2019年07月21日 13:34:02|来源:国际在线|编辑:久久口碑
From pub rants to government policy planning, the question of immigration is not going away. That is as it should be: wanting to reduce immigration was a prime motivation for those who voted for the UK’s exit from the EU, and how to satisfy that motive is a crucial policy challenge for the years ahead.从酒吧闹事到政府的政策规划,移民问题依然突出。理应如此:想要减少移民是那些投票持退欧的选民的首要动机,而如何满足选民的这一愿望是未来几年关键的政治挑战。The latest contribution is a report from the Resolution Foundation. It mostly confirms what previous studies have found. The facts it documents are, however, so little known and so crucial to the Brexit policy challenge that it deserves widesp attention.这方面最新的贡献是一份来自“决议基金会Resolution Foundation)的报告。它在很大程度上实了此前研究的发现。然而,它所记录的情况如此鲜为人知、对英国退欧政策挑战又如此至关重要,理应得到广泛关注。The key finding is that high immigration has had little effect on wages or employment, with two notable exceptions.关键发现是,移民数量多对薪资和就业几乎没什么影响,只有两个明显的例外。First, the post-2004 immigrants from eastern Europe have markedly lower wages on average than other groups, including pre-2004 immigrants from the same countries. That has changed the composition of earnings among the lower paid and in the economy overall: a reserve army of low-paid workers has had a clear impact on some British industries that rely heavily on them.第一004年以后涌入英国的东欧移民的平均薪资明显低于其他群体(包括2004年之前来自相同国家的移民)。这改变了低收入群体、乃至整个经济的收入构成。一低收入劳动者后备军,对英国那些严重依赖于移民的行业产生了明显影响。Second, the lowest-paid natives have seen a slight downward pressure on their wages as a result of immigration. But, again, the report confirms previous findings that the effect is very small in the order of a few pence per year. And the Resolution Foundation makes the important observation that any negative effect on wages from immigration is dwarfed by the overall wage squeeze following the financial crisis.第二,由于移民涌入,收入最低的那些英国本地人的薪资水平受到了轻微的下行压力。但是,这份报告再次实了此前的发现,即这种影响非常小——大概每年减少几便士。同时,决议基金会提出了重要发现——与金融危机带来的收入整体缩水相比,移民对薪资水平的负面影响微不足道。That point is enlightening and frustrating. It means that some workers those aly paid the least have indeed been undercut by immigration. But that harm is slight compared with the much bigger one the same people have suffered as a result of the real wage squeeze brought on by the crisis and the policies chosen to deal with its aftermath.这一点具有启发性但又令人沮丧。这意味着一些劳动者——其收入已经处于最低之列——确实因移民而收入减少。但是,移民带来的伤害微乎其微——金融危机和危机后的应对政策导致的实际工资缩水带来的伤害要大得多。That makes the scapegoating of EU free-movement rules in the referendum campaign unsurprising, to say the least. It also means that curtailing free movement will do little for the people who feel it works against their interest. The Resolution Foundation usefully compares how much wages could improve if net immigration was sharply cut today with the real wage squeeze implied by the Bank of England’s latest two-year forecasts.这样看来,欧盟的自由流动规则成了英国退欧公投运动中的替罪羊至少可以说不令人意外。这也意味着,限制自由流动对那些认为该规则有损于其权益的人不会有多大帮助。决议基金会做了一项有用的工作,把现在移民净流入大幅减少可能带来的工资涨幅与英国央行(Bank of England)最近的两年预测暗示的实际工资缩水幅度进行了对比。The result: some workers may see wages a fraction of a per cent higher by 2018 than they would otherwise. But that gain would be more than wiped out by the wage loss that the Brexit vote may cause.结果是,018年,减少移民或许能让部分工人的工资比不控制移民的情况下增多不%。但是,英国退欧可能造成的工资损失超过了这一增幅。来 /201608/462397

The South Korean military says North Koreas submarine-launched ballistic missile does not appear to have been a success.韩国军方说,朝鲜潜艇发射的一枚弹道导弹似乎并没有成功。South Koreas Joint Chiefs of Staff said Saturday that a projectile was fired from a submarine toward the sea. A South Korean defense spokesman said Seoul is keeping close tabs on the North Korean military and maintaining a full defense posture.韩国参谋长联席会议星期六说,朝鲜从潜艇向海上发射了一枚飞行物。韩国国防部发言人说,首尔密切关注朝鲜军队,保持全面防御态势。North Korean newspaper Rodong Sinmun published a statement hours earlier saying South Korean President Park Geun-hye should make her ;funeral shroud.;在这次发射几个小时前,朝鲜报纸《劳动新闻》发表了一份声明,说韩国总统朴槿惠应该准备她的“寿衣”。Pyongyang has been working to acquire submarine-launched ballistic missile capability.平壤一直在设法获得从潜艇发射弹道导弹的能力。Saturdays test-firing comes as North Korea prepares for a rare ruling party congress in May.星期六试射之际,正值朝鲜为5月份一次罕见的党代会做准备的时候。The ed Nations recently imposed a new set of stronger sanctions on North Korea in response to Pyongyangs fourth nuclear test in January, and a ballistic missile test the following month.联合国最近对朝鲜实施了一系列新的、更强硬的制裁,以回应平壤今月进行第四次核试验,以及月进行弹道导弹试射。来 /201604/438893

President Donald Trump signed an executive order yesterday that prohibits citizens from six predominantly Muslim nations from entering the US in a second attempt at a travel ban after his first botched effort in January was knocked back by the courts.唐纳特朗Donald Trump)总统昨日签署一道行政命令,禁止六个以穆斯林为主的国家的公民进入美国,这是他第二次尝试实行旅行禁令,此前他在1月份作出的首次尝试受挫,被法院阻止。The order bars citizens of Sudan, Syria, Iran, Libya, Somalia and Yemen from entering America for 90 days while vetting procedures are reviewed. It takes effect on March 16 and will not apply to those who obtain a visa before that date. It removes Iraq from the original list to avoid punishing those who assisted US-led military efforts.这道命令禁止苏丹、叙利亚、伊朗、利比亚、索马里和也门公民在90天内入境美国,在此期间美国将重审其审查程序。它6日生效,不适用于在那天之前获得签的人士。它把伊拉克从原来的名单中删除,以免惩罚那些曾经协助以美国为首的军事努力的人。The move marks an effort by Mr Trump to push ahead with his campaign vow to introduce “extreme vettingof people from Muslim-majority countries while addressing some of the criticisms raised by the courts, which blocked his January 27 order after it sparked travel chaos around the world.此举标志着特朗普努力兑现他的竞选誓言,对来自以穆斯林为主的国家的人进行“极端审查”,同时应对法院提出的一些批评;他在17日签署的命令在引发世界各地旅行混乱后被法院叫停。Rex Tillerson, secretary of state, said it was a “vital measure for strengthening our national security adding that Mr Trump was using “his rightful authority to keep our people safe国务卿雷克斯?蒂勒Rex Tillerson)表示,此举是一个“加强我国国家安全的关键措施”,并补充说,特朗普正在运用“他的正当权限来保护我国人民的安全”。The original order sparked criticism that it amounted to a Muslim ban, in contravention of constitutional prohibitions of religious tests. Officials said the new order targeted nations where it was harder to screen terrorists. It also removed a provision that gave priority to refugees who were religious minorities, they said.原来的命令招致批评,批评者称,它相当于一个穆斯林禁令,违反了美国宪法禁止的宗教测试。官员们表示,新的命令针对那些较难甄别恐怖分子的国家。他们指出,它还取消了优先考虑属于宗教少数群体的难民的规定。“This is not a Muslim ban in any way shape way or form,said one US official. “This is a temporary suspension of nations from six countries that are failed states or state sponsors of terror.The official noted that there were more than a billion Muslims globally “who are free to come to the US“这不是任何形式或形态的穆斯林禁令,”一位美国官员表示。“这是暂停允许六个国家的人士入境,这些国家要么是失败国家,要么是政府持恐怖主义的国家。”这位官员指出,全球而言有超0亿穆斯林“可以自由进入美国”。While the new order temporarily suspends the main US refugee programme for 120 days, it removes the original blanket ban on refugees from Syria and subjects them to the same conditions as refugees from other nations. “We cannot risk the prospect of malevolent actors using our immigration system to take American lives,said John Kelly, homeland security secretary.虽然新命令将暂停美国主要的难民接纳计20天,但它取消了原来命令中针对叙利亚难民的全面禁令,使他们面临与其他国家难民相同的条件。“我们不能冒险让坏人利用我国的移民制度加害于美国人,”国土安全部长约凯利(John Kelly)表示。While it was too early to say if the new order would satisfy the courts, Democrats and human rights groups hit out at Mr Trump, accusing him of pushing policies that would endanger the US.尽管现在就预计新的命令将满足法院的要求还为时过早,但民主党人和人权团体批评特朗普,指控他推行危害美国的政策。“President Trump is handing Isis recruitment gold and is putting American lives at risk,said Chris Murphy, a Democratic senator from Connecticut.“特朗普总统正向‘伊拉克与黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)送上招募人马的黄金素材,并将美国人的生命置于危险之中,”康涅狄格州民主党参议员克里墨菲(Chris Murphy)表示。The new order was rolled out in a more orderly fashion than its predecessor, which was issued on a Friday with no advance warning, sparking confusion at airports around the world as airlines refused passengers with visas trying to board flights bound for the US.新命令在落实方面比原来的命令更有秩序;原来的命令在一个周五发布,而且没有预先警告,结果引发世界各地机场的混乱,航空公司拒绝持有签的乘客登上飞往美国的航班。“You should not see any chaos or alleged chaos at airports,said one US official. “We are going to have a very smooth implementation.”“你不会在机场看到任何混乱或者据称的混乱,”一名美国官员表示。“我们将会有一个非常平稳的实施。”来 /201703/496358

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