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上海市新华医院做红色胎记手术价格青浦去色素痣多少钱徐汇区激光祛疤多少钱 One of the more puzzling consequences of old age is adecreasing ability to appreciate the taste of a fine meal.人到老年,一个令人费解的苦恼就是对美味佳肴品鉴能力的降低。Actually,the problem is not only a matter of taste. It also has to do with smell.事实上,问题不单单出现在味道上,同时还出现在嗅觉上。When we eat something, we rely on a combined sense of taste and smell to experience flavor.当我们吃某样东西的时候,我们依赖融合了的味觉和嗅觉去体验味道。The next time youre eating fruit-flavored candy, try this.下一次你吃水果糖时,不妨试一试。Grab a handful of candy, close your eyes,and pick one.抓一把糖果,闭上眼睛,随意挑选一颗。While pinching your nose shut, pop the candy into your mouth.捏着鼻子把糖果放进你的嘴里。Chances are youll taste the tart sweetness of the candy, but you wont recognize a particular flavor.你可能尝到糖果的酸甜的味道,但是你分辨不出独有的味道。Now let go of your nose. Presto!现在让你的鼻子自由呼吸,转眼间,The savory flavor of banana-grape fills your mouth.香蕉葡萄那可口的味道布满你的口中。Taste is a limited sense; the taste nerves in the mouth and tongue only detect combinations ofsweet, sour, salty and bitter.味觉是被限定的感觉,你口中和舌头上的味觉神经仅仅能够分辨出酸,甜,咸,苦。Flavors, on the other hand, vary widely, numbering in the tens of thousands.但味道多种多样,有上万种之多。When we experience these many flavors, we use our nose as much as our mouth.当我们品尝这些味道的时候,鼻子和嘴一样功不可没。For example, when you chew a piece of candy, you inhale the candys chemicals through your mouth and exhale them through your nose.举个例子来说,当你嚼一块儿糖,你用嘴来吸收它们的化学成分,再用鼻子释放出来。As they pass through the nose, the chemicals triggerreceptors that send smell and flavor signals to the brain.当她们通过你鼻子的时候,这些化学成分激发受体,把嗅觉和味道的信号发送给大脑。The body tends to break down in old age, and taste and flavor receptors are no exception.到了老年,身体衰退,当然,味觉和味道受体也不可幸免。Although taste buds in the mouth tend to lose some sensitivity, it is the decrease in the number ofactive flavor receptors in the nose that make it more difficult for elderly diners to truly savor anexquisite meal.口中的味蕾慢慢失去一些敏感性,鼻子中那些活跃的味道受体的减退让老年人更加困难地去享受精致佳肴。201408/318732Business商业报道The cigarette industry卷烟工业Running out of puff强弩之末Big tobacco firms are maintaining their poise, but quietly wheezing烟草巨头们都保持姿态,蓄势待发。CIGARETTE smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the ed States to warrant appropriate remedial action.吸烟在美国是一项引起足够重视的健康危害,以保障适当的补救措施。It was 50 years ago this month that Americas surgeon-general sounded that warning, marking the beginning of the end of cigarette manufacturing—and of smoking itself—as a respectable activity.这是50年前的这个月美国卫生部部长发出的警告。这一警告的发出标志着卷烟制造业以及吸烟这一行为本身不再是一项让人尊敬的行为。Some 20m Americans have died from the habit since then.从那时起,大约有2千万美国人死于吸烟。But advertising restrictions, smoking bans and stigma have had their effect: the proportion of American adults who smoke has dropped from 43% to 18%; smoking rates among teenagers are at a record low.但是不论是广告限制或是严禁吸烟的标志都还是起到了作用:吸烟的美国成年人比例已经从43%下降到了18%,青少年的吸烟率也处于历史新低,In many other countries the trends are similar.这种趋势在其他国家也是相似的。The current surgeon-general, Boris Lushniak, marked the half-century with a report on January 17th, declaring smoking even deadlier than previously thought.现任卫生部部长,鲍里斯在1月17日发布的报道对过去的50年作了总结,指出吸烟比预期的更加致命。He added diabetes, colorectal cancer and other ailments to the list of ills it causes, and promised end-game strategies to stamp out cigarettes altogether.在吸烟导致的疾病里,他加入了糖尿病,直肠癌和其它病症,并且提出了终结策略来完全杜绝香烟。Were that to happen Americas three big tobacco firms, Altria, Reynolds and Lorillard, could be snuffed out, too.美国三大烟草公司,奥驰亚,雷诺和罗瑞拉德烟草公司会因此而被扼杀吗?Public-health officials plot the same fate for multinationals that supply other markets.卫生部的官员们为供应其它市场的跨国公司也安排了相同的命运。The hit list includes Philip Morris International, which along with Altria makes Marlboro, the top-selling global brand; Japan Tobacco; and British American Tobacco and Imperial Tobacco of Britain.这其中包括菲利普莫里斯国际公司,它和奥驰亚一起打造了万宝路这一全球最畅销的品牌,除此之外还有日本烟草公司、英美烟草公司和英国的帝国烟草公司。They are a hardy bunch, unlikely to be spooked.这些公司都是硬骨头,不太容易被震慑到。But the methods they have used to withstand a half-century of battering by regulators may be losing potency.但是他们采取的与监管部门周旋了半个世纪的方法可能会失去效力。In the rich world, where the economy is sluggish, smokers are trading down to cheaper puffs.在经济低迷的富裕国家,吸烟者开始选择便宜的产品进行交易,The regulatory climate in developing countries is becoming more hostile.发展中国家的监管环境也变得更加严苛。New technologies such as e-cigarettes promise to deliver nicotine less riskily.一些新的技术,比如电子香烟承诺提供危害风险更小的尼古丁。Big tobacco firms may master them, but it would be a radical shift, akin to converting the car industry from internal-combustion engines to battery power.大的烟草公司可能掌握这项技术,但是这将是一个根本性的转变。类似于汽车产业中从内燃机到电池电源的转变。David Adelman of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, does not see anything thats upending the conventional tobacco business model.根士丹利投资的大卫阿德尔曼表示,并没有看到任何的颠覆了传统的烟草商业模式,But the model needs tweaking.但模型需要调整。Some reasons for Mr Adelmans confidence are sound. Advertising bans and the industrys pariah status deter would-be competitors.阿德尔曼先生有这样的信心是有理有据的,广告禁令以及烟草业所处的低贱地位都将阻止潜在竞争者的出现。When cigarette-makers raise prices, smokers cough up.当卷烟制造商提高价格的时候,烟民们就咳嗽起来。Global consumption keeps rising, thanks largely to population growth in poorer countries.由于贫困国家人口的快速增长,全球消费量不断上升。The cigarette giants pamper investors with big dividends and share buy-backs; they have flocked to tobacco shares.烟草巨头们放任投资者获得丰厚的分红以及股票回购,使得投资者纷纷涌向烟草股。But the going is getting tougher.但是这种发展趋势已是举步维艰。This month health officials in China, home to more smokers than any other country, called for a ban on smoking in public places.中国作为拥有比其他任何国家更多烟民的国家于本月由卫生部的官员发布了禁止公共场所吸烟的禁令。That would mainly affect state-owned China Tobacco, which has a near-monopoly.这将主要影响到在行业中几乎处于垄断地位的中国烟草国有企业。But multinationals shares wobbled anyway: the proposed crackdown could portend tighter regulation elsewhere.但是跨国公司的股份也是摇摆不定:打击的提议可能会预示着更为严格的监管。Britains government, after some wavering, may now go ahead and copy Australias requirement for cigarettes to be sold in ugly, scary plain packs.英国政府在几番举棋不定后最终决定采取与澳大利亚同样的做法,在烟草的包装上采用印有丑陋恐怖图案的普通包装。Such pleasure-pinching regulation strikes at one of the main ways cigarette companies boost profits: converting smokers to pricier brands.这种pleasure-pinching监管方式主要打击的是烟草公司获取利润的其中一种方式:促使吸烟者选择价格更高的品牌。Premiumisation is still happening in developing countries, where incomes are rising.消费品质优化仍然发生在那些收入增加的发展中国家。But elsewhere smokers are turning to cheaper brands or rolling their own cigarettes.但是在其他地方烟民们开始转而选择低价品牌或是自己卷烟。Many smokers will not trade back up once the economy improves, largely because smoking and advertising bans have robbed the habit of its air of glamour.当经济有所好转时,许多烟民也不会改变他们的选择,这很大程度上是因为吸烟和烟草广告的禁令已经夺走了烟草香味一贯的魅力。Euromonitor International, a research firm, forecasts that everywhere except in Asia and the Middle East prices will rise less from 2012 to 2017 than they did during the previous five years欧睿国际预测除了亚洲和中东地区外,从2012年到2017年烟草价格的上涨将低于过去5年来价格的上涨。Shane MacGuill of Euromonitor sees in all this a very serious threat to the long-term health of the tobacco industry.欧睿国际的巴蒂尔认为这些对于烟草业长期的健康发展是一个严重的威胁。This is spurring a quest for safer methods of supplying smokers with their nicotine fixes.这将促使该行业烟民们以更加安全的方式提供尼古丁。Most of the hype is about e-cigarettes, which give users a hit of vapour infused with nicotine but none of the other, nastier ingredients of tobacco smoke.这其中最有可能的方式就是电子香烟,这种香烟主要提供的是尼古丁蒸汽而不含其它物质,特别是烟草中的有害成分。In America, the fastest adopter, sales have jumped from nearly nothing five years ago to at least 1 billion in 2013.在美国最先采用这种方式的厂家,5年来其销售量实现了从零开始的激增,截止2013年已经达到至少10亿美元。At first, it looked as if e-cigarettes might lure smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups such as NJOY.起初的时候,电子香烟似乎已经诱导烟民们从大的烟草品牌转向诸如NJOY的新兴公司。But incumbents have been quick to see the threat.但是公司们也都迅速的意识到了这种威胁。Lorillard acquired Blu, now the biggest American brand, in 2012.罗瑞拉德烟草公司于2012年收购了蓝光这一现今最大的美国品牌。Altria and Reynolds are expected to launch e-cig ventures nationwide this year.奥驰亚集团和雷诺预计今年将在全国范围内推出电子香烟业务。Imperial recently acquired the e-cigarette operations of Dragonite, a Chinese firm that pioneered the technology.帝国烟草公司最近收购了一家名为叁龙的中国公司,因为该公司率先掌握了该项技术。Though not the first movers, tobacco companies have bigger war chests, more knowledge of smokers habits and better ties to distributors than the newcomers.虽然不是起步最早的,但是烟草公司比起新进的公司来说更具实力,它们更了解烟民们的习惯也有更多的分销渠道。Some pundits reckon Americans will puff more e-cigarettes than normal ones within a decade, but tobacco folk are sceptical.一些专家预测在未来的十年里,美国人将消费更多的电子香烟,但是烟民们对此却持怀疑态度。E-cigs account for just 1% of Americas cigarette market.在美国的烟草市场,电子香烟只占到了1%的份额。In Europe 7% of smokers had tried vaping by 2012 but only 1% kept it up.在欧洲,有7%的烟民都试过了这种 电子烟雾,但是只有1%的人到2012年还在使用。PMI has higher hopes for a new type of cigarette, which heats tobacco rather than burning it.PMI公司更希望有一种全新的香烟,这种香烟只是加热烟草而不点燃。Such cigarettes could deliver fewer toxins than conventional sticks and more pleasure than mere vapour.这种香烟比起普通香烟产生的毒素更少,而与电子香烟的烟雾相比又能使人更加愉悦。PMI says it will invest up to 500m in a factory in Italy to make them.PMI公司表示它们将投入5亿欧元到意大利一家生产这种香烟的工厂。Earlier efforts to hook smokers on heated tobacco flopped, so there is no assurance that PMIs versions will succeed.早期为了使烟民们使用加热烟草的努力都以失败告终,因而不能保PMI公司的这一思路能得以实现。And no one knows what sort of restrictions regulators will eventually place on reduced risk products, including e-cigarettes.并且每人知道对于包括电子香烟在内的降低风险产品会出台什么样的监管措施。If they can manage the transition to less harmful smokes, and convince regulators to be sensible, the tobacco giants could keep up the sort of performance that has made their shares such a fine investment over the years.如果这些公司能实现向低危害的烟草的转变,并且说监管机构意识到这种转变。那么这些烟草巨头们将能有实力继续为他们的投资者们提供丰厚的分红。But some analysts are not so sure.但是一些分析人士对此却不那么肯定。Many tobacco firms are struggling to deliver the consistency of the earnings-per-share model weve seen in the past, says David Hayes of Nomura. If that persists, investors may fall out of love with the industry.野村公司的大卫表示许多的烟草公司都在挣扎着想要继续沿用以前烟草按股数收益的经营方式。如果它们坚持,那么它们的投资者们可能会失去对该行业的兴趣。A half-century after the surgeon-generals alarm, they, and incorrigible puffers, are its last remaining friends.从卫生部部长发出警告的半个世纪以来,这些公司最后的朋友就只剩那些已经无药可救的烟民们了。 /201402/274795上海复旦大学附属华山医院治疗痘痘多少钱

上海有多少家整形医院Books and Arts; Book Review;Politics in India; Iron lady;文艺;书评;印度政治;铁娘子;Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life. By Rani Singh.索尼娅·甘地:非同寻常的一生;拉尼·辛格著。LAST year a supporter of Sonia Gandhi threatened legal action and succeeded in preventing the publication in English of “The Red Sari”, a fictionalised life which had aly had a successful run in Spanish and Italian. Although a couple of biographies have been published in India, Rani Singh’s “Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life, An Indian Destiny” is the first for an international market.《红色纱丽》一书歪曲地描述了索尼娅#8226;甘地的生活,此书的西班牙语和意大利语版本都广受欢迎。而英文版《红色纱丽》一书的出版却受到了索尼娅#8226;甘地的一名持者的阻挠,他扬言要采取法律手段,最终他成功了,英文版并没有出版。在印度国内,尽管有一些关于索尼娅#8226;甘地的传记已经出版,但拉丽辛格的《索尼娅#8226;甘地:卓越的一生,一个印度人的宿命》却是第一本面向全球读者的传记。When Sonia married Rajiv, son of the prime minister, Indira Gandhi, in Delhi in 1968, nobody predicted great things for her. She was pretty, personable and very shy. Like her husband, she had few academic qualifications. Her father was a builder from a town on the outskirts of Turin. Although the Nehru-Gandhi family was not, as Ms Singh states several times, aristocratic, they and their circle could certainly be snooty. It was not unusual in the 1990s to hear Sonia Gandhi referred to in Delhi social circles as “the Italian au pair”.1968年,索尼娅#8226;甘地在新德里和当时的印度总理英迪拉#8226;甘地(甘地夫人)的儿子拉杰夫#8226;甘地结婚。人们对她并无多大的期待。索尼娅#8226;甘地面容姣好,姿态优雅,害羞内敛。同她丈夫一样,她在学术上建树甚少。她的父亲是一个建筑工人,来自都灵市郊一个小镇。辛格不止一次将尼赫鲁-甘地家族描述为是有着贵族习气,尽管事实情况并非完全如此,但他们的小圈子的确是高傲势利。(尼赫鲁-甘地家族本可以待人傲慢,但事实上,他们这个小圈子并不像辛格在书中不止一次的描写的那样喜欢摆贵族的架子)在20世纪90年代,新德里的社交圈将索尼娅#8226;甘地称为“意大利帮工”的情况已经很少再出现了。Today Mrs Gandhi is the most powerful politician in India. Earlier this year when she went for treatment at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Centre in New York, the government was left rudderless. Characteristically, no announcement was made as to where she had gone, or whether her illness was serious. Cabinet ministers were reduced to asking each other, and even in some cases the media, for information about her condition.如今,索尼娅#8226;甘地已是印度最有权力的政治家。今年的早些时候,她前往纽约的梅莫瑞尔#8226;斯欧恩-凯特林 癌症中心接受治疗,政府群龙无首。有一个典型的例子:政府就她的去向,健康状况没有做任何的声明。内阁部长们不得不相互询问,有些时候甚至向媒体打听索尼娅#8226;甘地的情况。When she returned to India in September and resumed her duties as president of the ruling Congress Party, the immediate crisis appeared to stabilise. Mrs Gandhi’s position—which might best be described as a dynastic moral authority—now stems less from the fact that she is Rajiv’s widow than from her intuitive strategic sense and her discreet, often silent, ability to assert political control.当索尼娅#8226;甘地九月份回到印度,再次开始她国会党主席的工作时,原本混乱的状况一似乎下子秩序井然。人们关于她的地位最恰当的描述是“王朝的精神领袖”,原本是因为她是拉吉夫的遗孀,而现在则更多的是因为她在政治上直觉敏锐,思想具有战略性,寡言慎行,对政治工作有绝对的掌控能力。It is hard to determine just how she does this, since her senior colleagues know they would soon fall from favour if they broke the omerta that surrounds her. Sonia Gandhi almost never gives interviews, although the few she has done on Indian television have been surprisingly open and direct, recounting the tragedy of her husband’s assassination in 1991 and her own inclusive social ideals.人们不知道索尼娅#8226;甘地是如何做到这些的。但她身边和她共事多年的同事们知道,要是他们胆敢损害索尼娅#8226;甘地的美好形象(风言风言),他们也将地位不保。索尼娅#8226;甘地极少接受采访,在她为数不多的几次电视访问里,她一反常态地非常公开和直接地讲述着1991年他的丈夫遇刺的悲剧经历,分享着她自己的社会理想。Ms Singh says she follows “her own brand of socialism”, which is an exaggeration. Rather than socialism, it is an emphasis on protecting the disadvantaged even while proceeding with India’s at times rapacious version of capitalism. Since she does not hold a ministerial post, Sonia Gandhi can appear detached from government policy, and row back from difficult decisions when they prove unpopular. A symbolic performance is combined with studious political negotiation.辛格说索尼娅#8226;甘地在践行她独有的社会主义,这实在有些夸大其词。与其是说走社会主义之路,索尼娅只是在印度大肆发展资本主义的同时更强调保护弱势群体的利益。由于她并没有内阁的席位,索尼娅可以表现得和政府的政策相背而行,当政府的决定不受欢迎时再提出自己的见解。这种象征性的表演常常体现在和与政府频繁进行的政治性协商中。There are several difficulties with this biography. Ms Singh, a London-based journalist and broadcaster, appears to think that her duty as a biographer is to write a hagiographical defence of her subject. The enthusiastic tone extends to most members of the Gandhi family. When Indira Gandhi made a controversial snap decision to nationalise India’s big banks, the er is told simply that crowds danced in the streets in jubilation: “Indira had an instinctive feeling for what would please people and would move heaven and earth to deliver.”辛格是一名驻扎在伦敦的记者和播音员。在写这本书的时候有很多困难。她认为自己作为传记的撰写者,其职责就是要为她书中主角树立正面形象,因此她对甘地家族成员的评价都甚高,当记叙到甘地夫人当机立断,推行了一项颇有争议的国有化印度大型的政策时,辛格仅仅描述了人们在街上欢乐地跳舞庆贺。她还写到“甘地夫人天生知道如何迎合别人,她也竭尽全力地利用这一点。”There is no indication that Ms Singh has had access, during her research, to either Sonia Gandhi herself, or to any of the people who are close to her. The book shows scant political understanding. Sikh militancy, Kashmir, the Sri Lanka conflict and the Bangladesh war are recounted in school textbook prose, accompanied by some baffling non sequiturs.没有任何的迹象表明辛格在撰写这本书做研究期间,有机会接近索尼娅#8226;甘地或是她身边的人。此书政治见解略显浅薄。书中关于锡克教的斗争,克什米尔,斯里兰卡冲突,孟加拉的战争的记叙走只停留在教科书的水平,同时还记叙了一些不相关的战争。(还下了一些不想干的令人困惑的结论)When the narrative becomes more personal, the er is offered anecdotes such as this: “Presented with a tray of freshly made juices, Sonia studied the options carefully: papaya, lime, orange, fresh mango, and coconut water, before choosing the last one.” Would history have turned out differently if she had chosen the lime?当作者叙述平日的琐碎生活之时,读者会读到这样的句子“索尼娅面前放着众多的鲜榨的果汁,有番木瓜汁,酸橙汁,橘汁,新鲜芒果汁和椰子汁,她细细地选择着,最后选择了椰子汁。如果她最后选了酸橙汁,这对历史有什么影响呢? /201305/242165浦东新区周浦医院激光祛痣价格费用 上海激光美白的副作用

九院整形中心Books and Arts; Book Review; Economic history;Centuries of trial and error;How economists rescued mankind from squalor and deprivation;文艺;书评;经济学史;数百年的反复试验;经济学家们如何救人类于悲惨贫穷;Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius. By Sylvia Nasar.《宏伟事业——经济学天才的故事》西尔维亚·娜萨著。In an essay in his popular magazine, Household Words, Charles Dickens issued a challenge to economists to humanise their discipline. “Political economy is a mere skeleton unless it has a little human covering and filling out,” he wrote in the inaugural issue in 1854. “A little human bloom upon it, and a little human warmth in it.”查尔斯·狄更斯曾经办了一本颇受欢迎的杂志,叫《家常话》,1854年,在创刊号上,他给经济学家提出了一项挑战,即要让经济学更人性化,他说,“没有一点人性为其蔽体、充实其血肉,政治经济学就是一具骷髅。要有一点人性才能让它开花,让它有温度。”This is a challenge to which economics and economists have mostly failed to rise. In her new book Sylvia Nasar, a former economics correspondent at the New York Times and now at Columbia University, has at least gone part of the way to satisfying Dickenss wishes. “Grand Pursuit” is a history of economics which is full of flesh, bloom and warmth. The author demonstrates that there is far more to economics than Thomas Carlyles “dismal science”. And she does so with all the style and panache that you would expect from the author of the 1998 bestseller, “A Beautiful Mind”, about John Forbes Nash, the tortured genius behind game theory.遗憾的是,大多时候,经济学以及经济学家并没有完成人性这点要求。但是,在这书里,狄更斯的愿望,至少已有部分得到满足。本书作者西尔维亚·娜萨,曾是《纽约时报》的经济专栏记者,如今就职于哥伦比亚大学,这本书记叙的经济学史有血有肉,有花有果,有热情有温度,作者可算明了经济学不是托马斯·卡莱尔所讲的“沉闷的科学”。娜萨还写过一本书《美丽心灵》,那是1998年的畅销书,讲述受精神分裂症折磨的弈论天才约翰·福布斯·纳什的故事。对于《美丽心灵》的作者,其文风和辞藻在《宏伟事业》中得到延续,不失读者所望。It turns out that economists—or at least the handful of geniuses that Ms Nasar discusses—are a peculiarly interesting bunch. John Maynard Keynes was an exotic mixture of Bloomsbury intellectual and civil-servant mandarin with a touch of Puck thrown in. Joseph Schumpeter was an obsessive scholar who spent his spare moments riding thoroughbreds, collecting mistresses and, on the odd occasion, taking part in orgies. Irving Fisher, the Yale economist who declared, in October 1929, that stocks had reached “what looks like a permanently high plateau”, was a health nut and prohibitionist. Joan Robinson, whom Schumpeter dubbed “one of our best men”, wore Mao suits and pronounced that North Korea was bound to outperform the South.原来经济学家都是特别有趣的一群人,至少娜萨女士在书里写的那些天才们都特别有趣。约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯是英国伦敦布鲁姆斯伯里区知识分子和政界要人的结合,还有点英国民间传说中迫克精灵的味道,是个奇怪的混合体。约瑟夫·熊彼得醉心学问,闲暇时爱骑好马,爱搜猎情人,偶尔参与狂欢。而耶鲁大学经济学家欧文·费希尔是一位十分注重健康生活的人,奉行禁酒,他在1929年十月判断股市到达“永久性的高点”。熊彼得封之为“我们最好的男人之一”的琼·罗宾逊夫人,喜欢穿中山装,断言朝鲜必定会胜过韩国。Ms Nasars story is made all the more appealing by the fact that she does almost nothing to conceal her prejudices. She has little time for Karl Marx, a man who was so convinced of his rightness, and so buried in his books in the British Library, that he failed to observe the world around him. He did not bother to visit a single British factory. He refused to exchange a word with the intellectual titans of the time, including Charles Darwin and George Eliot, both of whom lived just a few miles from his front door. He ignored overwhelming statistical evidence that the working classs share of the nations wealth was increasing. By contrast, Alfred Marshall was everything that Marx was not: the embodiment of all that was best in Victorian high- mindedness. Marshall was alive to what was going on around him. He frequently visited factories and firms, and travelled around the worlds new “empire of energy”, the ed States. He threw his weight behind popular education and incremental reform.娜萨女士从不费心遮掩自己的偏见,这让她的故事更有可读性。书中关于卡尔·马克思的篇幅甚短。马克思对自己的公正颇有信心,但他总在大英国书馆埋头读书,没有时间去好好观察身边的世界,他连一家英国工厂都没去参观过,也拒绝和当时思想大家交流。查尔斯·达尔文和乔治·艾略特离他住地几英里外,他们却从未讲过话。势不可挡的统计数据,足以表明工人阶级占有国家财富的份额在增长,他对此视而不见。阿尔弗雷德·马歇尔与马克思截然相反,他是维多利亚时期优秀品质的化身,关心身边世界,经常访问工厂企业,环游世界新的“活力帝国”——美国。他全心全力持大众教育和逐渐改革。In lesser hands Ms Nasars story might have degenerated into a series of pen portraits: tittle-tattle for the middlebrow. But she unifies her account with a series of big questions. How, for example, did humanity escape from the grinding poverty that has been its lot through most of human history? Why was a static society replaced by a dynamic one? And how best to cope with the booms and busts that have been capitalisms peculiar contribution to human life?如果娜萨女士文笔稍差一些,这些故事就要成了一堆钢笔肖像速写,成了关于一帮知识界平庸人物的杂淡。但是她用一些大问题对叙述加以统一,比如,人类是如何从占据其历史大部分时间的凄惨贫穷中逃离出来的?比如,为何动态社会取代了静态社会?又比如,资本主义给人类生活带来它特有的贡献——经济繁荣与衰退的循环往复,对此什么才是最好的处理方式?In Marxs view the capitalist system, for all its ability to unleash productive power, was haunted by a contradiction: the drive to increase profits would immiserate the poor and lead to crises of overproduction. But Marshall demonstrated that capitalism advances not by immiserating the poor, but by boosting productivity. Factory owners make relentless small improvements that allow them to produce both higher wages and lower prices, thereby sping the gains of material progress throughout society. Schumpeter further expanded the idea of productivity increases. The economy doesnt simply get bigger and bigger. It goes through a constant process of discombobulation as entrepreneurs invent new products and processes. Marx got it upside down: capitalisms recurrent crises actually make it stronger.在马克思看来,资本主义系统,虽然能解放生产力,却有着不可调和的矛盾,即对高额利润的追逐将让劳苦大众的生活更为悲惨,并导致生产过剩,出现经济危机。但是根据马歇尔的论,资本主义的发展并非依靠加大对穷人的剥削,而是靠着提高生产力。工厂主永不停止地进行微小的改进,因此在提高工资的同时能降低产品价格,从而使物质的进步惠及整个社会。熊彼得进一步充实了生产力发展的观点,经济的发展并非简单地变得越来越大,随着企业家发明新产品新工作程序,它经常经历混乱。马克思没有认识到周期性的经济危机事实上发展了资本主义。Economics was a practical as well as an analytical science. From the left, Beatrice Potter Webb argued that mass destitution could be cured by “the household state”. Fisher showed that good management of the money supply could contribute to stability. Keynes insisted that crises could be prevented if the government could act as the spender of last resort, just as the central bank was lender of last resort.经济学是一门分析科学,也是一门实践科学。比阿特丽斯·波特·韦伯认为“每个家庭自为国家”能够解决大众贫穷的问题,费希尔让我们知道,对货帀供应进行良好管理有助于保持经济稳定。凯恩斯坚持认为,如果政府能在最后时刻出手消费,中央能在最后时刻提供贷款,便能阻止经济危机的发生。“Grand Pursuit” peters out at the end. It is easy to see why Ms Nasar thought Amartya Sen might be the right terminus for her train. He is an economic genius who has devoted his life to thinking about the elimination of the most dramatic form of want: famine. But it is, nevertheless, odd to end a history of economics without discussing the financial crisis of 2007-08 and the furious arguments it has engendered within the economics profession. Surely the likes of Paul Krugman and Lawrence Summers should have had at least a walk-on role at the close of the story. But that is a blemish in what is generally a wonderful book. “Grand Pursuit” deserves a place not only in every economists study but also on every serious ers bedside table.《宏伟事业》逐渐进入尾声,娜萨女士选择阿马蒂亚·森作为本书最后一位经济学家,原因可以理解,阿马蒂亚·森是一位经济学天才,毕生研究怎样消除饥荒。但是,作为一本写经济学历史的书,没有论及2007-08年的经济危机以及由此产生的激烈论争就结束了,这不合常理。像保罗·克鲁格曼,劳伦斯·萨默斯这些人,本该在本书最后章节有所提及,。不过,这本书总体来说很精,《宏伟事业》不仅值得每一位经济学家研读,也可作为严肃书籍读者的床头书。 /201306/242929 上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院激光去黄褐斑多少钱杨浦驼峰鼻矫正多少钱

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