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襄樊人民医院男科医生度分享

2020年02月19日 03:35:00 | 作者:健社区 | 来源:新华社
JANUARY is a busy month in capitals across America. New laws are implemented; Congress and legislatures reconvene, hoping to pass more. If onersquo;s political party is in the minority, this is a terrifying prospect. For opponents of abortion, the outlook could hardly be sunnier. As of January, for example, abortion providers in Arkansas must follow new rules for inspections. Beginning this month, Utah and Nebraska bar private health plans from covering abortion. These laws follow an avalanche of abortion measures, passed last year, that are aly in effect. As politicians return to capitals, more restrictions may come.在美国,一月是各州首府繁忙的月份:新法的实施事宜;为了能有更多的法律出台,国会和立法机构会议反复召开。如若有一政党孤立沦为少数,那么将来的事情就不好办。对于不持堕胎的人来说,堕胎这一议题的形势对他们最有利不过了:自一月起,在阿肯色州,堕胎务提供者必须遵循新的检查规定。本月初,犹他州和内布拉斯加州出台法律宣布个人医疗保险计划不涉及堕胎。这些法律伴随着去年颁布的一系列堕胎措施而来,已经开始实行起来。政客们纷纷回归首府,随之而来的是更多的对堕胎的限制措施。Last year saw a surge in social conservatism. It has been said that social issues inspire Americans to vote against their economic interests: a factory worker elects an anti-abortion Republican; in return he gets anti-union laws. Last year the adage was reversed. In 2010 Americans voted for economic austerity; in 2011 they got abortion restrictions. For those who oppose abortion, it was the most promising year in decades. For Barack Obama, it was a headache that looks set to grow worse.美国去年掀起了一波社会保守主义热潮。据说这些社会议题,会激发美国人在投票时,割舍自己的经济利益:一名厂工投票持了一位反对堕胎的共和党人;作为回报,他得到的是反工会法律。去年这个老生常谈的话题的局面得到了扭转。2010年,美国人持经济紧缩政策;2011年他们得到限制堕胎法。对于反对堕胎的人来说,这是几十年来最高兴的一年。对于巴拉克.奥巴马而言,让他头疼的堕胎议题,看上去又要;强势回归;了。The Supreme Court long ago ruled, in Roe v Wade, that women have the right to an abortion. Politicians, however, are testing more ways to limit access to one. Such efforts have little hope in Washington, DC, where Democrats control the Senate. Nevertheless, last year Republicans in the House of Representatives tried to bar funding for abortions permanently (a yearly amendment aly does as much). They tried to do the same for Planned Parenthood, a chain of health clinics that offer abortions. They even voted to bar funding for a family-planning programme created by Richard Nixon, hardly a raging feminist.美国联邦最高法院对rsquo;rsquo;柔伊对韦德;的判决距今已很久远,当时的结果是,女性有权利堕胎。然而,政客们正在尝试运用更多办法来限制人去堕胎。这样的努力放到华盛顿基本上是毫无希望的,因为那里的民主党人掌控着参议院。然而,去年众议院的共和党人努力永远禁止资助堕胎(一条年度修订案已经也这样做了。)他们对待美国计划生育联盟的态度一样,后者在美国各地都有提供堕胎的医疗诊所。这些共和党人甚至反对由脾气好的女权主义者理查德.尼克松开创的计划生育项目的集资。As politicians bickered in Washington, state legislatures took action. The year was remarkable for the sheer number of new laws;91, reckons Elizabeth Nash of the Guttmacher Institute, a research group that supports abortion rights. Many states barred abortion coverage from the health plans that will be offered on Mr Obamarsquo;s new health exchanges. Others banned abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy, arguing that they were shielding fetuses from pain. States made it harder for minors to receive abortions. Nebraska, for example, now requires notarised parental consent. Sam Brownback, the outspoken governor of Kansas, passed the yearrsquo;s broadest anti-abortion package. More surprising, Indiana was not far behind. In 2010 Mitch Daniels, Indianarsquo;s governor, insisted that fiscal reform was more urgent than a divisive social agenda. In April 2011 he signed a broad anti-abortion bill.正当华盛顿政客们吵得不可开交之际,各州立法机构已经开始采取行动。持享有堕胎权的古特马赫研究院的伊丽莎白.纳什认为,这一年是非凡的一年,因为新法竟然达到了91条。医保方案将会根据奥巴马新的指示意见呈现出来,而很多州都会把堕胎从中拿掉。其它州持保护胎儿免受痛苦的意见禁止怀20周后堕胎。许多州让未成年女性更不容易堕胎。比如内布拉斯加州就要求堕胎必须得到公确认的父母的同意。直率的堪萨斯州州长山姆.布朗巴克通过了年度波及范围最为广泛的反堕胎配套计划方案。让人更为吃惊的是,印第安纳州也不甘落后。该州州长米奇.丹尼斯坚持认为2010年的财政改革比任何一个存在意见分歧的社会议题都要紧迫。2011年四月他签署了一条内容广泛的反堕胎法案。201201/168110Business商业Fine-wine fraud伪造的美酒Chateau Lafake法国酒庄拉法克红酒The fine-wine boom is attracting forgers美酒追捧热潮催生造假者WINE buffs are like art collectors. Few can tell the difference between a well-made fake and the real thing.葡萄酒爱好者与艺术品收藏者相同,他们中很少人能分清真品与制作精良的赝品有什么区别。Yet whereas counterfeit art has been around for centuries, wine forgery is relatively new.但艺术品伪造已经有几百年历史了,酒类伪造却还只是近几十年的事。It started in the late 1970s when the prices of the best wines—especially those from Bordeaux—shot up.20世纪70年代末期,由于精品美酒尤其来自法国波尔多的葡萄酒价格飙升,名酒伪造应运而生。Today, with demand from China fuelling a remarkable boom, counterfeiting is rife.现在,中国对尊贵名酒的需求推动了名酒市场的繁荣,假冒伪劣酒也开始盛行。By some estimates 5% of fine wines sold at auction or on the secondary market are not what they claim to be on the label.据估计,拍卖会或二级市场出售的美酒有5%货不对板。The simplest technique is to slap the label of a 1982 Chateau Lafite (one of the most prized recent vintages) onto a bottle of 1975 Lafite (a less divine year).伪造名酒最简单的方法是将1982年产法国酒庄拉法克红酒(最近年份最珍贵的葡萄酒之一)的标签贴到1975年(不太吉利年份)产的(Lafite)红酒空瓶上。Another trick is to bribe the sommelier of a fancy restaurant to pass on empty bottles that once held expensive wine, along with the corks. These can be refilled with cheaper wine, recorked and resealed.另一个伎俩是贿赂高级餐厅的调酒师,将盛装过昂贵名酒的空瓶和瓶塞一起拿到手,然后将空瓶重新灌装廉价酒,重新装塞,重新密封就完成了造假过程。Empty Lafite and Latour bottles are sold on eBay for several hundred euros.在eBay网上,Lafite和Latour红酒的空瓶通常价值几百欧元。The margins are fruity. A great wine may cost hundreds of times more than a merely excellent one.酒类伪造有可观的利润。一瓶尊贵名酒的价格可能比一瓶单纯的优质酒贵上几百倍。Small wonder that oenophiles are growing more vigilant.难怪鉴酒专家们越来越趋于谨慎。Bill Koch, an energy tycoon and avid wine collector, currently has five lawsuits pending against merchants, auctioneers and other collectors.能源巨头比尔.科赫(Bill Koch)热衷于名酒收藏,他近来提起5宗涉及酒类的法律诉讼,分别状告酒商,拍卖师和其余酒类收藏家,案件至今未有裁决。His grape-related gripes began in 2006, when he filed a complaint against a German wine dealer who sold bottles of Lafite he claimed had once belonged to Thomas Jefferson. The case is unresolved.科赫先生对买红酒的抱怨始于2006年,当时他从一名德国酒商手中购买了很多据称是托马斯杰斐逊收藏过的红酒,后来发现有假而投诉了这名德国酒商,案子至今未果。;There is a code of silence in the industry,; says Mr Koch, who owns 43,000 bottles of wine and estimates that he has spent m-5m on fakes.科赫先生说:;业界存在着一套潜规则,即买到假酒也要毫不声张;。他拥有43000瓶上好葡萄酒,但用于购买假酒的钱估计也在4-5百万美元左右。Some collectors are too proud to admit that they have been duped.有些收藏者觉得承认被骗不是件光的事。Others fear sullying a vintages reputation and thereby reducing the value of their own collections.另一些则担心玷污了葡萄酒的声誉会降低自己拥有葡萄酒的收藏价值。So instead of speaking out, ;they dump their fakes into auctions or sell them to other private collectors,; says Mr Koch.因此他们不会将事情张扬,而是;将假酒转手到拍卖会或出售给其它私人收藏者;,科赫先生如是说。Wine merchants and auction houses say they are doing everything they can to filter out the fakes.酒商及拍卖行表示他们正尽一切所能筛选出假货。Simon Berry, the chairman of Berry Brothers amp; Rudd, a British wine merchant, says his firm never buys wines from before 2000 unless they come from its own cellars. (Berry Brothers stores nearly 4m bottles on behalf of its customers.)英国酒商贝瑞兄弟与陆克文(Berry Brothers amp; Rudd)主席西蒙贝里(Simon Berry)称他的公司从来不购买2000年以前的葡萄酒,除非它们真的来自出产的酒窖。(贝里替客户存放了将近4百万瓶葡萄酒)。Christies, an auctioneer, says all the wines it auctions are inspected three times by different people, using detailed checklists for condition and authenticity.拍卖商佳士得(Christies)称,它拍卖的所有名酒都要经过不同人反复检验三次,对他们出具的葡萄酒情况和真实度详单逐一对比验。Fear of fakery has not stopped the boom.对伪造名酒的担忧并没有阻止名酒的市场繁荣。But the wines that win the best prices at auction are those whose provenance is certain.在拍卖会上竞得高价的名酒其来源也是真实可靠的。In May, Christies sold an impériale (six-litre bottle) of 1961 Latour for 6,000 in Hong Kong. It came directly from the cellars of Chateau Latour.五月份,佳士得在香港以21.6万美元拍售了一瓶1961产的impériale葡萄酒(6升装),它直接来自于产地Chateau Latour的酒窖。 /201211/209659Im starting in the south.我将从南方开始。For many visitors, it is Spain.对于许多游客来说,它是西班牙。But away from the beaches, these are magnificent sights.但远离海滩,壮观的景色呈现在人们眼前。Grand palaces, castles, and masks, remind us of a different culture from a distant time, a time when Spain was called Al-Andalus.宏伟的宫殿、城堡和面具提醒着我们在遥远的过去有着截然不同的文化,当时西班牙被称为Al-Andalus。What is often forgotten is over 700 years mush of Spain was ruled by Muslims, and the South was its beating heart.而常常被人遗忘的是超过700年统治西班牙的是穆斯林,而南方是它跳动的心脏。Southern Spain was an unique frontier where east met west with explosive results.西班牙南部是东方和西方的爆炸性结果的一个独特的前沿。This is the story of how Islamic Spain became one of the most remarkable civilizations ever seen.这个故事就是伊斯兰西班牙如何成为最非凡的文明。注:听力文本来源于普特201211/207259Business Avon boots out its boss Andreas adieu商业 雅芳把老板给炒了 钟彬娴,再见!An ugly mess at a beauty firm化妆品公司的丑陋乱局;YOU have got to go home tonight, Friday evening, and you have got to fire yourself,; a management coach once told Andrea Jung, the boss of Avon, an American beauty firm.美国化妆品公司雅芳的一位经理曾对老板钟彬娴女士(Andrea Jung)说道:;你今晚必须回家,周五晚上,而且你必须辞职。;The idea was for her to come back to work the following Monday as if starting her job anew.该想法是为了让她能在下周一犹如重新开始工作一样重返办公室上班。Alas, this brilliant tip was not enough.唉,这个聪明绝顶的小建议并不能起到明显作用。As Avons share price has wilted like mascara under a sunlamp, Ms Jung is being pushed out for real.当雅芳公司股价像日光灯下的睫毛膏一样萎缩时,钟彬娴女士确实被推到风口浪尖。On December 13th the firm announced that she will be replaced as chief executive.12月13日,公司宣布钟彬娴将只担任首席执行官一职。The makeover will be gradual.该变动将会是平缓的。Ms Jung, who has run Avon since 1999, will stay on as chairman and help the board find a new boss.钟彬娴自1999年来执掌雅芳,她将留着主席的位置上并帮助董事会找到新的主席。It will be a tough job for anyone.这对任何人来说都是棘手的。Avon is the worlds biggest direct-seller: an army of cheery salesfolk hawk its products door-to-door.雅芳是世界上最大的直销公司:雅芳有一热情洋溢的销售大军,挨家挨户的推销产品。The 125-year-old New York-based company has an annual revenue of over billion and operations in more than 100 countries.总部坐落在纽约的雅芳已经有125年的历史,年收入超过100亿美元,But it has stumbled badly of late.经营范围超过100个国家。Its share price has fallen by 45% this year (see chart).但是最近雅芳发展严重受阻,其股价今年已经下跌了45%。(见图表)Ms Jung had a glossy start at Avon, presiding over six consecutive years of double-digit growth.钟彬娴女士在雅芳上任伊始非常顺利,代领雅芳连续六年创下增长率为两位数的记录。Yet she failed to use these fat years to invest in the business.但是她并没有利用公司繁荣发展的这几年对业务进行投资。By 2005 the firm was looking blemished. Sales declined in major markets.到2005年,公司发展出现问题,主要市场的销量下滑,公司股价下跌。The share price dropped. Ms Jung laid off 25% of senior staff and cut costs everywhere except for advertising and distribution.钟彬娴解雇了25%的高级职员,并且全面消减除广告和配送方面的成本。Avon never really recovered.雅芳从未真正恢复。In March Ms Jung launched the biggest hiring drive in the companys history and nearly doubled the marketing budget.年3月,钟彬娴开始公司成立以来最大的招聘活动并且将营销预算将近翻了一番。She saw in the global economic crisis a chance to overtake Avons rivals. It didnt work.她在全球金融危机中看到打败竞争对手的商机,但是却失败了。Moreover, the company has spent more than 0m on an internal investigation of alleged corruption among sales representatives in China and Latin America.Several have been dismissed. 而且,公司耗资1.5亿美元对中国和拉美的销售代表中所谓的贪污行为进行调查,一些销售代表被解雇。Americas Securities and Exchange Commission is investigating, too.美国券交易委员会也进行调查。If Avon is found guilty of anything, the penalties could be steep.如果雅芳被判定有罪的话,那么处罚将会非常严重。Some problems are beyond Avons control. Brazil, a big market, is slowing down. Europe, which accounts for 28% of Avons sales, is in crisis: its hard to put lipstick on the PIGS.有些问题是雅芳无法控制的。雅芳最大的市场巴西正不断萎缩,为雅芳销售额贡献28%的欧洲市场正面临债务危机:在温饱问题未解决之前,很少有人考虑到美容等形象问题。Avon is doing badly at home in America, too.雅芳在美国本土的业绩同样非常糟糕。顾客们锱铢必较。Shoppers are feeling Grinchy about pennies. And the non-beauty products (such as fashion accessories) that account for a hefty third of Avons sales in America have lower margins than cosmetics. (In other countries non-beauty stuff represents only about 10% of Avons sales.)而且占雅芳在美国销售额高达三分之一的其他非美容产品(诸如时尚饰品)比化妆品的利润要低。(在其他国家,非美容产品只占雅芳销售额的10%。)Other problems are self-inflicted. Avon made a mess of its new IT system in Brazil.其他问题则是自身的原因。雅芳将其用于巴西新的信息技术系统搞得一团糟。Its working capital is chewing up a third of its gross cashflow, mainly due to poor inventory management.由于糟糕的库存管理,雅芳营运资本占现金流总量的三分之一。If Avon reduced its working capital, it would have less trouble paying dividends, says Connie Maneaty of BMO Capital in New York.位于纽约BMO Capital公司的Connie Maneaty说:如果雅芳减少运营资本,那么其付股息的困难就会小很多。It would also have more cash for acquisitions in fast-growing markets such as Vietnam or India.同样会有更多的现金用于诸如越南和印度等快速发展市场的兼并业务。Many will be sorry to see Ms Jung tossed overboard.很多人对钟彬娴被扫地出门深表遗憾。As the Princeton-educated daughter of Chinese immigrants, she embodied the American dream.她毕业于普林斯顿大学,其父母是来自中国的移民,美国梦在她身上得以展现。She was also a role model for women, in particular Avons 6.5m sales representatives, most of whom are female.她也是女性学习的角色模范,特别是雅芳公司650万销售代表,大部分都是女性。One reason why Avon wants her to stay as chairman is that she is popular with the salesforce.雅芳希望任命她为主席的原因之一就是她在销售队伍中颇受欢迎。But Avon is ailing and needs an overhaul.但是雅芳发展存在;诟病;,现在需要彻底检查。A new boss will be a good start, says Ali Dibadj of Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm.研究公司Sanford C. Bernstein的Ali Dibadj认为,新的主席对雅芳来说将会是一个不错的开局。The list of possible candidates includes Ed Shirley, vice chairman of the beauty and grooming unit at Procter amp; Gamble, an American consumer-goods giant, and Elizabeth Smith, who was in line to succeed Ms Jung at Avon before leaving the company to take over as boss of OSI Restaurant, a restaurant chain.新主席的候选人中包括:美国日用消费品巨头宝洁公司美容与装饰部门的副总裁艾德雪莉,以及伊丽莎白?史密斯,她在离开雅芳之前是钟彬娴的继任者、目前是OSI连锁餐厅总裁。Whoever gets the job, the changes required will be more than cosmetic.不论是谁成为新的总裁,雅芳想要改变,化妆品是远远不够的。 /201211/211292

Osteoporosis骨质疏松症Today’s word is: osteoporosis!今天的词是:骨质疏松症!Yep, osteoporosis. Now, you’ve heard this word before, and you know it has something to do with bones. But can you actually explain what it is?是的,骨质疏松症。你以前听说过这个词,也知道它与骨头有关,但是你能解释它到底是什么吗?The answer is straight-forward. It comes down to the fact that we human beings need calcium in our blood–it allows us to do all sorts of neat things, from contracting muscles to conducting nerve impulses. Where to get some calcium? Food is a good idea. But what if there isn’t always calcium-rich food to be had, as was probably the case for most of our long evolutionary history?很简单。它可以归结为一个事实,人类的血液里必须有钙,那样我们才能做各种事情,从收缩肌肉到神经冲动。钙从哪儿来呢?食物是不错的主意,但如果以后没有含钙丰富的食物,我们的后代应该怎么办?Best to store some for a rainy day. Store it where? The skeleton works! Then, when the blood runs low on calcium, a signaling device called the parathyroid gland can activate a process by which calcium is taken from the skeleton and put back into the blood.我们要未雨绸缪,但是要储存在哪儿呢?骨骼上。那么,当流动的血液中钙含量过低,一个叫做甲状旁腺的发信号装置就会激活一个流程,致使骨骼中的钙流失到血液里。Which is just what happens. This is a great short-term fix, but what about the poor skeleton? Eventually it will suffer from the loss of its own calcium–bones will become brittle.那就是会发生的。这只是一种短期的修复,但是可怜骨骼怎么办呢?最后就会因缺钙,骨头会变得脆弱。What can we do? Two things. Help your body get more calcium by eating fatty fish and vitamin-D rich dairy products. Why vitamin D? Because that causes the small intestine to increase its calciumuptake, bypassing the need to grab extra from the bones. Under a doctor’s supervision, calcium tablets might also be helpful, along with the old standard–more exercise. Weight-bearing exercise helps keep bones strong and less likely to fall prey to the body’s own mechanisms in later age.我们能做些什么?两件事。多吃富含脂肪的鱼和含有丰富维生素D的乳制品,帮助身体得到更多的钙。为什么是维生素D呢?因为它会使小肠增加它的钙摄取量,就不需要从骨骼中获取。在医生的监督下,钙片也可能是有用的,同时要多做运动。负重运动能够使骨骼强壮,在老年时期就不会为人体自身机制所折磨。 /201303/228021

One wheel alone weighs more than 350 kilograms, an entire wheel and axle assembly weighs nearly a ton, and they are constantly on the move.单独一个轮子的重量就超过350公斤,整个轮轴装配近一吨重,它们持续在移动着。They can do anything, from repairing a single part to rebuilding an entire car, frame, motors, gears, axles, wheels, brakes, all within 40 hours.他们可以做任何事情,从修理一个单独部分到重建整个汽车、机架、电机、齿轮、轴、车轮、刹车,所有的这些都会在40小时之内完成。When they take a car apart for a major overhaul, the shop works like a race drivers pit crew all at once, but the scale is bigger, the stakes higher.当他们开车去主要检修,商店的工作就像一个赛车手马上进入维修站一样,但不同的是规模更大,代价更高。While one crew repairs axles, another replaces brake shoes, the goal, get the cars in and out as fast as possible.一名队员修理车轴,另一名替换刹车片,目标就尽可能快地让车再次重新启动。When the mechanical crews finish, the cosmeticians take over.当机械人员完成工作,美容人员就会接管。Coney Island washes these cars more often than most people wash their own.康尼岛清洗这些车的次数比大多数人清洗自己的车还要多。Every week, 1000 cars pass through one of the worlds biggest car washers.每个星期,1000辆汽车经过世界上最大的洗车处。;Back in the day when graffiti would plague the fleet, we have to run them through a lot more, that was when the cars were painted.;涂鸦对于车队来说就像瘟疫一样,我们在汽车喷漆的时候就必须要经常对付它。Nowadays, as you can see, the stainless steel, easy to clean, easy to maintain, no painting required.如今,正如你所看到的,不锈钢的优点是易清洁,维护容易,没有喷涂要求。But this one come in, little dull, and come out nice and shining.;但这辆汽车进来,稍微有一点点暗淡、但出来就会非常好而且闪闪发光。;注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174208

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