洛江区 妇女儿童医院门诊大众点评养心助手

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月27日 07:18:10
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On the highest summits of our planet, nothing can live permanently.在地球上最高的地方,没有什么生物能在此永久生存The highest peak of all, Mount Everest.世界上最高的山峰Five and a half miles above sea level and still rising. The roof of our world.海拔5.5英里的世界屋脊--珠穆朗玛峰仍在不断升高Of those humans whove tried to climb it, 1 in 10 have lost their lives.在试图登顶珠峰的人中,有1/10失去了生命Those that succeed can stand for only a few moments on its summit.而成功的人们也只能在峰顶短暂逗留The Nepalese call it, ;A mountain so high no bird can fly above it.;尼泊尔人称之为“一座高得连鸟也飞不上去的山峰”But each year, over 50,000 demoiselle cranes set out on one of the most challenging migrations on Earth.可是,5万多只蓑羽鹤每年都会进行一场地球上最具挑战性的迁徙To reach their over-wintering grounds in India, they must cross the Himalayas.要想到达印度境内的越冬场所,它们必须跨越喜马拉雅山脉By late morning, ferocious winds are roaring past the peaks.晌午时分,群山间狂风大作The cranes must gain height to avoid the building storm.鹤群必须提升高度,躲避正在形成的风暴Theyve hit serious turbulence. They must turn back or risk death.它们遇上了一股强力气旋。它们只好掉头返回,否则就会送命。201704/505516栏目简介:An eight-month-old boy suffering from a rare birth defect affecting his skull went home today, after undergoing surgery earlier this month at Shanghai Childrens Medical Center. For the first time in China, doctors used 3D printing technology to help plan the surgery. Reporter Song Wenjing has the story.201706/510988

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201605/446769

U.S. News and World Reports third annual list of the top universities around the world is in. 《美国新闻和世界报道》公布第三届世界顶尖大学排行榜。And the U.S. absolutely dominated the 2017 rankings.美国以绝对的优势主导2017年排名。Youll probably recognize most of the universities ranked in the top 10. Harvard scored the first-place spot on the list once again this year.你可能会认出大部分排名前10的大学。哈佛今年再次位列榜单第一名。The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, better known as MIT, came in second place. 麻省理工学院位列第二。And Stanford University rounded out the top three.斯坦福大学位列第三。The U.S. had the highest overall number of schools on the 2017 list. But perhaps even more impressive is the fact that American universities snagged eight of the top 10 spots.在2017年名单上,美国学校的总体数量最多。但也许更令人印象深刻的是,前10名中美国占有8所。The University of California-Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, Columbia University and the University of California-Los Angeles also made the top 10.加州大学伯克利分校、加州理工学院、普林斯顿大学、哥伦比亚大学以及加州大学洛杉矶分校同样位列前十。译文属。201610/475238

  栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201611/477505

  栏目简介:Today, more than 2,000 people in town got the chance to hear some ;ideas worth sping; at a speech event called TEDx Shanghai at the newly-opened Shanghai Tower. The event invited innovators from different fields to share their experience and thoughts of the world. Wu Ying tells us more...201702/490219。

  栏目简介:The first Shanghai edition of the Michelin Guide will be published this fall. People in the food and beverage industry say the guide will likely elevate the status of several chefs and maybe even turn a few into celebrities. Cui Huiao tells us more.201705/505542

  2016 has been hot. So hot in fact that its ;very likely; it will be the hottest year on record.2016年一直很热。事实上很可能是有记录以来最热的一年。This is the third year in a row that weve had extreme highs — 2014 and 2015 also had record-breaking temperatures. And a report from the World Meteorological Organization predicts the trend is just going to continue.这是连续第三年面临极高温度,2014年和2015年同样有创纪录的温度。世界气象组织的一份报告预测,这一趋势正在继续。The organization reports temperatures are about 1.2 degrees Celsius warmer than preindustrial temperatures.世界气象组织报道,气温将比工业化前水平高出约1.2摄氏度。And thats pretty significant because it puts Earths climate really, really close to the threshold noted in the Paris Climate Agreement signed last year. In that deal, countries pledged to work together to cap temperature increases at 1.5 degrees Celsius.这是非常重要的,因其使地球气候非常接近去年在巴黎签署的气候协议临界值。在巴黎协议中,各国承诺共同努力将升温控制在1.5摄氏度之内。The report says an El Nino event is partly to blame for the heat wave. The event caused sea levels to rise 15 millimeters between November 2014 and February 2016 and contributed to coral bleaching.报告称,厄尔尼诺事件是造成热浪的部分原因。事件导致2014年11月至2016年2月间海平面上升15毫米,并促进珊瑚漂白。Earlier this year, carbon emissions hit a milestone Earth might not ever recover from. 今年早些时候,碳排放量达到一个里程碑地球可能无法恢复。译文属。201611/479597Im an underwater explorer, more specifically a cave diver.我是一名水下勘探者。更确切的说是一名水下洞穴潜水员。I wanted to be an astronaut when I was a little kid,我小时候的梦想是成为一个宇航员,but growing up in Canada as a young girl, that wasnt really available to me.但是作为一个生长在加拿大的小女孩,这个梦想是不大可能实现的。But as it turns out, we know a lot more about space than we do about the underground waterways但目前的情况是,我们对于宇宙的了解远远超过了我们对于地球上地下水的了解,coursing through our planet, the very lifeblood of Mother Earth.而这些水域和我们的星球相依相伴,是地球母亲的命脉。So I decided to do something that was even more remarkable.所以我决定做一些更有意义的事情。Instead of exploring outer space, I wanted to explore the wonders of inner space.相比探索太空,我更想要探索我们星球内部的奇迹。Now, a lot of people will tell you that cave diving is perhaps one of the most dangerous endeavors.现在,许多人会告诉你水下洞穴潜水可能是最危险的尝试之一。I mean, imagine yourself here in this room, if you were suddenly plunged into blackness,想象一下你独自一人在这个空间,如果一下子让你陷入黑暗,with your only job to find the exit, sometimes swimming through these large spaces,你唯一要做的事情就是寻找出口,有时要在这些巨大的空间里穿梭,and at other times crawling beneath the seats, following a thin guideline,而有时却要在座位底下匍匐,跟随着一条细细的指引线,just waiting for the life support to provide your very next breath. Well, thats my workplace.等待着氧气瓶给你提供下一次呼吸。这就是我的工作环境。But what I want to teach you today is that our world is not one big solid rock.但是今天我想告诉你们的是,我们的世界不是一块巨大的实心岩。Its a whole lot more like a sponge. I can swim through a lot of the pores in our earths sponge,它更像是一块海绵。我可以在地球海绵的许多细孔中穿梭,but where I cant, other life-forms and other materials can make that journey without me.但是在我触及不到的地方,其他生物形态和物质可以在没有我的情况下完成这次旅行。And my voice is the one thats going to teach you about the inside of Mother Earth.我的声音将会告诉你们关于我们地球母亲内部世界的情况。There was no guidebook available to me when I decided to be the first person to cave dive inside Antarctic icebergs.当我决定成为第一个南极冰川的洞穴潜水员的时候,并没有什么参考资料可用。In 2000, this was the largest moving object on the planet.在2000年,这是这个星球上最大的移动物体。It calved off the Ross Ice Shelf, and we went down there to explore ice edge ecology它是由罗斯冰架崩裂而成,我们为了探索冰缘生态而下潜,and search for life-forms beneath the ice.并且在冰川底下寻找生命体。We use a technology called rebreathers.我们使用了一种叫做呼吸换气器的技术。Its an awful lot like the same technology that is used for space walks.这种科技与太空行走使用的供氧技术十分相似。This technology enables us to go deeper than we couldve imagined even 10 years ago.这种技术使我们可以走的更远更深,在十年前还是不可想象的。We use exotic gases, and we can make missions even up to 20 hours long underwater.我们运用特殊气体,可以使我们在水下作业时间高达20小时。I work with biologists.我和生物学家们一起工作。It turns out that caves are repositories of amazing life-forms, species that we never knew existed before.我们发现洞穴里储藏着神奇的生命体,我们从来不知道它们的存在。Many of these life-forms live in unusual ways.许多生物用奇特的方式生存着。They have no pigment and no eyes in many cases, and these animals are also extremely long-lived.它们中的许多没有颜色,也没有眼睛,而且这些动物的寿命极长。In fact, animals swimming in these caves today are identical in the fossil record that predates the extinction of the dinosaurs.实际上,现在在这些洞穴里游来游去的动物都能在化石标本中找到,它们甚至出现在恐龙灭绝之前。So imagine that: these are like little swimming dinosaurs.所以请你们想象一下:它们就像是会游泳的恐龙。What can they teach us about evolution and survival?它们可以教会我们关于进化和生存论的什么呢?When we look at an animal like this remipede swimming in the jar, he has giant fangs with venom.当我们看见这种在罐子里游动的桨足虫,他有着巨大的毒牙。He can actually attack something 40 times his size and kill it.他可以攻击比他大40倍的动物并致其死亡。If he were the size of a cat, hed be the most dangerous thing on our planet.如果他和一只猫一样大,就会是这个星球上最危险的东西了。And these animals live in remarkably beautiful places, and in some cases, caves like this, that are very young,再看看居住在这些鬼斧神工的地方的生物,类似这样的洞穴都是新形成的,yet the animals are ancient. How did they get there?但是在里面的动物都是十分古老的。它们是怎么到达那里的?I also work with physicists, and theyre interested oftentimes in global climate change.我也和一些物理学家一起工作,他们通常对于全球气候变化十分感兴趣。They can take rocks within the caves, and they can slice them and look at the layers within with rocks,他们可以采集洞穴里的石头,把石头切割开,逐层研究,much like the rings of a tree, and they can count back in history and learn about the climate on our planet at very different times.就像在读树的年轮,他们能够知道石头的历史和地球气候变化的不同时期。The red that you see in this photograph is actually dust from the Sahara Desert.在这张照片里红色的部分其实是撒哈拉大沙漠的沙。So its been picked up by wind, blown across the Atlantic Ocean.它随风飘荡,横跨大西洋。Its rained down in this case on the island of Abaco in the Bahamas.伴随着蒙蒙细雨落在了巴哈马的阿巴科岛。It soaks in through the ground and deposits itself in the rocks within these caves.它渗透进土地,把自己封存在这些洞穴的岩石中。And when we look back in the layers of these rocks,当我们回头观察这些石层,we can find times when the climate was very, very dry on earth, and we can go back many hundreds of thousands of years.我们会发现地球气候极其干燥的时期,可以追溯到几十万年前。Paleoclimatologists are also interested in where the sea level stands were at other times on earth.远古气象学家对地球不同时期的海平面十分感兴趣。Here in Bermuda, my team and I embarked on the deepest manned dives ever conducted in the region,在百慕大,我和我的团队着手于那些达到潜水艇下潜极限的区域,and we were looking for places where the sea level used to lap up against the shoreline, many hundreds of feet below current levels.我们在寻找那些以前比现在低几百英尺的与海岸线齐平的海平面。I also get to work with paleontologists and archaeologists.我也与古生物学家和考古学家一起工作。In places like Mexico, in the Bahamas, and even in Cuba,在像墨西哥,巴哈马,以及古巴这样的地方,were looking at cultural remains and also human remains in caves,我们在寻找洞穴中遗留的文化和人类生存的痕迹,and they tell us a lot about some of the earliest inhabitants of these regions.它们告诉了我们很多关于居住在这些区域的最早期居民的情况。But my very favorite project of all was over 15 years ago,但是我最喜欢的一个项目是在十五年前,when I was a part of the team that made the very first accurate, three-dimensional map of a subterranean surface.我作为团队的一个成员绘制了第一张准确的3D下表层地图。This device that Im driving through the cave was actually creating a three-dimensional model as we drove it.我用于水下洞穴勘探的这个设备能够在我们勘探的过程中建立3D模型。We also used ultra low frequency radio to broadcast back to the surface our exact position within the cave.我们也用超低频声波向地面发出信号,通过反馈得到我们地下的具体位置。So I swam under houses and businesses and bowling alleys and golf courses, and even under a Sonnys BBQ Restaurant,我在民居,公司,保龄球道和高尔夫球场,甚至Sonny烤肉店底下穿梭。Pretty remarkable, and what that taught me was that everything we do on the surface of our earth挺不可思议的吧!这让我知道,所有我们在地球表面做的事,will be returned to us to drink.都会影响我们的生活用水。Our water planet is not just rivers, lakes and oceans,我们的水资源不仅仅只有川河湖海,but its this vast network of groundwater that knits us all together.地下水资源也将我们联系起来。Its a shared resource from which we all drink.这是我们共享的饮用水源。And when we can understand our human connections with our groundwater and all of our water resources on this planet,如果我们能够了解人类与地下水,以及这个星球上其他水资源的联系,then well be working on the problem thats probably the most important issue of this century.我们就会一起解决这个可能是这个世纪最重要的问题。So I never got to be that astronaut that I always wanted to be,我终究没有成为我想做的宇航员,but this mapping device, designed by Dr. Bill Stone, will be. Its actually morphed.但是这个由比利·斯通士设计的绘图机器能够做到。它是改良过的。Its now a self-swimming autonomous robot, artificially intelligent,现在是自动巡航的宇航机器人,拥有人工智能,and its ultimate goal is to go to Jupiters moon Europa and explore oceans beneath the frozen surface of that body.它的终极目标是到达木星的卫星欧罗帕,探索在冰冻地面下的海洋。And thats pretty amazing.这真的很神奇。201707/516964

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201606/447656At least 20 people are dead after two passenger trains collided head-on in southern Italy.意大利南部两列客运列车迎面相撞,造成至少20人遇难。It wasnt clear what led to the crash as of Tuesday morning. The trains appeared to be on the same track at the time, and they were reportedly traveling at high speeds.目前还不清楚周二早上列车相撞的原因。两列火车似乎在同一轨道上,据称都是在高速行驶中。An official compared the damage to a plane crash. Images from the scene show the front cars are almost destroyed.一位官员将此与飞机失事作比较。从现场的图像显示,前车几乎被毁掉。Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi is demanding answers for what led to the collision. He told reporters, ;There is an absolute need to understand who is responsible and to shed total light; on the crash.意大利总理马泰奥·伦齐要求找到导致碰撞的。他告诉记者,绝对需要调查谁对此事负责,并公开于众。Officials say dozens were injured and that the number of deaths could rise as they sift through the wreckage.官员称数十人受伤,随着对残骸的清查死亡人数可能继续上升。译文属。201607/454495

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201611/476029

  Somalia is facing a three-fold crisis: a famine caused by a drought and now a cholera outbreak.索马里面临三重危机,干旱导致的饥荒和现在爆发的霍乱。The ed Nations was aly worried the drought would be a repeat of the devastating 2011 drought that killed more than 250,000 people in the country. 联合国担心干旱将重演2011年毁灭性的旱灾,那时造成全国超过250,000人死亡。Now, theyre warning that Somalia could see over 50,000 cases of cholera by summer, its a disease that can kill within hours if not treat. 现在,他们警告称夏天来临前索马里发现超过50,000例霍乱,这种疾病如果不治疗可以在几小时内致人死亡。Over 25,000 people have aly been diagnosed with the disease this year, and there have been over 500 deaths so far. 今年已经有超过25,000人被诊断出这种疾病,迄今为止已经有超过500人死亡。Thats a fatality rate of around 2 percent. But some areas of Somalia have seen death rates reaching over 14 percent. 死亡率大约在百分之2。但索马里一些地区的死亡率已超过百分之14。The U.N. says that more than half of Somalias population is in desperate need of humanitarian aid with 2.9 million people suffering from severe hunger. 联合国称,超过半数的索马里人口迫切需要人道主义援助,290万人遭受严重饥荒。译文属。201704/504021。

  Do you feel honored to be getting this award from the French?你对从法国获了这个奖感到很荣幸么?Oh, its very lovely of them.哦,很感谢他们。Its exciting.这让人感到兴奋。I dont know why theyre doing it, frankly.Oh, come on, are you kidding?坦白说,我不明白他们干吗非要弄这个奖。哦,别开玩笑了。Cause you live long enough to hang around? -Are you kidding?因为我活的太久了么?-哦,不是吧。Congratulations. -Oh, Daphne! Oh, child!祝贺啊!-嘿,Daphne。Its you they should be honoring, not me.他们不该给我颁奖的,该给你颁。Merci.谢谢。It should be Jean Luc. Hes the one they should be honoring.Yes.他们应该把奖给Jean Luc,他应得的。是的。He doesnt want to be honored.他不想被奖励。He doesnt want anything.他什么都不想要。And Im amazed he accepted tonight.他今晚接受了这个奖,我都觉得吃惊。Hes not only Chevalier, but directly Officer, which is exceptional.他被颁这个奖是很特殊的。Very deeply, I think he doesnt believe he deserves it.我坚信,他觉得自己还不够拿这个奖。Thats why he deserves it...even more.他这样的态度也是他得奖的原因,甚至更多。I just think its so funny that youre working at your own party.你在你自己的颁奖典礼上还在工作这太有趣了。201609/460805

  栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201606/449607

  Being a teenager is hard. And so is living with one, Im told.我被告知作为一个青少年不容易,和青春期的人在一起生活也不容易No human gets to escape this moody, angsty, confusing phase.没有人能逃避开这段情绪化的、焦虑的、迷茫的时期。And interestingly, such an extended adolescence is unique to humans.有趣的是,这样一段延长的青春期是人类独有的。Other animals grow up a lot faster than we do.其他的动物成长速度比我们快得多。And you may think our teen years are just about streamlining bodies for baby making,你也许认为我们的青少年期只是在长身体以繁衍后代,but as it turns out, the storm of sex hormones that we associate with the teenage years,但事实明,青春期时性荷尔蒙的大爆发are only a small part of whats really going on in the teenage body.只占那时身体变化的一小部分。Most of the action, it turns out, is happening in the brain.大部分的变化发生在大脑。Until fairly recently, we thought that the brain finished the nuts and bolts of its development,直到最近,我们还认为大脑已基本发育完全by the time we started kindergarten. But really,在我们开始上幼儿园的时候,但事实上,when puberty starts, it undergoes massive remodeling.当进入青春期大脑会开始大规模地重塑。This amounts to several years of neural growing pains,这意味着长达数年的神经成长的烦恼as well as the other more visible growth thats going on all over your body.So take heart!以及其它你身体上下更易见的成长变化。所以振作起来!Whether youre going through it now, or about to go through it,不管你是正在经历青春期还是正要经历or count yourself among the veterans of that turbulent decade,或是认为自己在那混乱的十年里已是个老手know that the result of the teen years is a stronger, faster, more sophisticated brain.你要知道最后你将有一个更强壮、更快速、更精密的大脑。If there were someone that told me twenty years ago...如果二十年前有人这样告诉我就好了……Lets start with that obvious scapegoat of adolescent anguish, hormones.让我们从看上去是导致青春期烦恼的罪魁祸首,但其实是“替罪羊”的荷尔蒙说起。That word itself, is kind of a lazy shorthand这个单词本身即是一种偷懒的简易表达that people use to describe the chemicals that some glands secrete, that can affect our behavior.是人们用来描述从一些腺体分泌的、可以影响我们行为的化学物质。But the fact is, hormones have all kinds of jobs that have nothing to do with where you grow hair,但事实是,荷尔蒙有诸多作用,但不能决定你在哪里长毛发,or what turns you on, or whether you feel glum for no apparent reason不能使你“性奋”,也不会让你不明原因地觉得沮丧Hormones keep your heart beating, and your body hydrated, and they make your organs grow,荷尔蒙使你的心脏保持跳动,保持身体水分,使器官生长,and make you grow bone, and muscle, and skin!使你生出骨头、肌肉与皮肤。What people actually mean when they talk about teenage hormones, are sex hormones.当人们谈论“青春期荷尔蒙”时,他们实际上指的是性荷尔蒙。And yes, puberty involves a whole series of sex hormones storms,是的,青春期包含一整个系列的性荷尔蒙爆发,the first of which actually kicks in before youre outta Primary School.最早的性荷尔蒙分泌实际上在你小学毕业前就已开始。Thats when the Adrenal glands start secreting androgens, which triggers the growth那时肾上腺开始分泌雄激素,从而引起in activity of the skins sebaceous glands, making skin more oily.皮脂腺的生长加速,使皮肤变得油腻。Soon enough, more apocrine or sweat glands get activated increasing body odor.很快,更多的分泌腺或汗腺活跃使得身体气味增加。Then comes the waves of hormonal agents that start activating the gonads.然后大量的荷尔蒙开始促进生殖器官的发育。For boys, this influx of luteinizing hormones from the pituitary gland, get testosterone from the testes,对于男孩,从脑垂体大量涌入的促黄体生成素,促进睾丸大量分泌睾丸素,and suddenly, that guy has up to fifty times more testosterone than he did before puberty.一下子,那家伙获得了比青春期前最多50倍的睾丸素。This also changes the shape of the male body, promoting hair growth,and building up lean muscle mass,这也改变了雄性的身体,促进毛发生长,塑造肌肉线条,just as the increased presence of estrogen in girls rearranges the deposition of their fats, stimulating the growth of breasts.就像女孩们体内增加的雌激素会重新安排脂肪的位置,促进胸部的增长。Humans are actually lucky to experience the craziness of puberty only once,人类很幸运,只用经历一次青春期的疯狂,many other animals undergo multiple similarly intense hormonal rodeos as they enter sexually active periods,很多动物在进入发情期时要经历数次类似的紧张的荷尔蒙起伏变化,sometimes called the rot or heat, every new breeding season.有时可称为“堕落或疯狂”。Some male species completely stop eating during their breeding period, because theyre just that sex crazed.在繁殖期一些雄性品种会完全停止进食,它们只是为性疯狂。And yet all that said, teen are far less ruled in their hormones than you might think. There are other factors that play here.然而说了那么多,青春期对荷尔蒙的控制并没有你想的那么大。还有其它的因素在影响。For example, your favorite moody teen may be by turns punchy, angry, depressed, or in a zombie like fog,比如,你那处于青春期的情绪化的宝贝,也许变得寡言、愤怒、沮丧或像僵尸一样无神,because of their chronic lack of sleep.只是因为长期的缺少睡眠Sleep is vital to everyone, but its specially important for kids and teens,睡眠对每个人都很重要,对小孩和青少年尤其重要,because its during sleep that your pituitary gland releases an essential growth hormone, necessary for development.因为在睡眠中,脑垂体会释放一种重要的生长激素,这对于成长很重要。A normal sleep cycle driven by circadian rhythm, is regulated by the daytime release of cortisol,一个遵循24小时节律的正常的睡眠循环,由人体白天释放的皮质醇which helps you wake up, and melatonin, which helps you wind down when it gets dark.和晚上释放的褪黑激素调节皮质醇使人保持清醒,褪黑激素使人保持平静。But this biology of sleep timing changes as we age and as puberty begins, teens sleep clocks get pushed back.但是这个生物钟会随年龄变化,当进入青春期,睡点会推后。Most adults start producing melatonin 10 p.m. ish,大多数的成年人晚上10点开始分泌褪黑激素,but one study showed that teenagers dont start producing melatonin until closer to 1am!但一项研究显示青少年直到凌晨1点才开始分泌褪黑激素!This may be because pubertys hormonal frenzy is stalling the release of melatonin,这也许是因为青少年疯狂的荷尔蒙推迟了褪黑激素的释放。and could partly explain why so many teens stay up late, energized by the night,这也可以一定程度上解释为什么那么多的青少年熬夜,晚上精力旺盛,but had a really hard time rolling outta bed with the alarm.闹钟响了却起不来床。Of course its a bit of a chicken and egg deal, since watching reruns of The Simpsons,当然这有点像先有鸡还是先有蛋的问题了,因为看《辛普森一家》的重播and playing Call o Duty late at night continues to stimulate the brain, which may further delay the release of melatonin.或者玩《使命召唤》到很晚,这些都在刺激大脑,也许会更一步推迟褪黑激素的释放,Still, some researchers are starting to advocate for pushing back high school start times in the morning,所以,有些研究者开始提倡将高校的早晨开始上课时间往后调,in the hopes of having more focused students.希望这样有更多集中精力的学生。So weve got sex hormones changing the bodies, and a lack o sleep to contend with,那么我们知道了性荷尔蒙会改变身体,以及缺少睡眠对人的影响,but increasing evidences suggest that, there is something much bigger at work thats making teenagers so teenager-ry. Their brains!但是越来越多的据表明,有些事有更大的影响使得青少年如此的与众不同。即他们的大脑!It turns out that brains actually take longer than we thought, to fully mature.事实表明,大脑确实需要比我们想象的更长的时间来发育成熟。I dont mean physical size - our brains are aly about 95% full-sized by the time were just six我不是指物理大小--在我们只有6岁时,我们的大脑就已经有成年人95%大小了but more in the sense of the connections inside the brain.我指的是大脑内部的神经连接。Adults - for the most part - know how to make decisions by evaluating choices, and weighting consequences.大部分成年人知道如何做决定--通过对比选择,权衡结果They do this with their prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for controlling impulses and emotions, and forming judgments.通过他们的前叶额皮质层,这负责控制冲动和情绪来做出决定。Its neurons chat with the neurons in other regions of the brain, responsible for - say it - memory or movement, through synapses.它的神经元与大脑其它的区域的神经元进行交流,比如说,负责记忆和行动的神经元,这种交流通过突触进行。The thing is, teenage brains dont quite work like this yet.真实情况是,青少年的大脑还没有像这样运作。The prefrontal cortex may not be fully developed until youre mid-twenties,他们的前叶额皮质层也许无法发育完全,直到25岁左右,and teen synapses - those ;lines; of communication - are still growing, and specializing. Theyre also - slow.青少年的突触(即脑内神经的交流线路)还在成长中、细化中。它们同时也非常缓慢。As an adolescent brain keeps developing, its axons - the long ;tail-like; parts of the neurons that transmits signals to other neurons在一个青少年的大脑成长过程中become more and more insulated by a fatty layer called the Myelin Sheath.轴突变得越来越不易受影响,因为被一层厚的称为髓鞘保护膜所包裹。This padding greatly increases the cells transmission speed,这层包裹大大提升了细胞的传输速度and while it helps adults make faster decisions, it isnt fully formed in teens.这使得成年人做决定时更迅速,却在青少年时期无法完全发育完成。These changes occur slowly, beginning at the back o the brain, where the oldest and most fundamental brain parts reside,这些变化发生得十分缓慢,开始于大脑的后部,即大脑最古老和最基础的部分and slowly working its way forward to the more advanced and complicated brain bits.然后逐渐地往更先进和复杂的部分发展。The prefrontal cortex is the last to be hooked up and shaped.前叶额皮质层是最后被连接和塑造的,So its important to keep in mind, that just because your favorite teenager stayed up until sunrise因此这很重要你要记住,你的宝贝在考试的前一天晚上binge-watching The Walking Dead the night before an exam, it doesnt mean theyre dumb or lazy,无节制地看《行尸走肉》直到天亮并不意味着他们又蠢又懒their brain are just literally finishing being built.只是因为他们的大脑还在塑造中。But at the same time, because all o this brain buildings just starting to peak,同时,因为他们的大脑塑造开始达到顶点,this is also, when the brain starts getting thinned out.这也是大脑开始清理多余连接的时候。You actually start losing connections that you dont use enough, in a process called synaptic pruning -那些你用得不频繁的连接会消失,这一进程称为突触修剪which has led to a theory that this is kind of a use it or lose it phase.由此引出一种“用进废退”的理论。Meaning, adolescence could be an specially important time to use your brain这意味着青少年时期对大脑的使用特别重要play an instrument; engage in sports; write poetry; learn language!演奏一种乐器、参加一项体育活动、写诗、学习新语言!Because by doing these things, youre helping hardwire those synapses, and giving your brain topiary a lovely lasting shape.通过做这些事,这些突触连接会巩固,你的大脑会被修剪成一个可爱又持久的形状。Whereas if youre sitting around all day playing Candy Crush,而如果你整天都坐着玩《糖果粉碎传奇》those will be the connections that survive, which you dont need...这些有关的连接就会留存下来,尽管你并不需要……This shaping of the teen brain manifests itself in other ways too, like in teenage attitudes.这种对青少年大脑形状的塑造也通过其它方式表达出来,比如他们对外界的看法。A group of scientist at the McLean Hospital of Massachusetts, once hooked up a group of adults and a group of teens,美国马萨诸塞州麦克莱恩医院的一队科学家,通过核磁共振设备进行观察,曾组织一组成年人和一组青少年to MRI devices and then asked them to identify a series of expressions on photographs of adults faces.让他们鉴别照片上的成年人脸上的系列表情。Interestingly, while adults correctly identified one expression as fear,有趣的是,当成年人正确地指出一个表情是害怕时,the teenagers thought the faces showed anger, surprise, or shock. They werent registering subtleties well.青少年认为那是表示害怕、惊讶或震惊。他们无法识别这些微妙的差异。Not only that, but the MRI images showed that adults and teens responded with different parts of their brains.不仅如此,核磁共振图像显示成年人和青少年是用大脑的不同的部分回应的。Adults, use the reasonable prefrontal cortex, while the teens mostly use the gut reaction, emotional amigdala,成年人理所当然地使用前叶额皮质层而青少年主要使用直觉反应,即主管情绪的杏仁体,located farther back in the brain.杏仁体位于大脑的更后面。Results like these might help explain why teenagers seem to experience frequent mood swings.这样的试验结果也许可以帮助解释为什么青少年们看起来更易情绪波动。For one, they tend to react quickly from the emotional part of their brain,首先,他们倾向于从大脑的情绪部分快速反应without running those reactions by the more rational frontal cortex,而不是用更理智的前叶额皮质层,and two, it could be that theyre just mising expressions, and therefore the intentions behind them.其次,有可能他们只是误解了试验的表情及其后的意图。The frontal cortex also helps people relate to, and understand each other,前叶额皮质层也可以帮助人们建立联系,理解彼此and you can imagine what happens when concern is misjudged as anger; or worry, as disappointment.所以你可以想象当关心被误解为生气或担心被误解为失望时会发生什么。The Fresh Prince has an entire song about it.Fresh Prince就有一整首歌是关于这个的。But the truth is, as much as parents just dont understand, teens dont always understand either.但事实是,父母常常无法理解他们的小孩,少年自己也常常无法理解。When the emotional amigdala, and the more rational cortex arent fully hooked up yet,当负责情绪的杏仁体与更理智的前叶额皮质层还没有完全连结好,that can make it hard for teenagers to productively work through emotions.青少年们就很难控制好情绪。This kind of reactionary, impulsive behavior may also lead to more risk taking.这种叛逆和冲动行为也许会导致更危险的行为。Adolescence is the time when were most likely to experiment with whatever booze, or drugs is available,青少年时期我们最容易体验酒精或毒品,and unfortunately, its also the time our developing brains are most vulnerable to lasting effects不幸的是,那也是我们塑造中的大脑最脆弱、会受到永久影响的时期。Studies have shown that teens are more likely to become addicted to drugs and alcohol, than adults研究已经表明,青少年比成年人更容易沉迷于毒品或酒精,partly because their brains are more attuned to their reward centers.一部分原因是他们的大脑对脑内的奖赏区域更熟悉,While the teenage prefrontal cortex is still developing, their Nucleus Accumbens,因为他们的前叶额皮质层还在发育中,他们的“伏隔核”or pleasure and reward zone, forms early on.或“愉悦和奖赏区域”成型更早。Neuroimaging studies have shown that when presented with a big potential reward,神经影像研究表明当有大的潜在的奖赏时,teen brains light up way more than kids or adults brains, but if the reward was small,青少年的大脑亮起来的区域比小孩或成年人更多,但当奖赏很小时teen brains hardly fired at all.他们的大脑几乎没有反应。So basically, give an adolescent a pat on the back, and youll get a shrug.所以基本上,在一个青少年背后轻拍一下,他只会耸耸肩。Give them a hot date or a wining goal, and their brains light up like Vegas.给他们一个火辣的约会或一个令人振奋的目标,他们的大脑会闪亮得像。This of course, does not always result in great judgment.基于这样的反应,你不能指望他们能做出多伟大的决定。A jacked up thrill-seeking impulse, combined with exquisite pang of peer pressure,一股上涌的寻找刺激的冲动加上同伴的压力带来的痛苦plus a new drivers license, new sex parts, and access to substances can lead to some not good results.和一个新的驾照、新的性伴侣再加上毒品,这些足够导致一些不好的结果。But still, this long and some times tedious remodeling process that our bodies go through in the teenage years, isnt all bad.但是话说回来,我们青春期的身体经历的这个长长的、有时候有些乏味的重塑过程并不全是坏事。Many scientists have pointed out that our delayed adolescence lets our brains keep their flexibility longer,许多科学家指出,较长的青春期使得我们的大脑保持灵活更长的时间which Yeah, may make teens a little slow, but also more adaptable, as they prepare for the adult world.也许会使青少年长得有点慢,但更能适应随后到来的成人世界。In this way, you can see teen impulsiveness as boldness; or independent thinking, and moodiness,从这个意义上说,你可以将青春期的冲动当成大胆或独立思考,as a source of new found empathy; and excitability, as passion.将感性当作共鸣,兴奋过度当作热情。Which means, theres a lot of awesome energy floating around out there y to decrease all kinds of world suck就是说,这些精力旺盛的青春期的人们在准备改变这个世界的旧有成见。Thanks for watching the SciShow, and thanks specially to all of our subscribers on Subbable, who make this channel possible!感谢观看SciShow。特别要谢谢我们在Subbale上的所有贡献者。有他们才有这个频道!You can be an honorary associate producer of SciShow, or even pick the topic of a future episode!你也可以成为SciShow的一名荣誉制作者,甚至决定未来某一系列的主题!To find out how, go to ;subbable.com/scishow;. And you can always find us on Facebook and Twitter, and in the comments below,具体方式,请至subbale.com/scishow。你也可以在Facebook和Twitter及其下的部分找到我们。and if you wanna keep gettin smarter with us here at SciShow, you can go to ;youtube.com/scishow; and subscribe.如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明,欢迎至youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的节目。201706/515382

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