发极大的公愤,导致韩国总理黄教安(Hwang Kyo-ahn)不得不在周二为这名官员的行为致歉。同一天,教育部宣布将罢免这位名为罗享旭(Na Hyang-wook)的官员,他原是教育部政策制定机构的负责人。“He made outrageous comments that did not fit the image of public servants and severely hurt the people,” Lee Young, the vice minister of education, said on Tuesday.“他发出了令人无法容忍的言论,不符合公务员的形象,严重伤害了韩国民众,”教育部副部长李永(Lee Young,音)周二表示。During a parliamentary hearing on Monday, Mr. Na, choked with emotion, said he was so drunk when he met the reporters from Kyunghyang last Thursday that he could not remember what he had said. He added that the reported remarks did not reflect his beliefs.在周一进行的国会听会上,罗向旭情绪激动地哽咽道,上周四与《京乡新闻》的记者见面时他喝得烂醉,完全不记得自己说了些什么。他还表示,报道中出现的言论并不能反映他的真实想法。But the newspaper said that Mr. Na was lying and noted that its reporters had given him several chances to retract or modify his remarks before publishing them.但《京乡新闻》表示,罗向旭是在撒谎,还指出在文章发表之前,报社记者给了他好几次机会收回或修改自己的言论。The outrage, and the government’s quick attempts at damage control, reflect how sensitive South Koreans have become over worsening income inequality, and what officials and critics of the government call a rising tension between the country’s poor and rich.公众的愤怒,加上政府迅速采取行动来防止影响扩大的做法,反映出对于日益加剧的收入不平等,以及官员和政府批评人士所说的该国贫富阶层之间不断升级的紧张关系,韩国人已经变得多么的敏感。“I believe that we should solidify a class system in our society,” Mr. Na, 47, was ed as telling Kyunghyang reporters over dinner on Thursday. “The people should be treated like dogs and pigs. It’s enough just to feed them and let them live.”“我认为我们应该在社会中固化一种等级制度,”《京乡新闻》记者援引47岁的罗向旭在饭局上所说的话写道。“人们应该被像猪一样对待。只要给他们点吃的,让他们活着就够了。”Asked who “the people” were, Mr. Na said they were the “99 percent,” adding that he was trying to belong to “the 1 percent,” Kyunghyang said.《京乡新闻》表示,在被问到这里的“人们”是指谁时,罗向旭说是指“99%的韩国人”,还称他自己在努力进入“那1%的阶层”。He compared South Korea’s so-called 99 percent to “blacks and Hispanics in the ed States who don’t even try to enter politics or climb the social ladder.”他把自己口中99%的韩国人比作“美国的黑人和西语裔,根本都不尝试进入政界,也不沿着社会阶梯往上爬。”Mr. Na also said he did not sympathize with a 19-year-old subcontractor who was hit and killed by a train while carrying out repairs at a subway station in Seoul, the capital, in May. An investigation showed that the man had been working without adequate safety measures and that he was paid less than half of what regular subway workers performing similar tasks earn.今年5月,一名19岁的分包商在韩国首都首尔的一座地铁站做检修工作时,被一辆列车撞击致死。罗享旭表示,他不同情这名男子。调查显示,此人工作时没有采取足够的安全措施,他的薪资比做同类工作的普通地铁员工少一半多。When newspapers reported that the worker was given little time for meals — he was found with a package of unopened instant noodles in his bag — his death became a rallying cry for some against the plight of young, poor South Koreans known as “dirt spoons,” who they said stood no chance against “gold spoons,” or the children of the rich.当报纸的报道称这名工人几乎没时间吃饭——他的包里装着一包没有打开的方便面——他的死亡便成了为韩国贫穷年轻人的困境抗议的集结口号。这些年轻人被称为“泥汤匙”,在面对俗称“金汤匙”的富家子弟的竞争时,他们被认为没有丝毫的希望。Thousands of people made pilgrimages to the site of the worker’s death to lay flowers and accuse the government of not doing enough to improve social and economic mobility.成千上万的人前往这名工人的出事地点进行吊唁,给他献花,同时指责政府没有做足够的工作提高社会和经济的流动性。Anxiety over rising unemployment among the young and a perceived lack of equal opportunities for the poor have been such hot-button issues in recent years that addressing them was the biggest campaign promise pledged by all the candidates during the 2012 presidential election.最近几年,对于年轻人失业率日渐增高、穷人明显缺少均等机会的担忧,一直是韩国极度敏感的议题,以致于在2012年的总统竞选中,所有候选人都承诺应对这些问题,将之作为自己最重要的竞选承诺。“I feel waves of anger through our society,” Seoul’s mayor, Park Won-soon, recently said of the nationwide reaction to the subway worker’s death. “The grievances among the weak of society — like contract workers, cleaners and janitors, and the other underprivileged — and their sense of being discriminated against are in a volatile condition.”“我感觉整个社会涌动着愤怒的波涛,”首尔市长朴元淳(Park Won-soon)最近谈及全国对地铁工人之死的反应时说道。“社会弱势群体中——比如合同工、清洁工、看门人和其他贫困人群——存在的不满情绪及被歧视的感觉目前处在急剧波动的状态。”Song Hyun-sook, a Kyunghyang editor who was at the dinner with Mr. Na, said that Mr. Na’s comments were especially shocking because they came from a senior policy maker on education. Poor families have traditionally looked to education for a ticket out of poverty for their children, often saving their wages for their education.当天与罗享旭一起吃饭的《京乡新闻》编辑宋贤肃(Song Hyun-sook,音)表示,他的言论尤其让人震惊,因为它们出自制定教育政策的高级官员之口。贫困家庭历来把教育看作自己的子女摆脱贫困的出路,往往会攒钱供他们上学。“What’s more tragic, however, is that Na’s statements don’t point to the problematic thinking of any one individual, but that they reflect the actual reasoning and sense of privilege of the majority of high-ranking government officials,” said an editorial from Hankyoreh, a liberal newspaper.“不过,更可悲的是,罗享旭的言论并不是哪个个体有问题的思维,而是反映出大多数身居高位的政府官员的真实逻辑和优越感,”自由派报纸《韩民族日报》(Hankyoreh)发表社论称。An editorial in the conservative newspaper Dong-A Ilbo said that Mr. Na’s “verbal violence” was “inflammatory,” coming amid deepening economic polarization.保守派报纸《东亚日报》(Dong-A Ilbo)的一篇社论写道,罗享旭的“语言暴力”是“很容易引发众怒”的,它源自日益加深的经济分化。Such inflammatory sentiments were captured in a comment a 52-year-old man named Kim Min-geun left on the ministry website. He first thanked Mr. Na for reminding him that he was a dog.在名为金民槿(Kim Min-geun,音)的52岁者在教育部网站上留下的中,这种愤怒情绪得到充分的体现。他首先感谢罗享旭提醒自己是条。Then, he said, “Now, you should be careful not to run into me on the street because I am not vaccinated against rabies.”然后接着说,“现在,你该小心不要在路上碰到我,因为我没有打狂犬疫苗。” /201607/454370The news for the watch industry is bad. “The headwinds are very strong — especially for watches,” warns Richard Lepeu, chief executive of Richemont, the Swiss luxury goods group whose brands include Cartier and Montblanc. The group’s sales in April 2016 were 15 per cent lower than the year before, in constant currencies.来自钟表行业的消息不容乐观。历峰集团(Richemont)首席执行官里夏尔#8226;勒珀(Richard Lepeu)警告称:“阻力很大,对于钟表行业来说尤其如此。”这家瑞士奢侈品集团旗下品牌包括卡地亚(Cartier)和万宝龙(Montblanc)。历峰集团2016年4月按固定货币计算的销售额较上年同期下降了15%。Statistics on foreign sales of Swiss watches show trouble across the industry: in the first quarter of 2016, exports were 8.9 per cent lower than in the previous year, according to the Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. The trouble has been blamed on a range of factors, from China’s economic slowdown to a strong Swiss franc.瑞士钟表产品海外销售额的统计数据显示,整个钟表行业都表现疲软:根据瑞士钟表协会(Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry)的数据,2016年第一季度的出口额较上年同期下降了8.9%。这一局面被归咎于多方面的因素,包括中国经济增长放缓以及瑞士法郎走强。The industry’s hope is that this year will bring an improvement, particularly in the US. “The global environment is tough mainly because of the significance of Hong Kong as a market. There is an overhang of inventories, but I think the more affordable watches are aly selling better,” says Scilla Huang Sun, a luxury sector specialist at GAM Investment Management in Zurich.瑞士钟表行业寄望于今年的状况能有一定起色,特别是在美国市场。总部位于苏黎世的GAM投资管理公司(GAM Investment Management)奢侈品行业专家黄意芝(Scilla Huang Sun)表示:“全球市场环境较为严峻,主要原因在于香港作为一个市场,地位很重要。目前奢侈手表存在库存积压的情况,但我认为价位更加亲民的手表,销售情况已经开始好转。”Even as Hong Kong has suffered, sales in Japan have been lifted by a weaker yen, which has lost 12 per cent of its value against the dollar since its 2015 low. The US this year could also offer grounds for optimism, sector experts reckon. Last year, a stronger dollar led to European purchases displacing US sales, but those effects may start to weaken.即便香港市场形势不利,日本市场的销售额在日元走软的推动下已经有所上升,日元兑美元汇率较2015年的低点已经贬值了12%。行业专家认为,对美国市场今年也有理由保持乐观。去年美元走强导致销售额从美国向欧洲市场转移,但这些影响或已开始弱化。“We can see that the American continent is showing great potential and positive growth,” says Fran#231;ois Thiébaud, president of Tissot, the Swiss watch brand.瑞士钟表品牌天梭(Tissot)的总裁弗朗索瓦#8226;蒂埃(Fran#231;ois Thiébaud)表示:“我们看到,美国市场正展现出巨大潜力和正向增长趋势。”A recovery in the US would strengthen the case for those who expect traditional luxury timepieces to ride out the challenge from smartwatches. Mr Thiébaud argues that, contrary to the watch industry’s gloomy view, the arrival of the Apple Watch has not changed US attitudes. “A traditional watch is not just about giving time, but it is also about conveying emotions related to a gift or a certain time in life,” he says. “There is nothing emotional about an electronic device.”美国市场回暖能够持那些认为传统奢侈手表能够顶住来自智能手表的挑战的观点。蒂埃认为,不同于手表行业的悲观预期,苹果手表(Apple Watch)的出现并没有改变美国消费者的态度。“一块传统手表的价值并不仅仅在于提示时间,还能传递与一份礼物或者生命中某一时期相连的特定情感。而电子产品则不具备任何情感价值。”Nobody is rushing to predict a rebound, however. “The global economy is going to be very slow this year. It may take a couple of years for the industry to pick up,” says May Ling Tham, an analyst at Euromonitor International. In April, the International Monetary Fund warned the global economic recovery had “weakened further amid increasing financial turbulence”. It expected the global economy to grow by a modest 3.2 per cent in 2016 — roughly the same as last year but less than it had expected as recently as January.但目前还没有人急着做出钟表行业将会触底反弹的预测。欧睿国际(Euromonitor International)分析师May Ling Tham表示:“今年全球经济增长将会非常疲软,钟表行业或许需要好几年的时间才能有所回升。”国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)今年4月警告称,“全球经济复苏进一步放缓,受金融动荡加剧影响。”该组织预计2016年全球经济增速将仅为3.2%——与去年基本持平,但低于其在今年1月份发布的预测值。In emerging markets — previously bright spots for luxury brands — “prospects across countries remain uneven and generally weaker than over the past two decades”, the IMF’s World Economic Outlook reported.在曾是奢侈品牌业绩亮点的新兴市场,国际货币基金组织在《世界经济展望》(World Economic Outlook)中指出,“各个新兴市场国家的经济增长前景仍然参差不齐,增长势头总体而言弱于过去二十年。”Watch and jewellery industry revenues are likely to follow such trends closely. “The health of luxury watch sales largely depends on GDP growth prospects and consumer sentiment,” says Thomas Chauvet, luxury sector analyst at Citigroup.手表和珠宝行业的销售收入很可能将紧跟上述趋势。花旗集团(Citigroup)奢侈品行业分析师托马斯#8226;肖维(Thomas Chauvet)表示:“奢侈品手表销售的景气程度主要取决于国内生产总值的增长前景以及消费者情绪。”But it is not a simple correlation. Watch sales have been buffeted by currency movements. The slide in Swiss watch exports has been exacerbated by the strength of the franc (1.20 to the euro before it was unpegged in January 2015, now 1.10), which has increased manufacturing and employment costs in Switzerland. A strong dollar and weak euro have offered “greater price arbitrage opportunities for tourists and facilitated the emergence of well-organised parallel markets, particularly in Europe”, notes Mr Chauvet.但这并不是一种简单的正相关关系。手表销售一直受汇率波动左右。瑞士手表出口额的下滑在瑞士法郎走强的影响下进一步恶化(瑞士法郎在2015年1月取消盯住欧元时的汇率为1.2瑞士法郎兑换1欧元,现在已经升值至1.1法郎兑换1欧元),后者导致瑞士境内的生产成本和雇佣成本上升。肖维指出,美元走强和欧元疲软为游客提供了“更大的价格套利空间,并有助于推动组织完善的平行市场的出现,特别是在欧洲地区”。Sales to the Chinese, meanwhile, are still being hit by the crackdown on offering gifts to authorities as part of the country’s anti-corruption drive.与此同时,中国市场的销售额仍然受到政府严厉打击向官员送礼的不利影响,这是中国反腐败运动的一个组成部分。The industry’s difficulties remain particularly acute in Hong Kong, where the effects have been worsened by excessive stock levels in an overcrowded market. Swiss watch exports to Hong Kong were almost a third lower in the first quarter of 2016 than a year earlier.手表行业所面临的困境在香港市场上依然表现得尤为突出,在过度拥挤的香港市场上,过高的存货水平进一步强化了这些不利因素的影响。2016年第一季度,瑞士对香港的手表出口额较上年同期近乎减少了三分之一。Richemont revealed recently it was helping dealers in Hong Kong with excessive inventories by buying back products — and either reallocating them to other markets or dismantling and recycling them.历峰集团近期宣布,正在通过回购产品的方式帮助香港境内库存过多的经销商——回购的手表要么被调转到其他市场销售,要么被拆解以后循环利用。In a report published in April, Euromonitor forecast that in the next five years the US would cede the title of the world’s biggest spender on watches to China. “The transfer of power from west to east had seemed on course to happen earlier, but was derailed by the Chinese government’s crackdown on ostentation and extravagant gifts, and by a depreciation of the Chinese currency since 2015,” the report noted.在4月份发布的一篇报告中,欧睿国际预计在未来五年内,美国将把全球第一大手表消费国的地位让给中国。这份报告写到:“从西方向东方的影响力转移似乎注定会在更短的时间内发生,但这一进程被中国政府严查铺张浪费和奢侈送礼的运动打乱,同时也受到了自2015年以来人民币贬值的影响。” /201607/457196

Republicans appeared likely to defy predictions and retain control of the US Senate on Tuesday, a remarkable turnabout from election eve forecasts.周二,美国共和党(Republican)似乎很有可能打破人们的预期,继续保持对美国参议院(US Senate)的控制,这一局面相对于大选前夕的预测可谓180度大转弯。Embattled Republicans such as Senator Richard Burr, chairman of the Senate intelligence committee, were re-elected in tough fights. 包括参议院情报委员会主席理查德.伯尔(Richard Burr)在内,严阵以待的共和党人经过艰难的选战得以重新当选。Senator Marco Rubio, whose presidential bid fell short, beat his Democratic rival Patrick Murphy. 在总统初选中败北的参议员马尔科.鲁比奥(Marco Rubio)击败了民主党对手帕特里克.墨菲(Patrick Murphy)。Mr Rubio is regarded as a potential White House candidate in 2020, having declined to promise to serve his entire six-year Senate term. 被视为2020年潜在总统候选人的鲁比奥,已拒绝承诺干完整个为期六年的参议员任期。In Indiana, former Senator Evan Bayh was defeated in his bid to regain his seat for the Democrats. 在印第安纳州,前参议员埃文.贝赫(Evan Bayh)在为民主党重新争取参议员席位的竞争中败北。Mr Bayh, who held the seat through 2010, was hurt by his post-Senate career as a lobbyist, losing to Representative Todd Young. 贝赫此前持有该席位一直到2010年,他输在了不干参议员后去作游说者的经历上,击败他的是转而竞选参议员的现众议员托德.扬(Todd Young)。In a battle of current and former Wisconsin senators, incumbent Republican Senator Ron Johnson beat Democrat Russ Feingold, who previously served in the upper chamber.在威斯康星州现任参议员与前任参议员展开的一场竞争中,现任共和党参议员罗恩.约翰逊(Ron Johnson)击败了曾任参议员的民主党人拉斯.法因戈尔德(Russ Feingold)。The Senate is currently divided between 54 Republicans and 46 Democrats, 目前,美国参议院的席位分配是共和党占54席,民主党占46席。with a total of 10 Democratic seats and 24 Republican up for grabs in Tuesday’s balloting. 周二需要投票表决的,总共包括10个民主党席位和24个共和党席位。With Republican nominee Donald Trump leading at 11pm, the Republican performance in Senate races raised the prospect of single-party control of the US government for the first time since President Barack Obama’s first two years in office. 考虑到共和党总统候选人唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)在当地时间晚11点的投票统计结果中处于领先,共和党人在参议院竞选中的表现引出了美国政府被单一政党控制的可能性。这将是自美国总统巴拉克.奥巴马(Barack Obama)上任头两年之后美国政府首次出现这种格局。The House of Representatives also remains in Republican hands. 目前,众议院也在共和党的控制之下。The Senate outcome could deal a death blow to the pending Supreme Court nomination of Judge Merrick Garland, and could set up a test of duelling Republican agendas between a President-elect Trump and House speaker Paul Ryan. 参议院的选举结果可能会对正悬而未决的任命梅里克.加兰(Merrick Garland)担任最高法院法官一事造成致命打击。 /201611/477176

China has pledged to eliminate a costly corn stockpiling policy that has hit world markets and left it with more than a year’s worth of stock in its silos. 中国已承诺取消代价高昂的玉米临时收储政策,这项政策对全球市场造成了冲击。 A policy of buying corn at government-set minimum prices that were up to 50 per cent above market prices has turned into an expensive dilemma for Beijing. Policymakers feared unloading the stocks would depress prices and discourage farmers from planting, thus endangering national food security. 对中国政府来说,以政府制定的高于市场价多达50%的最低价收购玉米的政策,已导致一种代价昂贵的两难困境。中国政策制定者担心去库存会压低粮价、打击农民种地的积极性,进而危及国家粮食安全。 The State Administration of Grain said in a statement on Tuesday that it would replace the stockpiling system with subsidies to farmers when prices dipped, starting with the upcoming harvest in the autumn. It would also encourage large state-owned companies to buy from farmers at market prices. 周二,中国国家粮食局(State Administration of Grain)在一份声明中表示,从今年秋天的收获季开始,将用粮价下跌时对农民实施补贴来取代临时收储政策。此外,它还会鼓励大型国有企业以市场价从农民手中买粮。 “It’s just an initial step. More needs to be done,” said Ma Wenfeng of Beijing Orient Agriculture Consultancy, a critic of the stockpiling policy. According to forecasts from the US Department of Agriculture, corn stocks in China at the end of the 2015/16 crop year are expected to be 113m tonnes, more than half of global inventories. 临时收储政策的批评者、北京东方艾格农业咨询公司(Beijing Orient Agribusiness Consultant)分析师马文峰表示:“这只迈出了第一步,还有更多要做的。”美国农业部(Department of Agriculture)的预测显示,2015-16作物年度末,中国玉米库存会达到1.13亿吨,超过全球库存的一半。 A similar policy to address a gross surplus in cotton stockpiles has been under way for two years, but has failed to significantly reduce the size of China’s reserves, which account for an estimated 60 per cent of world supplies. Reserves have stayed stubbornly high in large part because prices are set too high at state auctions, so the stored cotton — most of which is of inferior quality to the latest harvest — fails to sell. 一项为化解棉花库存严重过剩而出台的类似政策已实施了两年,但该政策未能大幅降低中国棉花储备的规模——中国的棉花储备估计相当于全球供应量的60%。棉花储备居高不下,很大程度上是由于政府拍卖过程中定价过高、导致库存棉花卖不出去——这些库存棉花的品质大多劣于最新收获的棉花。 “Cotton stocks are high because they haven’t sold out the reserves and they still buy in bulk from the bingtuan,” Mr Ma said, referring to the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, a paramilitary group of Han Chinese settlers along the border with Central Asia. “Corn doesn’t require the state to buy in bulk.” 马文峰表示:“棉花库存高企,是因为储备棉还没有卖完,而且他们仍在从兵团大量买入。玉米则不需要政府大量买入。”他这句话里提到的新疆生产建设兵团,是中国与中亚边境地带由汉族移民组成的准军事组织。 China said it would lower state-set corn prices in September but that still left Chinese prices some way above world prices. The gap lifted 2015 imports to record highs and has encouraged smuggling and other misdeeds. Dalian corn prices for May are currently at Rmb1,700 a tonne — the equivalent of .61 a bushel — compared with CBOT May corn that is trading at .71 a bushel. 中国已表示,会在9月份下调政府设定的玉米价格,但下调后的价格仍比全球价格高一些。这一价差将2015年中国玉米进口量推升至创纪录高点,并鼓励了走私和其他不端行为。目前,大连商品交易所5月份交割的玉米期货的价格为每吨1700元人民币,相当于每蒲式耳6.61美元。相比之下,芝加哥期货交易所(CBOT) 5月份交割的玉米期货的价格只为每蒲式耳3.71美元。 China’s corn imports for the 12 months to March 2015 were 5.5m tonnes, almost 70 per cent higher than the year before, according to the US Department of Agriculture. 美国农业部数据显示,在截至2015年3月的12个月里,中国玉米进口量达550万吨,同比增长近70%。 Many questions remain. The ministry of finance budget released earlier this March did not include provisions for subsidies to farmers, despite expectations that it would. And grain industry insiders also expect the state will have to write off the value of stocks that have deteriorated. 目前依然存在许多问题。在本月早些时候发布的中国财政部预算中,并不包含为补贴农民预留的款项,尽管人们预期它会预留。此外,粮食产业内部的人士还预计,政府将不得不冲销已变质存货的价值。 An end to the stockpiling policy does not necessarily mean that China or the world will be flooded with grains of competitive quality to those produced elsewhere. A Chinese television expose entitled “Rats in the Granary” revealed that state granaries in the north-east bbasket were buying old and inferior grain at discounted prices. 临时收储政策的终结不一定意味着,品质相对于其他地区所产粮食更具竞争力的粮食将大量涌入中国或全球市场。中国一期名为《粮仓“硕鼠”》(Rats in the Granary)的电视节目曾曝光称,东北产粮区多个国有粮仓在以折扣价买入陈粮和劣质粮。 Anecdotal evidence suggests that is true for wheat, cotton and rice warehouses as well. 坊间据显示,这种现象在小麦、棉花和大米仓库中同样存在。 Last week the chief executive of Louis Dreyfus Company, one of the world’s biggest agricultural traders, said it could take China 18 months to run down its stockpiles, assuming they were in good condition. 上周,路易达孚(Louis Dreyfus)首席执行官贡萨洛#8226;拉米雷斯#8226;马蒂亚雷纳(Gonzalo Ramírez Martiarena)表示,假定库存质量良好,中国可能需要18个月的时间来消化掉它们。路易达孚是全球最大的农产品交易商之一。 “It is very difficult to store grain for many, many years,” said Gonzalo Ramírez Martiarena. “If they are doing the rotation properly then maybe they have good quality stocks.” 贡萨洛#8226;拉米雷斯#8226;马蒂亚雷纳表示:“将粮食储存许多许多年是非常困难的。如果储粮轮换措施得当,他们也许会拥有质量不错的库存。” /201604/434742

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