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SEVENTY years ago, the ed Nations was formed as the expression of a simple choice: cooperation instead of war. Humanity would stand as one against conflict, poverty and disease. All the world’s voices would be heard.70年前,联合国的建立表明,人类做出了一个简单的选择:合作而非战争。全人类应该团结起来,应对冲突、贫穷和疾病。世界上所有人的声音都应被听到。At least, that was the plan.至少,那时是这样计划的。We’ve come a long way. We’ve halted and reversed the sp of killer diseases, extended life expectancy and raised incomes. We’ve even walked ourselves back from the edge of some global conflicts and catastrophes. But progress has not been evenly distributed. Too many people have been left outside of a mostly urban, mostly Northern success story.我们一路走来取得了极大的进展。我们遏制和扭转了致命疾病的传播,延长了预期寿命,提高了收入水平。我们甚至将自己从一些全球性冲突和灾难的边缘拉了回来。但是人类的进步并不均衡。成功的故事主要在城市、在北半球,而太多的人被遗忘在这些成功故事之外。Seeing that, world leaders put forth a new set of global goals in New York last week. If we want to build a world where not just some but all get to live in security and prosperity, there’s a lot still to do, as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development signed off on by ed Nations member states shows.目睹这些现象,世界各国领导人上周在纽约提出了一系列新的全球目标。如果我们希望构建一个不仅让一部分人,而是让全体人都可以生活在安全与繁荣中的世界,我们仍有很多工作要做。联合国成员国签署的《2030年可持续发展议程》就体现了这一点。It lists 17 goals and 169 targets, and one of these, 9(c), is a target that we believe is crucial to accelerate realization of all the others: a commitment to provide Internet connectivity for all by 2020.议程中列出17项总体目标和169项具体目标。我们相信其中一项目标,即编号9(c)的目标,对促成其他所有目标的实现是至关重要的:承诺到2020年,让全世界所有人接入互联网。Today over half the people on this planet don’t have access. That is not good for anyone — not for the disempowered and disconnected, and not for the other half, whose commerce and security depend on having stable societies.今天,我们这个星球上超过半数的人无法接入网络。这对任何人来说都不是好事——对那些处于劣势、未能连入网络的人并非好事,对另外一半也一样,因为后者的利益和安全都依托于社会的稳定。An unprecedented array of technologists and activists — from Mo Ibrahim to Bill and Melinda Gates, action/2015, Ushahidi and Sahara Reporters have come together to support a global Connectivity Declaration, pledging their support for the new global goals and connecting the world to opportunity. This needs to become a global movement.从穆·易卜拉欣(Mo Ibrahim)到比尔和梅琳达·盖茨(Bill and Melinda Gates),从“行动/2015”(action/2015)到“见者”(Ushahidi),再到“撒哈拉记者”(Sahara Reporters),一系列科技界人士和活动人士史无前例地联合起来,持一项全球“互连宣言”。他们承诺会持新的全球目标,让全世界与机遇相连。这需要成为一项全球性的运动。In this century, global development and global connectivity are closely linked. If you want to help people feed, heal, educate and employ themselves around the world, we need to connect the world as well. The Internet should not belong to only three billion people, as it does today. It should be seen as a necessity for development, and a tool that makes larger things possible.这个世纪,全球发展与全球网络互联是密切相关的。想要协助世界各地的人得到饱足、医疗、教育并自力更生,我们也需要让全世界接入网络。互联网不应该像今天这样,只属于30亿人口。它应该被视为发展的必需品,一个用来成就更远大目标的工具。In Ethiopia and Tanzania, for example, farmers connect to get better prices, track inventory and make mobile insurance payments in case of bad weather. In Nigeria, citizens use BudgIT, a mobile app, to assess whether governments keep their spending promises. The opportunity is especially great for women. Men have significantly more access to the web, but when women get connected, they use technology as a pathway to better education, health, economic status and security. In Guatemala, cellphones inform mothers how to have healthy pregnancies. In Kenya, women receive financial services via their cellphones thanks to the brilliant M-Pesa microfinance scheme.以埃塞俄比亚和坦桑尼亚为例,当地的农民可利用网络争取较高的售价、追踪库存、通过移动设备付保险费用,以防天有不测风云。尼日利亚公民可以利用BudgIT这个手机app,来监督政府是否遵守承诺运用开。对女性来说这尤其是个大好机会。虽然男性连线上网的机会要多得多,不过如果女性也能使用网络,她们就能借助科技手段,寻求更好的教育、健康、经济地位与人身安全。危地马拉的准妈妈能使用手机学习如何在期保持健康。而在肯尼亚,借助M-Pesa这个出色的微型贷款计划,妇女们能够通过手机获得金融务。In the last few weeks, we’ve watched desperate refugees seek shelter on the frontiers of Europe. Smartphones have made it possible for those left behind to communicate with loved ones across checkpoints and razor wire. The Internet connected our world in shared grief as a Syrian child’s death on a beach in Turkey came to symbolize every refugee. Social media carried the message and changed not just popular opinion but public policy.过去几周,我们看到许多难民铤而走险,在欧洲边境寻求庇护。智能手机使得那些留在当地的难民,得以与跨过了检查站和铁丝网的亲人保持连系。网络使全世界人,共同为一个死在土耳其海滩上的叙利亚男童哀悼,使他成为了每位难民的共同象征。社交网络不只传递了信息,同时也促成了公众意见与公共政策的改变。It’s one thing to say we should connect the world. The real trick is how.然而用网络连结全世界说来容易,做起来难。There’s no simple solution or silicon bullet.并不存在简便的解决方案,或者一蹴而就的技术工具。In many places, increasing connectivity will have to start with extending access to energy. Nine out of 10 rural Africans don’t have electricity. Governments can make the difference. This is why we support initiatives like President Obama’s Power Africa plan and the bipartisan Electrify Africa Act in Congress, as well as the African Development Bank’s investments in renewable energy.在许多地方,想普及网络连接,得先从普及能源供应开始着手。非洲农村地区的民众十分之九没有电力可用,政府当局可以在这个方面带来改变。这就是我们为什么要持奥巴马总统提出的“电力非洲计划”(Power Africa)、两党在国会共同提出的《非洲电气化法案》(Electrify Africa Act),以及非洲开发(African Development Bank)对可再生能源的投资。Where governments lay the foundation, the private sector can build. Promising efforts are underway to bridge the digital divide. But we know the global community can, and must, do more — and urgently. The Intel Foundation’s work in STEM education, Microsoft’s use of technology to advance the Millennium Development Goals and Google’s Project Loon to connect remote locations illustrate how technology leaders are prioritizing this effort, as is Internet.org, Facebook’s contribution to meeting the challenge.政府打下基础之后,私营部门就能继续建设。我们为缩小数字鸿沟所付出的努力前景可期。不过我们也很清楚,世界各国可以也应该作出更多贡献,而这是刻不容缓的。英特尔基金会(Intel Foundation)为理工和数学教育所做的工作,微软利用科技推进千年发展目标(Millennium Development Goals)的努力,以及谷歌为偏远地区提供网络接入的热气球计划(Project Loon),都显示出科技巨头将此视为当务之急。Facebook旗下的Internet.org也为应对挑战做出了贡献。More technology companies and entrepreneurs must take more responsibility. Silicon Valley should look beyond itself and act more on issues like education, health care and the refugee crisis. We challenge the tech industry to do far more for those most marginalized, those trapped in poverty, and those beyond or on the edge of the network.需要有更多科技公司与企业家承担起更多责任。硅谷不只应该关注自身,还应该采取更多行动,应对教育、医疗及难民危机等议题。我们想对科技产业提出挑战,替那些最边缘化、为贫穷所困,还有那些网络所不能及的人群,付出更大努力。All the global goals must be scored — but the goal of connectivity for everyone everywhere will surely hurry this game-that’s-not-a-game to its successful conclusion. Hurry being the operative word here.所有的全球目标都必须达成,然而让世界各地的所有人都接入互联网的目标,肯定能加速这场并非儿戏的赛跑。“加速”理当成为我们的行动方针。 /201510/401921In a recent op-ed in The Financial Times, Larry Summers criticized the U.S. for not backing the creation of a new China-led international bank that would finance major infrastructure projects across the Asia Pacific region; the former U.S. secretary of treasury decried it a “failure of strategy and tactics” and called for “a comprehensive review of the U.S. approach to global economics.”美国前财政部长拉里o萨默斯最近在英国《金融时报》发表,批评美国政府不该冷漠对待亚投行,这家由中国牵头发起的新国际将为亚太地区的重要基础设施项目提供资金。萨默斯认为,美国政府犯下了一场“战略和战术上的失败”,并呼吁其“全面检讨对全球经济该采取的姿态”。Summers’ pointed words followed those of another Clinton Administration alumnus. Madeleine Albright, America’s former top diplomat, who late last month said the ed States had “screwed up” in its unsuccessful efforts to dissuade other countries from supporting the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.无独有偶,就在萨默斯措辞尖锐地指责美国政府前不久,另一位克林顿时期的政府要员、前国务卿奥尔布赖特上个月也批评了奥巴马政府。她表示,美国政府费那么大力气想把其他国家拦在亚投行之外,最后却把事情“搞得一团糟”。Both Summers’ and Albright’s remarks came as diplomats and business executives from Asia and Europe have embraced the bank. Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, South Korea and Australia, are among more than 40 nations who have brushed aside the White House’s concerns over the intentions of the bank and whether it will follow “high quality, time-tested standards.” China will provide much of the AIIB’s initial 0 billion in funding. The bank is expected to be up and running by the end of this year, helping finance transport, water, energy and other infrastructure projects.这边萨默斯和奥尔布赖特的责备不断,那边亚洲和欧洲的外交官和企业高管已经开始对亚投行积极示好。尽管美国一直在质疑亚投行成立的目的,还担心亚投行“没法遵守高质量的、经得起时间考验的标准”,但英国、德国、法国、意大利、韩国和澳大利亚等40多个国家并未理会,仍然申请加入。亚投行的初始资金规模为1000亿美元,大部分来自中国,预计该行将在今年年底前正式运行,为交通运输、水利以及能源等基础设施项目提供资金。Going forward, the U.S. and Japan, which also has withheld support, may well seek to save face and work with the bank. Such a move will be good for all parties, but for the bank to be successful, leaders should bear a few measures in mind:今后,美国很可能得找机会与亚投行合作,挽回点颜面,跟美国一样未参与亚投行的日本也一样。若真能如此,将对各方都有利。然而,要想亚投行真正成功,领导人还应该考虑到以下几个问题:With the bank’s focus on infrastructure development instead of on the broader goal of poverty reduction, it is important that policies and procedures be put in place to ensure that infrastructure investments do not lead to the unintended impoverishment of thousands of people or significant harm to the surrounding environment.鉴于亚投行的重点是基础设施开发,而不是为了消除贫困这样更为宏远的目标,那么有一点很重要,就是相关政策和程序都要落实到位,确保基础设施投资不会导致大批民众突然陷入贫困,也要避免对周边环境造成严重污染。Given their size and scope, major infrastructure projects such as hydroelectric power plants and road networks can lead to forced resettlement of communities and the loss of traditional livelihoods, such as in agriculture and fishing. I saw this during my own visits to a range of power and transport projects in my oversight role from early 2007 to the end of 2010 on the Board of Directors of the Asian Development Bank.亚投行的资金规模庞大,覆盖范围也很广,水电站和公路等大型基础设施项目可能迫使很多社区的原住民背井离乡,丧失务农、等传统谋生手段。2007年初到2010年底,我在亚洲开发任职期间实地考察了一些电力和交通运输项目,就曾遇到过此类情况。Strong social and environmental safeguards are needed to make sure development projects are done in a sustainable manner. Views and input from affected communities should be incorporated in a meaningful way from the earliest stages of project design. Otherwise, poorly designed projects can contribute to social and environmental harm, costs overruns for borrowers and ultimately unrest and delayed or cancelled projects.要确保项目的可持续开发,就需要采取强有力的社会保障措施和环境保护手段。设计项目早期就应该充分考虑当地相关社区的意见,而且应有居民代表参与。否则,如果项目设计有问题,有可能给当地社会和环境造成危害,借款方的成本将超,最终可能导致社会动荡、项目延误甚至取消。The new bank should move quickly to prove skeptics wrong. It has the chance, for example, to demonstrate that it can be more effective than the World Bank and other regional development banks in financing infrastructure while addressing legitimate community concerns about relocation and compensation for any loss of housing or income.亚投行应当迅速行动起来,明怀疑论者的观点是错的。比如说,它可以用实际行动明,在资助基础设施建设方面,亚投行的融资效率比世界和其他地区性开发更高;而在应付社区搬迁时提出的合理诉求、提供相应房屋或收入补偿方面,亚投行也有能力处置妥当。Recently, the World Bank admitted to “serious shortcomings in the implementation of its resettlement policies,” adding that it plans to fix its problems with a “plan that will improve the oversight and management of resettlement practices to ensure better protection of people and businesses affected by bank-funded projects.”最近,世界承认“在工程移民安置政策方面存在严重缺陷”,同时宣布将解决这个问题,具体途径是制定方案,改善移民安置过程中的监督和管理,确保受项目影响的民众和企业得到妥善安排。The new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has the chance to develop strong, new and effective accountability mechanisms all shareholders would support. A strong independent evaluations department not beholden to any single shareholder must be part of that. Mechanisms to review and ensure compliance with the bank’s own rules are also critical.新成立的亚投行还可以建立强有效的新型问责机制,并争取所有股东持。要实现这样的机制,必须成立一个强势的独立评估部门,不能受任何一家股东牵制。另一点也很重要,就是建立相应内控制度,确保亚投行严格遵守内部章程。As Summers noted, it is time for the US to wake up to a new economic era. Strengthened engagement with Asia and all its major financial institutions must be part of that.正如萨默斯所说,美国应该清醒地认识到,新经济时代已经来临,应该积极参与亚洲事务,与亚洲所有重要的金融机构多打交道也是其中的一部分。 /201504/369358

BEIJING — Yahoo Inc. is closing its Beijing research and development center and leaving China in a new cost-cutting move.北京——作为削减成本的新措施,雅虎公司将关闭其在北京的研发中心,全面撤出中国。The company said Thursday the Beijing office#39;s functions would be consolidated in other locations. It gave no details of how many people would lose their jobs but said they would be ;treated with respect and fairness.;公司周四表示,北京办事处的职能将转移到其他地方及部门。公司对有多少人将失去工作没有提供细节,但表示这些人将“得到有尊严及公平的对待”。The Sunnyvale, California-based company has cut jobs elsewhere in a sweeping corporate overhaul as it tries to catch up with Internet users who have shifted to using smartphones and tablets instead of laptop and desktop computers.这家总部位于加利福尼亚州森尼维尔的公司正在进行大规模企业整改,已经在其他地方裁掉大批员工,公司试图追赶互联网用户上网方式的改变,许多用户已转向使用智能手机和平板电脑上网,而不是笔记本电脑和台式电脑。Yahoo turned over control of its China operations to its partner Alibaba Group in 2005 as part of a corporate tie-up. Yahoo stopped offering services in China in 2013.作为企业结盟的一部分,雅虎曾在2005年将自己中国业务的控制权移交给其合作伙伴阿里巴巴集团。雅虎于2013年停止了向中国提供务。Yahoo#39;s profit for the quarter ending in December fell 52 percent from a year earlier while revenue dipped 1 percent.雅虎的利润在截止去年12月的上个季度与去年同期相比下降了52%,营业收入下降了1%。 /201503/365688

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