原标题: 昆山第一人民医院治疗肛瘘肛裂多少钱安心大全
Katie Couric: Neil Bernstein is a teen psychologist and author of "How to Keep Your Teenager Out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can't". And Dr. Marilyn Maxwell is a professor of Internal Medicine, and Paediatrics at St. Louis University, and co-author of "Questions Kids Ask about SEX; Honest Answers for Every Age. Katie Couric: Good morning to both of you,(Good morning.) nice to see you both. So, let me just review the statistics, 55% of boys between the ages of 15 and 19 and 54% of girls between those same ages have, are, reported getting or giving oral sex. And the numbers were slightly lower for intercourse among these respondents. You're not surprised, are you? Both: No Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: No, I m not surprised. In my clinical practice, it's a very common phenomenon in talking to kids and they take it so casually. Katie Couric: And and why do you think that's the case? Do you think it's because this notion of being obsessed with technical virginity, you know, or in other words, all the lectures about safe sex and STDs may have resulted in this, and staying away from intercourse? Neil Bernstein: Well, that's part of it. We may have inadvertently created a monster, because what a lot of the kids think is, well, going all the way might not be OK, but oral sex is an acceptable alternative. That's not necessarily the message we'd like them to have, but that's the way a lot of teens view that. We have to change the basic message. Katie Couric: And that one thing we have to remember is there are definite hazards, health hazards, and STDs can be contracted through oral sex. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Yes, a lot of teens don't understand that you can get certain sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea. Those can be contracted through oral sex. Katie Couric: And the other thing that we have talked about is that this is not reciprocal. This is mostly girls doing this to boys, and that brings out a whole different subject about girls being submissive, subservient, demeaned by this act and girls are struggling with this, I understand. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: They are. There is an emotional toll associated with oral sex. Katie Couric: Have...have you found that as well? Neil Bernstein: Yeah, I, sometimes it depends. Certainly girls are more casual, but you know a lot of girls unfortunately view it as a way out of a difficult situation and satisfied with them. Katie Couric: And some we talked to and Dr. Bernstein participated in my Teen and Sex special. They actually thought it is empowering in a weird way, and a way that they could actually have controlled over the situation . Neil Bernstein: Yeah, I know. I've got something he wants how sad to feel that way. Katie Couric: Well, I guess the big question parents are struggling with, myself included, is: how do you talk to your kids about this, how do you convince them? You know, it's such a generational thing too, because people of my generation think, I believe, most of them, I can't speak for my entire generation, that this is a more intimate act in many ways than intercourse and that. . . Obviously, everything has been turned on its ear, but how do you talk to your daughters in particular and say: listen, I don't want you engage in this kind of behavior. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: The most important thing is that you do talk, and you talk and you talk. And parents should be real and they should tell their children what they would like from them, and they should discuss relationships and intimacy. With oral sex there is a disconnect between intimacy and relationship and the sexual act. Neil Bernstein: Yeah, it's about values and that's really the job of a good parent to convey decent morals to their kids. And the other thing I would stress to young people is there really are no shortcuts to intimacy. You just can't achieve it in a few days no matter what you do and a lot of kids don't get that. And a lot of kids get hurt very quickly and rebound etc, etc. And these attitudes are shaped over the course of time. And then parents have to be aware of the power of peer pressure and a good relationship with your son and daughter counteracts that power of peer pressure, certainly negative influences of it. Katie Couric: So, certainly staying close to your kids in all areas of life, you know, you have to develop that connection to them. So, and also what about a little healthy fear? I always think that's helpful. Neil Bernstein: Uhhh....Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Katie. I agree with that. very complete for that.Katie Couric: No. I mean I stayed, I stayed pretty straight narrow because I was afraid of not only my parents' rough, not that they weren't great parents, but I was always so terrified of disappointing them. (Yeah)So, you do have to set high standard and make them fearful about when they go against these standards, don't you? Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Katie. I think that's so important what you said setting high standards. Some parents are fearful of telling kids what they want and the standards that they'd like them to have. So they need to enforce that...Katie Couric: They want to be their friends (Yes.)instead of a parental, you know, authority figure. Neil Bernstein: Yeah, but there's a difference between fear and guilt and there's some confusion about that. (Yeah.)Fear is what will happen to you; guilt is how you will make another person feel. Katie Couric: I think all those things should be (You know that...)considered even when they are making a distinction of that. Neil Bernstein: When I was a kid, they were telling us that if you masturbate, your hand would fall off.Katie Couric: Anyway, well, thank you so much for the advice. It's a tough subject to deal with in five minutes. But thanks so much for trying. Dr. Marilyn Maxwell: Thank you. 200807/44759US Lawmakers Worried by Iranian Missile Tests美国议员称伊朗试射导弹是挑衅Iranian missile tests have provoked widesp criticism in the U.S. Congress, where lawmakers called them provocative and urged stronger U.S. and international pressure on Tehran. Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs William Burns told a congressional panel the ed States and its allies are committed to maximizing diplomatic efforts on the Iranian nuclear issue. 伊朗星期二进行的导弹试验在美国国会引发广泛批评。议员们称伊朗的导弹试射是挑衅行动,并敦促美国和国际社会对德黑兰进一步施加压力。美国负责政治事务的国务次卿威廉·伯恩斯对国会一个小组委员会说,在伊朗核问题上,美国及其盟国依然致力于充分利用外交途径。A previously-scheduled hearing on U.S. policy toward Iran coincided with news that Iran's Revolutionary Guard forces test fired a barrage of missiles including the long range Shahab-3. 伊朗革命卫队星期二试射了一系列导弹,包括远程“流星-3”导弹。在这新闻传来的时候,美国国会正好举行早先安排的美国伊朗政策听会。The White House condemned the launches, with a National Security Council spokesman saying Iran should refrain from further tests and cease development of ballistic missiles. 白宫谴责伊朗的导弹试射。美国国家安全委员会发言人说,伊朗应该停止再进行试射,并停止研发弹道导弹。Undersecretary of State Burns used his testimony to reiterate the two-track approach of the ed States and its partners, combining economic and financial sanctions with incentives: 美国国务次卿伯恩斯利用在国会作的机会再次强调美国及盟友在伊朗问题上的双轨方案, 即同时采取经济和金融制裁以及激励措施。"Our strategy is built on tough-minded diplomacy, maximizing pressure on the Iranians at multiple points to drive home the cost of continued defiance of the rest of the world, especially on nuclear issues," he said. "At the same time we're trying to make clear to Iran and its people what they stand to gain if they change course." “我们的战略是以强硬的外交手段为基础的。通过多种渠道最大限度地对伊朗施加压力,让伊朗明白继续违反国际社会将付出的代价,特别是在核项目问题上。现阶段,我们正试图让伊朗及其人民明白,如果他们改弦易辙,他们会得到什么好处。”Potential threats to Israel from Iranian missiles were on the minds of Democrats and Republicans, including committee chairman Howard Berman: 伊朗的导弹可能对以色列产生的威胁是国会两党议员共同担心的问题,包括委员会主席霍华德·伯曼。他说:"We need look no further than today's news of an Iranian long-range missile test, a missile capable of carrying a nuclear payload to Israel," he noted. "This, coupled with the belligerent talk from Tehran of 'enemy targets' being 'under surveillance,' could not make it any clearer that we need to use every diplomatic and economic tool available to steer Iran away from developing nuclear weapons capability." “我们只要看看今天伊朗测试远程导弹的新闻就够了。这个导弹能够携带核弹击中以色列。再加上德黑兰的挑衅性言辞,说‘敌对目标’已经在他们‘监控之下’,这些已经足够让我们明白,我们必须利用一切可能的外交和经济途径,制止伊朗发展核武器。”Here is Florida Republican Congresswoman Ileana Ros Lehtinen: 佛罗里达州共和党议员莱赫蒂宁说:"As today's news reports clearly show, Iran aly has short and medium range missiles capable of reaching U.S. forces and allies in the region and is also pursuing long-range ballistic missiles to enable it to reach Europe and possibly the ed States," she explained. “今天的新闻报道明确显示,伊朗已经拥有短程和中程导弹,射程可以达到在该地区的美军及其盟友。另外,伊朗也在发展远程弹道导弹,使它的射程可以达到欧洲,甚至美国。”Illinois Republican Mark Kirk called on the G8 nations to impose a quarantine on gasoline exports to Iran, which depends on fuel imports, and said the U.S. should do more to protect Israel from Iranian threats: "It's time for the ed States to offer full ballistic missile defenses for Israel. Democracies are best when they stick together," he said.Congressman Gary Ackerman was among Democrats launching renewed criticisms of the Bush administration over its reluctance to fully implement provisions of the Iran Sanctions Act. 国会议员阿克曼以及其他民主党议员,再次批评布什政府不愿意全面实施对伊朗制裁的法案。"The administration has never implemented the Iran Sanctions Act, even though nearly 20 international companies and consortia have crossed the so-called red line of investing million in Iran's energy sector," he said. "That shows them that the benefits are all there, but the costs are not to be paid." “布什政府从来没有实施过制裁伊朗法案,尽管有将近20个跨国公司和联营企业越过了规定在伊朗能源项目投资了两亿美元。”Ackerman was supported by Republican Dan Burton who says more needs to be done to impose and enforce stronger economic and investment sanctions:"We haven't been putting pressure on them to stop doing business with Iran when we say we're imposing every kind of sanction possible," he noted.In his testimony, Undersecretary Burns reiterated long-standing Bush administration policy that it is fully committed to diplomacy, repeating that while on the table, the military option remains a last resort.  国务次卿伯恩斯在作时重申布什政府的长期政策, 那就是全面致力于外交途径。他再次说,虽然军事途径也在考虑之中,但是,这将是最后的解决办法。Burns provided this assessment of Iran's nuclear program: "While deeply troubling, Iran's real nuclear progress has been less than the sum of its boasts," he explained. "It has not yet perfected enrichment and as a direct result of U.N. sanctions, Iran's ability to procure technology or items of significant for its nuclear or missile programs, even dual-use items, has been impaired."At the same time, Burns says Iran still has not complied with U.N. Security Council resolutions regarding its uranium enrichment, or answered questions from the International Atomic Energy Agency about its past weaponization activities. 伯恩斯同时也指出,伊朗仍然没有遵从联合国安理会制定的有关伊朗浓缩铀项目的决议,也没有回答国际原子能机构有关它过去武器化活动的问题。200807/43732US Presidential Candidates Debate Economy, Foreign Policy麦凯恩、奥巴马辩论会上激烈交锋 The two major party candidates for president of the ed States, Republican Senator John McCain and Democrat Senator Barack Obama met in a spirited debate over the financial crisis and foreign policy Friday at the University of Mississippi. The two candidates clashed frequently over such issues as tax cuts, Iran's nuclear ambitions and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.美国两大政党的总统候选人、共和党的麦凯恩和民主党的奥巴马星期五在密西西比大学举行激烈的辩论,讨论美国金融危机和外交政策问题。两位候选人在减税、伊朗的核野心以及阿富汗和伊拉克战争等问题上频繁交锋。Although this was to have been a debate focused exclusively on foreign policy issues, the grave financial crisis that almost undermined the debate was the top issue addressed during the first half of the debate. Both Senators came to Mississippi from Washington, where they had been involved in the effort to put together an emergency package to stem the crisis.虽然原计划这次辩论专门讨论外交政策问题,但是美国严峻的金融危机却是第一场总统候选人辩论的头半场的首要议题。金融危机险些让第一场辩论不能如期举行。两位候选人参议员都是从华盛顿来到密西西比的。他们在首都参与了为制定因应金融危机的应急计划所作的努力。On Wednesday, Senator McCain suspended his campaign and called for a postponement of the debate in order to concentrate on the financial crisis. Senator Obama said he would come to the debate alone, if necessary, and for two days the fate of this first presidential debate of the 2008 election was uncertain. On Friday, however, just hours before the event was to take place, Senator McCain said enough progress had been made in Washington for him to come to the debate.星期三,麦凯恩中断了自己的竞选,他呼吁推迟候选人辩论,集中对付金融危机。奥巴马则表示,如果必要,他会一个人参加辩论。有两天时间,大家不知道2008年总统选举的第一场辩论能否举行。但是,星期五,在辩论原计划举行的时间前几个小时,麦凯恩说,在华盛顿已经取得了足够的进展,因此他能够到密西西比参加辩论。In their responses to questions about the crisis, the two senators gave support to the general idea of a government bail out plan, but differed over what needed to be done to restore the nation's economic health. Senator McCain said government needs to restore fiscal responsibility.两位参议员在回答有关金融危机的问题的时候,都表示持政府拯救金融机构的总体设想。但是两人在应该采取哪些具体措施来恢复国家经济健康的问题上意见分歧。麦凯恩说,政府需要重新负担起财政责任。"We have to, obviously, cut spending. I have fought to cut spending. Senator Obama has 800 billion dollars in new spending programs. I would suggest that he start by canceling some of those new spending programs that he has," he said.他说:“很明显,我们必须削减开。我曾为削减开而奋斗。奥巴马参议员曾用8千亿美元来推动新的政府开项目。我建议他先取消一些他的新项目。”Senator Obama fired back, accusing Senator McCain and Republicans of approving tax cuts for the wealthy while neglecting the needs of average working Americans.奥巴马还以颜色,他指责麦凯恩和共和党人一方面批准给富人减税,同时却忽视普通美国工薪阶层的需要。"If we are spending 0 billion on tax cuts for people who do not need them and we're not even asking for them and we are leaving out health care, which is crushing on people all across the country then, I think, we have made a bad decision and I want to make sure we are not short-changing our long-term priorities," he said.他说:“如果我们用3千亿美元来给那些不需要减税的人减税,而且根本不问这些人需不需要减税,我们正在忽视医疗保健,这使全国各地的人们受害。我认为,我们作出了很糟的决定,我要确保不再改变我们的长远的头等大事。”When the debate moved to foreign policy, the exchange became more heated, with Senator McCain frequently suggesting that Senator Obama did not fully understand such issues as the threat of a nuclear Iran or how to deal with Russia. Senator Obama fought back with criticisms of the Bush administration's policies, which he said Senator McCain has largely supported. Senator McCain hailed the success of the military surge in Iraq and Senator Obama attacked the decision to invade Iraq in the first place. 接下来辩论议题转到外交政策。两人的交锋变得更加激烈。麦凯恩频繁暗示奥巴马不完全理解伊朗核武化的威胁等问题,也不理解应该怎样对付俄罗斯。奥巴马则反唇相讥,批评布什政府的政策,并且说,麦凯恩基本上持布什的政策。麦凯恩则称赞美国军队在伊拉克的军事成功。One of the fiercest exchanges between the two candidates came over the issue of Iran and what to do about its plan to develop nuclear weapons. Senator McCain emphasized the threat this would pose to Israel and attacked Senator Obama for saying he would hold direct meetings with Iranian leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.奥巴马还抨击布什从一开始根本就不应该打伊拉克战争。两位候选人辩论中一次最激烈的交锋有关伊朗问题。谈到伊朗发展核武器的计划时,麦凯恩强调,这将对以色列构成威胁,他抨击奥巴马,说奥巴马曾表示愿意跟伊朗领导人艾哈麦迪内贾德举行直接会晤。"What Senator Obama does not seem to understand is that if, without precondition, you sit down across the table from someone who has called Israel a stinking corpse and wants to destroy that country and wipe it off the map, you legitimize those comments. This is dangerous. It is not just naive, it is dangerous," he said.他说:“奥巴马似乎不理解,如果不预设条件,就跟伊朗人谈判,那你就把伊朗人的声明合法化了。伊朗人说,以色列是一具发臭的僵尸,他们要摧毁以色列,把以色列从地图上消灭掉。奥巴马这样作很危险,这样作不仅天真,而且危险。”Senator Obama responded by defending his willingness to meet with any foreign leader at any time if he believed it would make the ed States more secure.奥巴马的反应是,为他愿意在任何时候跟所有外国领导人会晤进行辩解,只要这些会晤能让美国更安全。"Now, understand what this means, meeting without preconditions. It does not mean that you invite them over for tea one day. What it means is that we do not do what we have been doing, which is to say that 'until you agree to do exactly what we say, we will not have direct contacts with you," he said.他说:“请理解我的意思。我说的无条件会晤,意思是请他们来喝茶。我的意思是,我们不再沿用过去的作法,不再说,‘除非你完全同意我们的立场,否则我们就不会同你进行直接接触。”Senator Obama said one of McCain's own advisors, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, had endorsed the idea of meeting with Iran's leaders without preconditions. Senator McCain said that was not true. In a recent meeting with other former secretaries of state, Kissinger did say U.S. officials should meet with the Iranians without preconditions, but he did not say the two presidents should meet.奥巴马说,麦凯恩自己的一个顾问,前国务卿基辛格就持无条件会晤伊朗领导人。麦凯恩说,这不是事实。他说,基辛格最近会晤其他前任美国国务卿的时候确实表示,美国官员应该无条件会晤伊朗人。但是基辛格没有说两国总统应该会晤。The next scheduled debate will be between the two vice presidential candidates, Republican Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska and Democratic Senator Joe Biden of Delaware. That event is scheduled for October 2 at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.按计划,下次辩论将在两位副总统候选人之间举行。他们是共和党的佩林州长和民主党的拜登参议员。下次辩论将在10月2号在密苏里州圣路易市的华盛顿大学举行。200809/50861

Controversy About Automobile Plant in India Grows印度农民面临土地转移工业用问题 In India's West Bengal State, authorities have started talks with protesters opposing an automobile plant proposed by Tata Motors to manufacture the world's cheapest car. The automaker has suspended work on the plant, in the face of growing protests by farmers and politicians. The difficulties encountered by the project reflect a growing problem in India: how to move farmers off their land to make room for industrial expansion. 在印度的西孟加拉省,当地政府和抗议者开始对话。这些抗议者反对塔塔(TATA)汽车公司在这里设厂制造世界最便宜的汽车。在农民和政治人物的抗议下,塔塔暂停了这项计划。这场争议凸显出印度面临的日益紧迫的问题--如何把农民从他们的土地转移,为工业扩张提供空间。When Tata Motors was looking for a site to establish an automobile plant to manufacture the Nano car, the West Bengal State government wooed the company and acquired one-thousand acres of land from farmers for the high-profile project.  印度塔塔汽车公司在为旗下的NANO汽车加工基地选址的时候,西孟加拉省的官员向塔塔公司大力游说,并为这项众所瞩目的计划从当地农民手里征集了一千顷土地。The Nano is the world's cheapest car, scheduled to rollout in October.  NANO是世界上最便宜的汽车,原计划在今年10月投放市场。But the Nano plant in Singur became embroiled in controversy after some farmers, led by an opposition political party, demanded their land back. The protests snowballed, last month, as demonstrators blocked roads and prevented workers from reaching the plant. 不过,塔塔在西孟加拉省辛谷地区的生产基地最近遇到麻烦。当地一些农民在反对党人士的领导下,要求归还他们的土地。抗议愈演愈烈。上个月,示威者堵住道路,不让工人进入基地。Calling the situation "hostile and intimidating" Tata Motors has suspended work at the plant.  塔塔以目前局势“充满敌意和威胁”为理由,暂停了基地工程。Authorities in West Bengal State, who want to rescue the project and the state's image as a business-friendly destination, have started talks with the protesters. 西孟加拉省官员希望挽救这项工程,同时也希望挽救该省创造友好经商环境的努力。官员们最近开始和抗议者对话。The head of the party leading the protests at Singur, Mamata Banerjee, says the concerns of the affected farmers must get top priority. However, she is prepared for a compromise.  组织辛谷地区抗议的反对党领袖马马塔·巴纳吉说,农民关注的问题必须得到高度重视。巴纳吉女士同时表示,妥协是有可能的。"We want a settlement. Let industry smile and [the] agriculture also," she said. 她说:“我们希望化解事端。让工业和农业都满意。”Many have blamed local politics for the deadlock in Singur. 很多人说,地方政治的纷争导致了辛谷地区抗议。But analysts say that, even if a solution to the impasse is found, the acrimony surrounding the Nano plant reflects a deeper problem, how to move farmers off their land to make room for industrial expansion. 不过也有分析人士指出,即使目前的争端找到解决办法,这次争议也反映出印度面临的一个更深层次的问题--如何把农民从他们的土地转移,为工业扩张提供空间。Since India's economy entered a high growth path, many industries have drawn up ambitious expansion plans. State governments are wooing business houses to boost development in the state. 印度经济进入高速发展阶段。很多工业设计了雄心勃勃的扩张计划。各省政府为了促进地方经济而大力招商引资。A senior official at the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Anjan Roy, says industry needs space to set up manufacturing plants. 印度工商协会联合会的高级官员安让·罗伊说,建设厂房需要大量用地。"Industry cannot be set up in suspension, hanging somewhere. So industry will need land and the country needs industry, so you will have to organize land for industry," said Roy. "Now in India, 63 percent of land is arable. But the fact is that with a very high proportion of arable land, there is still a lot of arable land which is not cultivated, which is lying fallow." 他说:“你不能在半空中盖个工厂。工业需要用地,国家需要工业,所以工业用地必须解决。现在的印度,63%的土地是可耕地。不过事实上,尽管印度可耕地比例很高,但是还有很多土地处于闲置。”But as farmers and tribal communities resist giving up their land, the promised industrial development has become a flashpoint. The Nano plant is not the only site facing protests. In the eastern Orissa State, thousands of villagers have demonstrated against plans by South Korea's POSCO firm to set up a steel plant on large swathes of forest land. The Supreme Court gave a go-ahead to the plant, but villagers say it will force them off their land. 不过,由于农民和地方族群社区拒绝出让土地,工业开发区的计划用地常常成为争议焦点。遭到抗议的并不只是塔塔公司的汽车生产基地。在东部的奥利萨省,上千名村民抗议韩国POSCO公司在那里的林地上修建钢铁厂。印度最高法院批准了这项建厂计划,但是当地村民并不买账。In many other regions where industries want to set up factories, farmers have vowed not to give up heir land. 很多其他地区也有类似情况。Sociologists say such conflicts are inevitable in a country where two-thirds of the people still depend on farming.  社会学家说,在农业人口超过三分之二的国家,这类冲突不可避免。The head of the Center for Science and Development in New Delhi, Sunita Narain, says tensions are growing because farmers are often displaced without adequate compensation and without help finding a new way to make a living. 新德里科学发展中心主任苏尼塔·纳林说,冲突的起因之一是失地农民没有得到足够补偿,也没有获得足够帮助来寻找新的谋生手段。"Indian laws are very antiquated, when it comes to land. They do not go far enough in compensating rural communities for the land that they will give up, or the minerals that will be taken from their area, or water that will be taken away," said Narain. "The larger message coming out of this is: the poor in India are asserting the fact that they live on these resources and that they need either benefits to be shared or a different way of development." 他说:“印度土地法相当陈旧。有关法律对农村社区出让土地、矿产、和水资源的补偿没有充分的规定。整个现象反映出的问题是,印度贫困人口强调,他们依靠这些资源生活。他们要么共享利益,要么需要另外一种发展模式。”Officials and businessmen argue that the factories will industrialize the countryside and provide much-needed jobs in rural areas, where millions of people are unemployed or underemployed.  政界和商界领袖说,建厂可以实现乡村工业化,并带来就业机会。这里现在有上百万的人处于失业或者不完全就业状态。Anjan Roy says businesses are willing to pay adequate compensation to landowners, but their investments must be protected. 安让·罗伊说,企业愿意为土地所有者付足够补偿,但是他们的投资必须得到保护。"Industry wants a transparent system of land dealing for whenever industry has to have land requirements," added Roy. "Second, when a land is settled it should be unencumbered and there should not be any interference from politicians." 他说:“企业希望在使用土地的过程中相关程序高度透明。其次,如果土地征用已经完成的话,企业对土地的使用不应当受到政府干涉。”But development experts say the way ahead may not be easy and warn of more standoffs between business and farmers as the country's economic priorities shift from agriculture to industry. 不过,开发领域的专家们说,印度的工业化进程不会一帆风顺。他们警告说,在印度的经济重心从农业向工业转移过程中,企业和农民之间会有更多纠纷。200809/47874探索世界奥秘之The Ghost In Your Genes(基因外遗传现象) 09The email was sent by Olov Bygren. He was studying the population records of an obscure town in northern Sweden, Overkalix. What made these records unique was their detail. They recorded births and deaths over hundreds of years, but they also had accurate details of the harvests. More significantly, Overkalix's isolated location on the Arctic Circle meant that it was particularly vulnerable to famine. In the 19th century, this was a very isolated area, they could not have help from outside. As it was so poor, they really had a hard time when there was a famine, and they really had a good, good time when the, the harvests were good. Bygren appeared to be seeing links between generations that confounded his expectations. I sent Marcus Pembrey an email telling him that we had some, some data, which could interest him. I was terribly excited to get this completely out of the blue, and for the first time, it seemed that there were some data that we could then start to explore, so that was the beginning of our collaboration. Overkalix offered Pembrey a unique opportunity to see if the events that happened in one generation could affect another decades later. While Pembrey and Bygren sifted through their Overkalix data, someone else had stumbled on another group of people that caught them by surprise. Rachel Yehuda is a psychologist. She is interested in how people respond to stress. Well, trans-generational effects were not on my radar screen at all until we opened up a clinic for the treatment of Holocaust survivors. While treating the Holocaust survivors for stress, she was surprised that many of the children of the survivors were themselves suffering stress effect. About five children of Holocaust survivors were calling us for every Holocaust survivor, and what these children said was that they were casualties of the Holocaust too that they had been affected by the Holocaust indirectly. She was convinced that the stress in their children was caused by continual retelling of the stories by their parents.New Words amp; Phrases:confound: If someone or something confounds you, they make you feel surprised or confused, often by showing you that your opinions or expectations of them were wrong. 使混乱;使困惑;使不知所措sift: If you sift through something such as evidence, you examine it thoroughly. 详查,细究Holocaust: The Holocaust is used to refer to the killing by the Nazis of millions of Jews during the Second World War. 大屠杀;大破坏200807/44964国家地理:In the Womb: Multiples 育日记多胞胎Identicals share one of the closest human relationships biologically. They are likely to grow up looking and sounding extremely similar, yet not a 100% match. A small number of genes in the mother's eggs sit outside the nucleus, known as mitochondrial DNA. These genes can mutate after the egg has split, subtly modifying the way each embryo grows. Small differences in height, build and even personality will become more and more apparent as the twins grow up and reach maturity.This is why some scientists are now wary of using the term identical, and prefer to use monozygotic or single-egg twins instead. Identical twins are almost always the same sex, but surprisingly there are a tiny number of boy-girl monozygotic twins. They resolve from an egg that contains an unusual mixture of sex chromosomes not the usual XX for a girl and XY for a boy. Occasionally an egg contains 3 sex chromosomes, 2 Xs and a Y. But if the egg divides to produce monozygotic twins, a chromosome may be lost in the process, leaving one embryo with the girl's XX combination, and her monozygotic twin as an XY boy.mitochondrial DNA: an extranuclear(核外) double-stranded(双链) DNA found exclusively in mitochondria that in most eukaryotes is a circular molecule and is maternally inherited ― abbreviation mtDNAmonozygotic(单卵的): (of twins) derived from a single ovum(a mature female reproductive cell, which can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell), and so identical200708/17062

And here is your " Need to know" for today. The question: What is the best way to help your kids while helping yourself? What a concept! And you wanna save for your child's future ? Well, get an IRA for the kids and then hire them. Just a couple of ways that can help save you money for those mounting college expenses. Joining us is Fox business contributor Jonas Max Feras. He is the founder of the Maxfunds.com and of course a regular on Cashing-in. What a great time for a question like this, my son is about to leave for college. Is it too late? What could people do? How... how old is he? Too, too old.Okay, (it) basically would happen is Congress changed the taxes, in, in an effort to keep taxes low, they have to crack down on the abuses of stock. This has been going on now for 30 years since Ragan lowered income tax and got to buzz people that were cheating to make a way to pay for it. What they basically did was raise the Kiddie Tax to 18. What was going on here is if your kiddo is between essentially 14 and 18 and you earn a high bracket. You can kinda hide money in their name and they'd be paying this low, this low rate. That's why our parents have those passbooks, well~you... you usual...you used to actually make money.Well, what if you'd be well-off, if you, you actually can know with the rates gone up but it's another story. Anyway, the point is if you're paying taxes, say a 30 percent on your income, say a bounder or passbook saving or anything, your kid/ could be paying at 5 percent or less.(Okay) So you'd hide money there, that game's gone, you can no longer hide money in your kids' name, especially if you earn a high bracket than a low bracket, by the way, this is really bad for kids who're actually working teenagers and their parents are rich but don't support them,they get to pay~Separate apart from the taxes, I wanna know how I can hire my kids to do chores, (Okay) pay them and pays off.If you have... if you have a business, you can hire your kid as an employee. That money that you pay them is deductible to you as a business. you get in a write-off. They can then, start some sort of IRA or 529 to some extend and shield that, so they won't pay income tax on that either and basically you are getting a write-off, they are not paying tax on it. You hide money from Uncle Sam essentially. It's technically legal, you did some complexor theory to start here, you catch the accountant, But that is either..another way is to 529 plan, if you live in the state, this is totally on the level on the jet. If you are not to deal with other thing...That's why we wanna stay.If you... if (inaudible) 529 , if you are in a state with a high state income taxes and your parents earn a high bracket. They can save money for your college that way. It is like an IRA for college in a nutshell...(So it really works.)Yeah. you don't avoid federal tax, you avoid state.And new deductions for paying tuition.Is that situation improving? One that I would say related to that is don't put your money in your kids' name if you think you'll need a financial aid because that's what the governement looks at first. You wanna keep money in your parents' stamp. They look at that too, but not as much.( OK). So if you're not very wealthy and you're looking to get that. That's.. Jonas Max Feras gotta run. Thanks so much. Little help for the parents trying to pay for college, keep those emails coming on Legal and Money Matters and tell me what you need to know just email me at Jamie@Forxnews.com. We might answer your questions on the air. 200809/49552What 's Motivating Shift in US-Iran Policy?美国和伊朗决策圈就政策展开辩论   Iran and the ed States have been going through what might be described as diplomatic mood swings. One minute, it seems as if the two countries are on the brink of war. The next, there seem to be small but perceptible policy shifts towards each other. Complex political calculations are being made in the corridors of power in Tehran and Washington. 伊朗和美国正在经历著一场“外交情绪摆荡”。这一分钟,两国似乎还处在战争边缘。下一分钟,双方却在向对方靠拢;政策变化虽然微小,但是却明晰可辨。复杂的政治计算正在德黑兰和华盛顿的权力圈中进行。After insisting it would never take part in negotiations with Iran, the Bush administration recently sent a senior envoy to sit in on international talks with Iranian officials in Geneva on the nuclear issue. And a new offer of incentives aimed at getting Iran to halt uranium enrichment was put on the table by the ed States and the European Union. 在坚持伊朗不停止浓缩铀活动就不参加和伊朗的谈判后,布什政府最近派遣了一位高级特使前往日内瓦,同伊朗官员一起参与有关伊朗核问题的谈判。为了促使伊朗停止浓缩铀活动,美国和欧盟还提出新的鼓励方案。In an interview with N television, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad cautiously welcomed what he described as "new behavior" on the part of U.S. officials. He said if the new U.S. attitude continues to change, Iran would respond positively.  在接受美国全国广播公司的电视采访时,伊朗总统艾哈迈迪内贾德审慎地欢迎他所说的“美国官员方面新的行为”。他表示,如果美国这种新的态度继续改变,伊朗也将做出积极的回应。The Iranian president spoke to N's Brian Williams in Tehran.  艾哈迈迪内贾德在德黑兰通过翻译对美国全国广播公司主播威廉姆斯说:"My question is, is such behavior rooted in a new approach - in other words, mutual respect, mutual cooperation, and justice," Ahmadinejad asked. "Or is this approach a continuation of the confrontation with the Iranian people, but in a new guise?" “我的问题是,这种行为是源于一种新态度,也就是说相互尊重、相互合作和公正呢,还是说,这种态度其实是继续和伊朗人民对抗,只不过是新瓶装旧酒?”But the bottom line is that nuclear negotiations remain in limbo. Iran has not responded to the new P5-Plus One offer, and Iran continues to enrich uranium, using what it said Saturday is a marked increase in the number of uranium centrifuges. 但问题的关键是,伊朗核谈判仍然毫无进展。对于安理会五加一所提出的新方案,伊朗仍然没有回应,而且继续浓缩铀,星期六甚至声称用于浓缩铀的离心机数量再度增加。Would Obama Presidency Affect US-Iran Relations?An Iran affairs analyst at the non-partisan Congressional Research Service, Ken Katzman, says the Iranian leadership is essentially stalling for time until a new U.S. president is elected. 美国无党派的“国会研究务处”的伊朗事务分析家肯.卡兹曼说,在美国新总统选出之前,伊朗领导层基本上不会做出反应。"The Iranians are betting that Mr. Obama is going to win the election and are forecasting that there will be a much softer line from the ed States after that," Katzman said. "In that respect I think they are trying, the Iranians are trying, to stave off any U.S. or Israeli military action or even another sanctions resolution." 卡兹曼说:“伊朗现在笃定奥巴马会当选总统,而且预期美国往后的路线会柔和得多。就这个角度,我想伊朗人试图推迟美国或以色列的任何军事行动,或者新的制裁决议。”Katzman adds that the softer tone of Iran's firebrand president reflects a wider debate in Iranian power circles. 卡兹曼还补充说,伊朗总统语调软化,反应了伊朗权力圈里正进行著范围更广的辩论。"He is trying to adjust his demeanor to fit with some shifting opinion in Tehran. And I do think there is shifting opinion in Tehran," he added. "But I think that Ahmadinejad has successfully prevailed on the Supreme Leader and on the system for now not to make any dramatic concessions. What makes me somewhat optimistic about what is going is that there is a battle at all inside Iran as to what to do." 他说:“他试图调整他的言行举止来符合德黑兰某些改变中的意见,而且我确信德黑兰正在改变意见。但是我想,艾哈迈迪内贾德成功地说伊朗最高领导人和整个伊朗领导层,目前还不要做出任何巨大让步。我对此有点乐观的是,伊朗内部各层面都在为该怎么做进行争议。”What's Behind Shift in Bush Administration Stance?The shift in the U.S. stance by the Bush administration is both puzzling and disappointing to American neoconservatives like former U.S. ambassador to the U.N. John Bolton, who scoffs at the idea of an internal policy debate in Tehran on the nuclear issue. 布什政府立场的改变不但令人困惑,也让像前美国驻联合国大使约翰.伯尔顿这样的新保守主义者感到失望。伯尔顿嘲笑伊朗内部会为核问题进行辩论的想法。"The State Department search for Iranian moderates is comparable to Captain Ahab's search for the great white whale," Bolton said. "It is an obsession within the State Department. There are obviously differences within the leadership cast inside Iran. But we have never detected any differences over the fundamental strategic objective of getting a deliverable nuclear weapon." 伯尔顿说:“国务院想寻找伊朗的温和派,就好比阿哈布船长想找寻大白鲸一样。国务院对此十分着迷。显然,伊朗领导层内部有意见分歧。但是在获得可投射的核武器这一终极目标上,我们没有发现任何不同。”In his interview, President Ahmadinejad reiterated that Iran harbors no ambitions to build nuclear weapons. 在接受采访时,伊朗总统艾哈迈迪内贾德重申伊朗没有生产核武器的野心。Is Deal With Iran in The Works?Some analysts think a deal with Iran may aly be in the works.  有些分析家认为,和伊朗的一项交易也许已经在达成之中。Reva Bhalla of Stratfor, a private intelligence firm, believes there is some similarity to 1980 and 1981, when negotiations to free American hostages at the Tehran Embassy were conducted under President Jimmy Carter, but the Iranians would not release them until Ronald Reagan was sworn in. 私人情报机构“斯特拉福”的丽娃.巴赫拉相信,眼下的情况和1980年及1981年有某些类似。当时卡特总统已经在暗中和德黑兰就释放美国大使馆的美国人质问题进行谈判,但是伊朗一直等到里根总统上任后才把人质释放。"They still at the same time deprived Carter of that foreign policy victory," Stratfor noted. "Instead, it went to Reagan. But the work was all done under Carter. So it could be the same kind of calculation where the Iranians may not want to give that foreign policy [victory] to the Bush administration, but are putting everything in place right now for that deal to happen. Because they really cannot take too many risks, not knowing what the next administration might bring." 巴赫拉说:“他们仍然没有让卡特享受到这场外交胜利,而是让里根享受了胜利的果实,尽管所有谈判工作都是在卡特任内完成的。所以伊朗人现在也可能会有同样的计算,他们或许不希望把外交政策胜利的果实交给布什政府,而是把所有事情准备好等待最好的时机。因为他们真的无法冒太多的风险,他们不知道下一届美国政府会带来什么。”But other analysts say more and tougher economic sanctions will still have to be levied on Iran before there are significant concessions from Tehran. 但是其他分析家表示,在德黑兰做出比较大的让步之前,还是应该对伊朗施加更多而且更严厉的经济制裁。200807/45131Scripts:Dell is starting to show signs of a turnaround after the closing bell, the PC maker posted better than expected results for its second quarter. That's right. Alice ,bussiness editor Eunice Yoon joins us now with more on that and is this the Michael Dell fables driving the profit here?Well, the drive, what's driving the profit is better sales of servers, as well as storage systems, and also they are benefiting from lower component costs,components being memory chips, disk drives that are in your computers. Now that of course is helping to boost the earnings by 46% and the revenues were also higher at 14.8 billion dollars, and of course all of this is very positive for Dell, coz as you guys know Dell has been, has fallen on very hard times, last year they had a deal with a massive battery recall, also they had been in the midst of a year-long accounting probe which has led to a shakeup of their management the CEO, Kevin Rollins who is now the former CEO was given a boot. And Michael Dell ended up coming in to try to take the helm.The calvary, going back here. Yeah. Do you think this turnaround is sustainable though and any chances it might overtake HP at any point?Oh, man. That’s, I think that's really early to say, too early to say. But Michael Dell himself said that right now, they are really at a too earlier stage to be able to say exactly what they are going to do of course they have set out achievable targets, and they really hope to reclaim that proposition. But what people are saying is that you have to give them a little bit of time, in order to reach those targets because they are trying to do their best, I mean they shed thousands of jobs. They have also had to deal with many production delays especially with their new line of color computers. But one of the things that is, is a positive sign is that this is the second quarter in a row that they have been able to report better-than-expected results. It's intrigue, I guess the great unknow here is the state of the economy, and more and more people are talking about perhaps a recession even in the second half in the US. So what is the outlook for the PC industry for the second half? What do they say? Well, Dell is saying that they see the costs of components, like, starting to slow like at the rate at which they, you know, coz right now they are benefiting, because they are so cheap. But they are actually probably going to be declining at a slower pace so that could hurt the profits at Dell, as well as at HP and some of the other computer makers. So one of the thing, things though that people are watching, is its relationship now with Wal-mart. Because as your guys know, Dell, has, you know, really made a name for itself because of its direct sales model, you know they, you could call them up ,you could buy a computer on the Internet,and that's really what gave them that number one position but they lost it to HP at least around the world because so many people would buy HP computers in the stores. And so they wanna see, so a lot of analysts wanna see how this relationship works out.Notes:Give someone a boot: dismiss, fire someone200807/44111

new blood ------ 新鲜血液(成语)英文释义(IDIOM) Fresh individuals with new ideas and new energy who join and invigorate an old organization. 例句When our elderly company founder retired, his son became our new president and brought in a lot of new blood, including some hard-working young executives who made strong contributions to our success.在公司年迈的创始人退休后,他的儿子成为了我们的新总裁,带来了大量的新鲜血液,包括为我们成功做出重要贡献的一些工作勤奋的年轻高管。 /201610/471187---Mandy Moore was a recording star who made the jump to leading lady in movies like "A Walk to Remember" and "Saved". Now she is back on the big screen, as a scheming contestant of an American Idol type talent show in American Dreamz.~~~ Video Clip ~~~Is it them? Is that them?Don't run.Sally Kendoo?Yeah.We are from American Dreamz.I know.And we are here to tell you...You've been selected to perform on the show. What are you doing?Yeah!Sorry, screaming.Yes! Yeah!Stop. Stop. Stop screaming. (Dude) Stop. I'm really sorry. We're gonna have to do this, all over again. You're gonna have to go inside and come out and jump for joy all over again, because we didn't get it on the camera.OK. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~---I love that scene. Mandy Moore, good morning. Good morning.---So first of all, I have to ask, are you an American Idol fan? I'm a huge American Idol fan, like Hugh.---Regular watcher?Regular viewer, definitely.---In this film, American Dreamz, you play Sally Kendoo, who seems all sweet and innocent, and actually the director describes her as basically a sociopath.She is kind of sociopathic. Um, she kind of rides at fine line between being very sweet(s) and sort of a little sour, too. She's just very driven and manipulative and she sort of knows going in that, she even gets on the show, she knows how to win. She's such a fan of the show. She's, she's intent to win it.---Yeah. Is it fun for you? You kind of have a wholesome image. I guess you could say, is it fun for you to play the bad girl?It is fun to play the bad girl. I think as an actress, you (are) sort of trying gravity towards these roles. Because there is so much media, and so much more fun. And it's kind of, I liken it to free therapy, because I get to go home at the end of the day, end of the day, I'm not sort of bringing any of that with me. I leave all the darkness and anger at work.---Em, Paul Weitz, the director said one of the reasons that he hired you--he wanted an actress who could hold her own against formidable actor like Hugh Grant.I can't believe...---Is that daunting? I can't believe Paul will say something sweet like that about me. Um, he's amazing. And honestly, I was so flattered to,to work with him, cause I think he is just such an incredible film maker. But then, the opportunity to work with,with Hugh as well, he is the epitome of a movie star and I never sort of got over that nervous energy around him, like cause he just is an intimidating figure, nobody means to be. But he is just, he's Hugh Grant. He's so handsome and charming and every woman onset just like melted a little ant every time he walked by. So...---But maybe that kind of work for the character (It did work) and you are supposed to be a little bit intimidated. Yeah. For a good portion of the movie, I'm supposed to sort of be intimidated by his character.---Does he play the Simon Cowell character?He does. And I play a contestant and I sort of make it through to the end, but at the end of the film, we are supposed to be a little bit more friendly with each other. And that's what the real acting must require cause I was very nervous around him. ---Yeah, understandably, understandably, I will be too. Em, you've said that this film is about our obsession with pop culture. And I want to know how you handle that in your own life. I googled Mandy Moore fan sites and came up with a million hits. Wow.---How do you handle that, that cult of celebrity thing?It's, er, it's very flattering. I think at the end of the day, er, I'm really lucky. I have a wonderful family. I love my parents and I think they raised me and my brothers right. And I sort of feel like there is this on-off switch, like I'm at work right now. It's great, I love what I do, I feel really lucky. But at the end of the day, I'm gonna go home. And everything is normal and you really don't feel any different from anyone else. So, I guess that's sort of how I'm trying to handle it right now. But, I don't know, it's odd.---And you keep your personal relationships to yourself and you're dating Zack Braff, but you say I don't wanna talk about it.Yeah. You know, I've made a mistake in,in past relationships.They've obviously been very happy and of course then you would wanna tell being entire world. But..I.. it sort of takes a little piece of that, you know intimacy and,and relationship kind of away from you and it's not, it's not adores anymore. So I've kind of learned my lesson and it's ok. I'll be a little quieter about it this time go around.---It's great to see you. I know this is you. You have five movies going on right now, back to back to back.The last year, I have, yeah,done five films. It's pretty crazy, just really lucky and kind of going with it, I guess.--- That's fantastic.Thank you.---Mandy Moore, great to talk to you.Great to talk to you too.---American Dreamz. 200809/48545

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