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武汉那个医院看皮肤病厉害管面诊武汉做包皮手术的价格

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武汉华夏的信誉湖北省肿瘤医院前列腺炎多少钱Feeling down? Youre not alone.你有感到很失落吗?不只你这样。If depression seems pretty common, it is.抑郁看起来很普遍,事实上也是如此。One in every ten adults suffers from depression.每十个成年人里就有一个会患有抑郁症。And thats what has scientists puzzled.这让科学家们感到不解。If depression is a detrimentalcondition, why is it so rampant in the population?如果抑郁对身体有害,那么为什么人群中抑郁症患者如此之多呢?Some scientists think they may have the answer.一些科学家认为他们已经找到了。Depression may have an evolutionary benefit.抑郁也许对进化有好处。It may improve ones chances of fighting off infection.它能提高人体免疫力。Scientists have known that depressed people display an immunoactive condition known as inflammation,一些科学家发现抑郁症人群体内会产生免疫活性,也就是炎症,even when they are not infected.即便他们未受到感染时也会如此。For several years they have been finding that genes linked to depression also affect the function of the immune system.几年来,科学家们逐渐发现与抑郁有关的基因也会影响免疫系统的功能。Stress, which can lead to depression, also modifies the immune system.同样会导致抑郁的压力因素也会改变免疫系统。These findings suggested that depression was somehow linked to the bodys ability to fight disease.从某种程度上讲,这些调查结果表明抑郁与人体免疫力有关。Some scientists now propose that depression might have had an evolutionary advantage in the days before modern medicine and antibiotics.一些科学家提出早在现代药物和抗生素出现之前,抑郁就可能能够给进化带来好处。Infection was a major cause of death in early human history.感染是人类早期历史中导致死亡的主要原因之一。Surviving those infections determined which genes were passed to the next generation.能够在这些感染中存活就决定了哪种基因能够传递给下一代。They suspect that depression helped people, especially children, survive infection.他们推测抑郁可能会帮助人们特别是儿童抵御感染的侵害。Fatigue leads toinactivity and less social contact which helps keep infection from sping.疲劳会让人不愿意运动,同时也会减少社交,由此便会阻止感染的传播。Shunning food helps avoid food sharing which can also sp infection.对食物没胃口就会避免与别人分 享食物,这也能够避免感染传播。Sleeplessness, which is associated with both depression and immune system activation,失眠与抑郁和免疫系统激活也存在联系,may have been a mechanism to keep a person alert to fight off predators after injury.失眠可能会产生一种让人在受伤后能对感染保持警觉的机制。If scientists are correct about this link, it could lead to new treatments for depression.如果科学家们对这些联系的猜测正确的话,那么它们将促成新的治疗抑郁症的方法产生。They are interested in drugs that treat conditions where the immune system attacks the persons ownbody, known as auto immune diseases.他们对用于治疗自体免疫症的药物很感兴趣。It is possible that medications known to treat auto immune disease may be successful in treating depression also.那些已知的用于治疗自身免疫性疾病的药物对治疗抑郁症可能同样有效。201403/281639武汉华夏男子医院专家 Science and technology科学技术A mind to walk again一个让残疾人重新站起来的伟大想法A trial of thought-controlled robotic legs is taking its first steps用思想控制的机器人腿已经开始研制ANYONE who saw Claire Lomas complete this years London marathon on May 7th cannot fail to have been impressed by her grit and determination.任何一个目睹Claire Lomas今年5月7日完成伦敦马拉松比赛的人,都无法不被他的勇气和决心所打动。Ms Lomas, once a show jumper, was paralysed from the chest down by a riding accident in 2007, so finishing a marathon, albeit at walking pace, was a dramatic feat.Lomas女士之前是一名障碍赛马运动员,在2007年的一次比赛事故中,造成从胸部以下瘫痪,所以她能完成马拉松比赛,即便是走路那样慢,也是一次惊人壮举。Some of the adulation, however, should be reserved for the technology that helped her do so: a pair of bionic legs.部分荣耀也得归功于一项高科技:两条仿生假腿。Ms Lomass legs were designed by Amit Goffer, an Israeli engineer who is himself paralysed.Lomas女士的假肢是由以色列工程师Amit Goffer设计的,他本人也患有残疾。They have various modes and are controlled by a keypad worn on the wrist.这两条仿生假腿有几种不同的模式,由手腕上的键盘控制。Walking also requires the assistance of a pair of crutches.走路需要一对拐杖。But Dr Goffers legs allowed Ms Lomas to travel the 42.195km of the marathon course in stages, over a period of 16 days.但Goffer士设计的假腿让Lomas女士行走42.195公里,分时段完成马拉松比赛,行程耗时16天。That record may not last long, however.但这个记录可能不会持续太久。Another engineer, José Contreras-Vidal of the University of Houston, in Texas, has what may prove an even better design:另一名工程师,德克萨斯州休斯顿大学的José Contreras-Vidal已被实设计出了更好的假肢:a pair of bionic legs that respond directly to signals from the brain.由大脑信号直接控制的仿生假肢。The idea of controlling machines by thought is not new.由大脑控制机器并不是最新的想法。在对人类与猴子的研究显示,运用软件从植入到人脑的电极采集信号,精确度极高,能够带动机器假肢。Research both on people and on monkeys has shown it is possible for them to move mechanical limbs with great precision, using software which interprets signals collected by electrodes implanted in their brains. The problem with this approach is that implanting electrodes into a brain is a dangerous procedure—and, even if it succeeds and does no damage, the wires leading out of the skull to the computer open a passage into the body which can lead to infection.但这种想法的问题是,将电极植入人脑是一个危险的程序,而且,即便试验成功,并未造成损害,那些连接头盖骨与电脑的电线在身体上的创口也会导致感染。Dr Contreras-Vidals approach gets round these difficulties by employing electroencephalography, which measures those electrical signals from the brain that reach the scalp.Contreras-Vidal士运用脑电图学,测试从脑部到达头皮的各种电子信号,解决了诸多难题。The recording electrodes can be carried by a skull cap, and nothing has to penetrate the skin.这些记录下来的电极存储在一个头盖帽里,并不会渗透到皮肤里。Such second-hand signals are not as precise as ones collected directly from the brain itself, and probably could not control the complex movements required of an arm and a hand.这种二手信号并没有直接从脑部收集的信号准确,可能也无法控制胳膊与手的复杂动作。But experiments using EEG have allowed people to do simple things like pressing buttons on a computer screen by moving a cursor and clicking it, and operating the flippers on a pinball machine.但用脑电图学所做的实验能让人们做一些简单的事情,比如移动光标按动电脑屏幕的按钮,点击它,开启弹珠机器上的弹珠游戏。That got Dr Contreras-Vidal thinking.这让Contreras-Vidal士陷入深深地思考。Despite appearances, walking is harder than playing pinball.除了外观,走路比玩弹珠游戏更难。But it is easier than picking something up.但比捡东西容易。He therefore wondered if he could use EEG-based control to operate a set of mechanical legs.他思考如果能运用脑电图学控制一套假肢。And, to cut a long story short, he probably can.他或许真能做到。Moreover, in the process he has reduced the number of electrodes in an EEG cap from the 30 required for pinball to a mere dozen. This means it will eventually be lighter, and easier to wear.而且,在研发过程中,他将玩弹珠球游戏所需要的头盖帽电极数从30个减少到了仅仅12个。He and a group of colleagues at the University of Maryland were able to do this by analysing what goes on in the brain when someone moves his limbs.他和他马里兰大学的同事通过分析人在移动肢体时脑中思考的情况做到这一点。They used a system of cameras to record the movement patterns of a set of able-bodied volunteers who were walking on a tmill, and then correlated the result with the electrical signals detected simultaneously at their scalps.他们用一套摄像系统记录志愿者们在跑步机上的动作类型,并且把结果和从头皮测试的电子信号连接。Even a simple task, like wiggling a toe, engages many parts of the brain.即便是一个简单的任务,像摆动脚趾,也涉及到人脑好几个部分。These include the frontal cortex, the motor cortex, the somatosensory cortex and the part of the parietal cortex that regulates kinaesthesia.包括额叶皮层、运动皮层、体感皮层和配运动感觉的部分顶叶皮层。By choosing sites carefully, the researchers were able to cover all these areas with as few as 12 electrodes.通过仔细选择测试部位,研究人员能够用仅12个电极覆盖到所有区域。The next step, which they are now working on, is to turn the result into reliable instructions that can operate a set of legs.下一步,也是他们现在正在研究的,就是把结果转变成为可靠媒介,开发一套假肢。These are made by Rex Bionics, a firm based in New Zealand.这个研究是新西兰的Rex生物公司在做。They are a partial exoskeleton that allows a user to stand and walk independently, without crutches, and are normally operated by hand controls.这对假肢是一部分外骨骼,能让患者摆脱拐杖独自站立与行走,之前是用手控制的。To adapt them to thought control, a group of able-bodied people will first don the cap and perambulate in the legs around a laboratory, to refine the process.为了能通过思想控制,研究人员让一组健全的志愿者带着头盖帽,在实验室走动,不断更新过程。Then—with luck, some time this summer—a full-scale trial in collaboration with a group of paralysed volunteers will start.幸运的是,这个夏天将开始对瘫痪志愿者实施。For someone who has been crippled in an accident of the sort suffered by Ms Lomas, Dr Contreras-Vidal thinks it will simply be a matter of remembering how you used to walk, and then doing it. The legs will respond appropriately. For those paralysed from birth that is not possible, of course.对那些在事故中变成残废的人,像Lomas女士,Contreras-Vidal士认为它只是简单的让人记起之前是如何走路的,然后去尝试走路。假肢的反应非常好。But even these unfortunates, he hopes, may be able to benefit.但对那些一出生便是残疾的人,肯定是不可能的。They will understand what walking means and, with a bit of practice, that might be enough to provide the necessary brain activity.虽然也很遗憾,他希望也能有所帮助。他们能明白走路是什么,通过练习,能够激起必要的脑部活动。Nor is mere locomotion the only benefit.这项研究并不光是运动受益。To be able to stand and walk restores a persons independence and dignity, and also helps improve his health.站立与行走能重新给予一个人独立与尊严,让他更健康。Which is why, during the trials, a group of doctors led by Robert Grossman of the Methodist Hospital, Houston, will monitor such things as the participants bone density, respiratory function and cardiovascular systems, all of which are expected to improve when someone is no longer stuck in a wheelchair.这也是为什么在实验中,由休斯顿Methodist 医院的Robert Grossman带领的医生们会监视诸如骨密度、呼吸功能和心血管系统等,这些都能让患者不再一辈子坐轮椅。If the trial works, Dr Contreras-Vidal and his colleagues believe their technique will transform the lives of those with spinal injuries.如果实验成功,Contreras-Vidal士和他的同事们将用之于脊椎受伤的人。It might also act as a form of physiotherapy, to help victims of strokes restore the use of their legs.可能通过物理疗法,帮助中风患者重新站起来,And it will certainly save a lot of money.也能省很多钱。A set of bionic legs can cost as much as 0,000. But the lifetime cost of caring for a 25-year-old with severe spinal injury is around m.一对仿生假肢花费大约15万美元,然而治疗一位25岁的严重脊椎损伤患者的花费大约为300万美元。If he can get up, go shopping and even go to work wearing one of Dr Contreras-Vidals caps, then both he and the taxpayers will be hugely better off.如果他能重新站起来,戴着Contreras-Vidal研制的头盖帽去购物,甚至是去工作,无论是他本人,还是纳税人,都会皆大欢喜的。 /201403/278073咸宁包皮手术哪家医院最好

武汉华夏男子医院不育武汉华夏男子属于几级医院 武汉不孕不育医院哪个医院比较好

"武汉看男科Business商业报道British lawyers in Dubai英国律师在迪拜Money for old laws旧法律世界新钱途New international courts in Dubai are giving British legal firms a boost迪拜的新国际法院给英国律所新的增长点WHEN the ed Arab Emirates gained its independence from Britain in 1971, little did it expect a second wave of colonialists: British lawyers.自从1971年阿拉伯联合酋长国从英国那里获得独立后,它从没想过会有第二次殖民浪潮:英国律师。Clifford Chance, a London-based legal giant, opened a small office in Dubai in 1975 as it began to emerge as a commercial centre.伦敦律所Clifford Chance自从迪拜作为一个商业中心出现的时候就在1975年在那里开了一个小小的办事处。Allen amp; Overy followed in 1978.1978年Allen amp; Overy紧跟着开了办事处。As Dubai boomed, lawyers from Britain and other countries flooded in, soon crowding its legal market.随着迪拜的繁荣,来自英国和其他国家的律师涌入很快充满它的法律市场。A new type of court may yet give British legal minds an advantage over both local lawyers and foreign rivals.一种新型法院给予英国律师们相对于当地律师和外国竞争对手的优势。Hoping to become the Middle Easts legal hub, in 2011 Dubai International Financial Centre threw open its courts to disputes from any country, provided both parties agree to be bound by its decisions.为了成为中东法律中心,2011年迪拜国际金融中心开设它的法院受理来自任何国家的争端,只要双方同意受法院裁决的拘束。The attraction is that the courts use the English language and operate in public under English-style common law.这个法院的吸引人之处在于它使用英语并且在英国普通法系下公开运作。This makes the legal process more transparent and much less risky for Western firms, which are put off by the reputation of Dubais local civil-law courts for favouring Emiratis over foreigners, according to Will Buckby at Beale amp; Company, a law firm.这样会使法律程序更加透明并且西方律所承担更少的风险,根据一家律所Will Buckby at Beale amp; Company,西方律师正被被迪拜当地民事法院持本地人的名声困扰。British firms aly appear to be benefiting.现在英国律所已经开始受益。Since 2011 British lawyers in Dubai say they have been inundated by requests to draw up commercial contracts stating disputes have to be resolved in the DIFC courtrooms.自从2011年开始在迪拜的英国律师说他们已经被起草列明争端得在DIFC法院解决条款的商业合同要求淹没了。More new work has been generated since the courts opened up.自从这个法院开始运作以来更多新的工作产生了。In their first year after the change, the value of disputed contracts under their consideration increased by 400%.变化后的他们第一年,他们考虑下的争议合同价值增长了400%。And as a forum for arbitration, the DIFC courts are doing well.并且作为一个仲裁庭,the DIFC法院做得很好。Around 95% of cases are resolved before they are heard formally.大概95%的案件在他们正式听前就解决了。Inspired by the DIFCs success, Qatar has aly opened its own international courts.受到DIFC成功的鼓舞,卡塔尔已经开设了它自己的国际法庭。Abu Dhabi plans to follow suit next year.阿布扎比计划下一年跟随。And Saudi Arabia has in the past expressed interest in setting up a private arbitration court in London.并且沙特阿拉伯过去已经表达了他们在伦敦设立私人仲裁法庭的兴趣。British lawyers are well placed to take advantage of this trend towards international courts.英国律师充分利用这股国际法院的趋势。It is handy that the courts speak their language and use their law.法院运用他们的语言和使用他们的法律来说是非常方便的。And many of the judges have an English legal background.并且许多法官拥有一个英国法律背景。Not only have big firms such as Allen amp; Overy expanded operations in Dubai; smaller firms are rushing to set up offices there too.不仅仅是如同Cleary Gottlieb这样的大所在迪拜拓展运行机构;小所也冲到那里设立办事处。More than 30 are now based in the DIFC area alone.超过30家律所现在仅仅做DIFC的业务。English law is likely to remain first choice for commercial contracts in the Middle East.英国法可能保持在中东商业合同的首要选择。Unlike civil-code systems, English law evolves through case law to stay more up to date with the wider world.不同于民法法典系统,英国法通过案例法保持同这个广大的世界同步进化。For instance, recent rulings loosening the requirements for foreign companies wanting to liquidate themselves in English courts have boosted the use of some parts of corporate law.例如,最近在英国法院关于放松对希望清算的外国公司的要求的裁决已经促进公司法的部分使用了。British law firms will also benefit from Dubais resurgent finance and construction sectors.英国律所同样也受益于最近复兴的金融和建设部分。Well over half of all financing agreements in Dubai are aly written using English law.目前在迪拜超过一半的金融合同已经用英国法撰写了。A more serious threat to British legal firms would be if American law firms start to outcompete them, according to James Martin, a lawyer at Linklaters based in Dubai until recently.对英国律所而言一个更严峻的威胁可能是如果美国律所开始同他们竞争,根据一个最近Linklaters在迪拜的律师James Martin的观点。Some American law firms, such as Cleary Gottlieb, have started to expand in the Middle East, and more will surely do the same.一些美国律所,例如Cleary Gottlieb,已经开始在中东拓展他们的业务,并且其他律所肯定会做同样的事情。There is a strong case to be made that British firms are leading the way in the Gulf, but the jury is out on whether they can stay ahead for the long haul.有很强的例子明英国会主导海湾地区的方向,但是目前还不能肯定的是他们是否能够长期保持领先地位。 /201312/269086 武汉市第一医院男科挂号武汉华夏医院中医科有几个医生

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