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来源:光明新闻    发布时间:2020年01月22日 20:04:48    编辑:admin         

Ten light years from Earth, the star Epsilon Eridani天苑四恒星距离地球10光年Spectacular rings of dust and ice它有由尘埃和冰构成的壮观圆环And somewhere in there, planets forming out of debris在圆环里的某些地方,有碎片形成的行星being born before our eyes.就在我们眼前诞生Asteroids and comets everywhere到处都是小行星和彗星We could almost be looking at our own solar system我们几乎就是看到了数十亿年前的billions of years ago.我们太阳系的样子With comets delivering the building blocks of life彗星把生命材料带到to these young planets.这些年轻的行星上At the center of all the action, a star smaller than our sun主导这些行为的是一个比我们太阳小一些的恒星still in its infancy.这颗恒星还处于幼年Any life in this solar system would be primitive at best这个太阳系的生命应该还很原始There must be more mature solar systems out here这里应该还有更成熟更进化的太阳系But finding them is like looking for a needle in a cosmic haystack但是找到它们却像在宇宙海洋里捞针Twenty light years from Earth.距离地球20光年Star Gliese 581红矮星格雷司 581It#39;s about the same age as our sun.它大概和我们的太阳同龄This planet is just the right distance from its sun这颗行星距离它的太阳距离刚刚好Any closer and water would boil away, any further and it would freeze再近一点水会蒸发,再远一点则会结成冰Ideal conditions for life to emerge一个生命演化的理想环境And if a comet has struck, delivering water and organic materials如果彗星的撞击给它带去水和有机原料then life, complex beings like us, even civilizations like our own那么生命、像我们一样的复杂生物,甚至像我们一样的文明could be down there right now现在就可能在这里存在They could be tuning into our TV signals他们可能正调到我们的电视信号watching shows from 20 years ago.观看我们20年前的电视节目But until we devise a way of communicating但是在我们找到跨越这么远距离的over these vast distances, all we can do is speculate通讯方法之前,我们只能猜测Us and them, living parallel lives我们和他们各自的生存着unaware of each other#39;s existence.彼此都不知道对方的存在Unless life has come and gone除非这里曾有过生命和灭绝 Article/201507/383500。

This labeling is confusing.这个标签十分令人不解;100% wheat; just means that there are no other;100%小麦;就意味着grains than wheat in the product, but this might be产品中只有小麦refined wheat. ;Bran; means just bran, which is但这也可能是加工过的小麦,麦麸就high in fiber, but the nutrient-rich germ is missing.代表麦麸,富含纤维素,但有营养的;Organic; simply means that the grains were胚芽却没有了 ;有机的;只意味着grown without the use of pesticides or herbicides.植物生长过程中没有用杀虫剂和;Multigrain; means that several different types of除草剂 ;含多种谷物的;意味着这种产品grain are used to make the product. But again,是用多种谷物做成的,但是these different grains might be refined.这些谷物可能都是加工过的The symbol circled here is the whole grain symbol.这里就是天然谷物的标志Let#39;s take a closer look at this symbol.我们来仔细看看这些标志Looking for the whole grain symbol can be helpful;寻找全麦标志是很有帮助的however, this is a voluntary program, and not all但是否用全麦标志是自愿的,并不是所有manufacturers have adopted this labeling.制造商都采用了全麦标志The best way to ensure the products you are因此确保你买到的产品含有天然谷物的buying contain whole grains is to the最好方式就是阅读原料表ingredient list. Pick foods where the first要购买那些主要原料为天然谷物的食物ingredient is whole. For example, whole wheat.例如天然小麦You can also choose products that have the也可以购买主要原料为first ingredient listed as whole rye, oats,天然黑麦,燕麦的产品or oatmeal, whole wheat flour, brown rice bulgur,或者燕麦粥,天然小麦粉,黑干小麦graham flour, or wild rice.粗面粉或者菰米All of these are whole grains.这些都是天然谷物Here are some final tips to help you eat whole grains下面是一些重要方法,能帮助你在饮食中in your daily diet. Choose products like cereals更多地食用天然谷物,选择燕麦片等由made with whole grains, whole grain bs,天然谷物做成的食品,全麦面包whole wheat pasta, brown or wild rice,全麦意大利面,黑米或菰米whole grain crackers, and popcorn.全麦薄脆饼干以及爆米花It is clear that whole grains contain a variety of显而易见,天然谷物含有多种不同的different compounds that have health benefits元素,它们对所有人的身体健康都有for everyone including cancer patients.益处,包括癌症病人Everyone should consume at least 3 servings of每个人每天都应至少食用3次天然谷物whole grains each day. The aim should be to这样做的目的是replace refined grains in the diet with whole grains用天然谷物代替食物中的精加工的谷物rather than adding whole grains to what is aly而不是额外再食用天然谷物制品eaten. Finally, the keys to finding real whole grain最后找到真正的天然谷物食品的products are to understand food labeling, recognize关键在于了解食品标签和天然谷物标志the whole grain symbol, and the ingredient list.以及正确阅读食品成分表 Article/201510/406640。

Saudi-led airstrikes hit Yemeni cities 2 hours after truce停火协议2小时后又有空袭 沙特停炸成空文Saudi-led air strikes have hit Yemen#39;s capital and another main city causing explosions, two hours after a UN humanitarian truce took effect.联合国人道主义停火协议生效2小时后,沙特对也门首都及另一座主要城市发动空袭后发生爆炸。Bombing pounded Yemeni military positions east of the capital Sanaa, as well as the country#39;s third largest city Taiz.此次打击对也门首都萨那东部的军事要地以及这个国家第三大城市塔伊兹发动打击。Three-month air raids and fighting have killed more than three thousand people in Yemen.为期3个月的空袭和战事已造成也门3000多人死亡。 译文属 Article/201507/385328。

Ice has bulldozed and carved the world we know on a colossal scale.冰用巨大的规模来推平和雕刻世界But what is it that gives something as brittle as ice在地球上能找到像冰一样易碎supremacy over the hardest and most resilient rocks却能比最硬的石头to be found on the planet?还坚固的东西么?To find out, you need to see inside a glacier.若要找出,你需要看到冰川的内部The Svartisen Glacier in Norway is one of the few places on Earth斯瓦迪森冰川坐落在挪威的北极圏where ice can really be seen in action.这里你能看到冰在运动It#39;s thanks to this glacier that scientists are starting to understand感谢这个冰川让我们揭开the secrets of ice#39;s great power.冰伟大力量的神秘Deep beneath the glacier, in a chamber at the end,在隧道尽头的房间里scientists come face to face with ice.科学家们能与冰层亲密接触了Then it#39;s two days of of hard work using hot water花了两天的时间喷洒热水to melt a cave big enough to get inside the glacier and see it in all its glory.大小足够人们进入 用来仔细观察它的光辉Here#39;s the ice tunnel. Watch your head!这里就是冰层隧道,注意头顶!Miriam Jackson#39;s a glaciologist.米里亚姆杰克逊是一位地理学家She spends up to three weeks at a time down here.她在这底下一次都要待上整整三个礼拜Look at that!It#39;s beautiful! -It#39;s amazing, isn#39;t it?看啊!太漂亮了!-不可思议,对吧?It#39;s absolutely beautiful.简直太漂亮了This is like a piece of art. It is, isn#39;t it?就像是一件艺术品是吧?Wow!You#39;ve got to remember there#39;s 200 metres of ice over us now.哇喔!米里亚姆·杰克逊士挪威水资源和能源士你要知道我们头顶上的冰层有两百米厚200 metres?JACKSON: Yes, we#39;re at the bottom of the glacier and the ice is over us.两百米?是的,我们正处于冰河的底下冰层就在我们头上-It#39;s also closing in on us. -As we speak, it#39;s contracting in?-而冰层正在靠近我们-靠近?这里的空间在缩小?Yeah. We couldn#39;t stand here for 48 hours,是的,这里不能待超过48小时the ice would close in on us.冰将把我们关在这里We#39;d be stuck fossilised in the ice, like a big ice cube.我们会变成冰化石就像一个大的冰立方 Article/201510/404020。

We#39;ve all witnessed the beauty of a shooting star,but what would happen if an asteroid was on a collision course for earth?我们都曾目睹过流星雨的美景,但如果小行星要撞地球会发生什么?Could we detect it ahead of time?我们能提前察觉到它吗?And more importantly could we stop it?更重要的是 我们能阻止它吗?I believe I have an answer.我相信我有个Now you see,asteroid impacts are serious business,When I was in second grade Ms.McGonigal told us that the dinosaurs the ancient dinosaurs died out because they had small brains may be like my old boss.你也知道 行星撞地球可不是件小事,当我上二年级时 McGonigal女士告诉我们说,恐龙 古代的恐龙之所以灭绝,是因为他们的大脑太小,就像我的老上司一样。But even she knew that was kinda lame ,that theory was nothing. It turns out in my lifetime pelple found this crater,off Chicxulub,Mexico,This crater was so big. How big was it? It was so big that an asteroid hit the earth (or impactors hit the earth),Threw so much stuff into the Earth#39;s sky it was bigger in diamete than the earth itself so the earth was surrounded by red hot rock weeks at a time.但也也知道这说法站不住脚,这个理论什么也不是,结果在我在世时,人们在墨西哥希克苏鲁发现了这个陨石坑。陨石坑特别大,有多大呢?它是如此地大,当小行星击中地球(或物体击中地球).它将极多东西抛向地球空中,形成碎石圈直径比地球更大,因面地球在数周内都将被炽热的红色岩石包围着。It cooked everything .And just the animals that lived in burrows and caves. our ancestors lead to us so serious business you may recall Valentine#39;s Day 2013?它烤熟了一切,除了那些住在洞穴和山洞里的动物,比如说我们的祖先,还记得2013年情人节那件事吗?Chelyabinsk Russia (boorn) air burst. See it you are an asteroid ,and you are going 10 km/s or 20 km/s. And you hit the Earth#39;s atmosphere,the atmosphere is like concrete. you can#39;t get out of the way so the asteroid just explodes in air burst.So these asteroids are serious ,most of them are evey small.俄罗斯车里雅宾斯克上空的爆炸,看到了吗,如果你是个小行星 以10km/s 或20km/s 的速度前进,你碰上地球的大气,大气就像水泥一样,你躲不过去,所以小行星只能在半空中爆炸.因此这些小行星得严肃对待,它们绝大多数都很小.If you#39;re under 10 meters in diameter you hit the Earth#39;s atmosphere.you burn up all Big Blue streak,green street white streak and then humans make wishes upon you (I don#39;t know how efficacious these wishes are but people do that).如果你的直径小于10米,在击中地球大气层后,你就会烧毁,形成蓝色大条纹、绿色条纹和白色条纹之后蓝星人会对着你许愿,我不知道这么许愿有没有用,但是人们就这么干.Alright,so,if their asteroid starts to get bigger,Starts to get into the 25 meters and the 45 meters in diameter.then you get Meteor Crater Arizona (wham)huge thing.That would be like a city killer,or a county killer.And then when they get to be a 100 meters /140 meters now you#39;re into a country killer.and then they get bigger than that and it#39;s a continent killer.much bigger than that and you#39;re taking out whole races of ancient species.好的 那么如果行星再大一点呢,直径开始变成25米到45米的了,那么结果就是巴林杰陨石坑那样的大家伙,这就像是一个屠城者或者一个毁郡者之后,当直径到达100/140米之后,你就会变成一个灭国者,当直径继续增大,你就成了洲际杀手,比前面的大多了,所有古代物种都会因你而断子绝孙。So,what if we found an asteroid that was headed our way,how would we find it? How would we find an asteroid headed our way?那么,如果我们发现冲向地球的行星呢,我们要怎么发现它? 我们该怎么发现撞向我们的行星呢?That#39;s a good question,well,you can use telescopes.Skilled people can point the cameras at the sky and look for fast-moving objects.Objects that are crossing the Earth#39;s orbit,but we#39;re missing perhaps a hundred thousand of these things ,of these country killers,city killers and country killers.问的好,那么你可以用望远镜.有经验的人可以将相机对着天空,寻找快速移动的物体.那些穿过地球轨道的物体,但是我们可能会错过成百上千的行星,这些屠城者,毁郡者和灭国者们。So,what we want to do is build a spaceraft called The Sentinel.and as we say ;it#39;s like looking for a charcoal briquette in the dark;.these things are hard to find.They are tiny compared to the vastness of space.那么我们想做的是造一架飞船 取名为“哨兵”,正如我们所说“这就像在黑暗里找炭团”,行星很难被发现,和宇宙之广大相比,它们太渺小了。But infrared light/heat bounces off them so what you will do? You are a satellite,you are a surveying spacecraft,you get your back to the Sun and look out from about the orbit of Venus.Any try to find all these asteroids,And then you find one,what do you do?Do you run in circies screaming,;AH;No,No,No,we#39;ve got to deflect it ,just a little just a tiny amount.但它们会放射出红外线辐射,所以你要怎么做?你是一个卫星,是个调查用的航天器,你跑到太阳后面在金星轨道附近四处张望,试图找到所有的这些行星,你找到了一个 肿么办 画着圈圈四处尖叫,不不不 我们得让它走偏一点 一点就行 只要一点点。Asteroid might be going 10km/s,we want to change its speed about 2 mm/s.So ten kilometers,that#39;s ten times a thousand meters,that#39;s 10,000 meters. A millimeter that#39;s a thousandth of a meter so that you take the one over the thousand its a thousand times ten thousand,that#39;s 10 million,You want to change its speed a 10 millionth of its total.行星可能以10km/s 的速度运行,我们要让它的速度改变2mm/s, 10千米就是10*1000米,也就是10,000米。一毫米是千分之一米,那么你在取出这一千分之一,所占比例就是1000*10,000 也就是一百万,你想改变总速度的一百万分之一.That#39;s not very much,but if you#39;re an asteroid that comes in at 10,000 tons/100,000tonnes.it does take quite a bit force to change it a 10 millionth of its speed.Okay,how do we do that?Well,the easiest way is to get a rocket ,just a big rocket.just go out there and smack into it.Except as an outer space so it ,just goes (silence)like that.似乎不多 但如果你是那个撞向地球的万吨/十万吨的小行星。想要让速度改变一百万分之一的确需要很大的力。好的,那么怎么办?最简单的方法是弄一个火箭 要大大的一个。 飞到那里一头装进去,只不过这是在外太空 所以效果是这样的(静音)。Okay,that would change its speed a little,now notice everybody,what if its not just a rock?What if its a pile of rocks just loosely held together by primordial gravity? And so if you hit them they will just sp out and you will have a shower of rocks,That would be bad So,how about this?好的 这会将它的速度改变一点点 现在各位看官注意,如果撞的不是岩石呢?如果那只是被原初引力聚焦在一起的一堆松垮岩石呢?如果你击中它们 它们就会分散开来 给你下场石头雨。好悲催的样子 那么怎么办呢?We will get a big space craft that is massive,a massive sapacecraft will go out there and just get nearer to the asteroid,Just get near it,and then the mutual gravity of the you the asteroid and me the spacecraft will tug the asteroids just a little bit,just a tiny amount or maybe get on the other side and tug this way.That might work but here#39;s the problem我们让一艘硕大的宇宙飞船飞过去 让它靠近行星,靠近它 之后你(小行星)的和我(宇宙飞船)的相互引力会将行星拉近一点点 就那么一点点 或者到这边来 这么拉,这也可能有用 不过现在有个问题。We need a huge amount of fuel for days ans weeks and months and years.And what if it stops working you can#39;t go out there and fix it.Okay,how about this?The Laser Bees?A swarm of sunlight powered lasers that are zapping the surface of the asteroid,for days,and weeks,and months,and years ZAP ZAP ZAP.So some asteroids,some rock is vaporized.我们需要大量的燃料 得准备数天 数星期 数月甚至数年的,如果它停止工作了 你没法跑到那修理它,好 那这么办 激光小密蜂怎么样?一群太阳能激光器射向行星的表面,就这么嗞嗞嗞地照上几天 几周 几个月甚至几年。一部分行星 一部分岩石会蒸发。So the ejecta,or the stuff ejected has momentum just like rocket fuel,just like standing on a skateboard and playing catch with a bowling ball.the way you do.And so it would then cause the asteroid to change its speed,从物体上抛出的东西和火箭燃料一样 都有动量,就像你站在滑板上用保龄球玩接球游戏一样,就像你做的那样,之后 这会致使小行星改变运行速度。And so you send a swarm of these laser spacecraft,so that if one of them stops working you can use the other one,Or you can have them come in from all different angles,And what if the asteroid is irregularly shaped (like this).you could beam it when the thing is smooth,and then when there#39;s a pit or an inefficient place to be beaming you turn off,you wait for the asteroid to turn,then you turn it back on.另外你送去了一群这样的激光航天器,如果一个停止工作了 你还可以使用另一个,或者你可以让它们从不同角度切入,如果小行星的形状不规则(像这样),你可以把表面烤到光滑,当出现一个坑或者有照射不足的地方时 你把激光关掉,你等着行星转一圈之后再把激光打开。You see everybody,just beacuse it#39;s unlikely doesn#39;t mean its not a big deal.You know if it only happens once every few thousand years,Well if it happens on my watch it would as the kids say ;suck;. Okay,so we don#39;t want that to happen,we want to avoid that.你们看到了吗 事情不太可能发生并不意味着它不重要,你知道 即使它几千年才会发生一次,如果在我们观察时这事发生了 我会和孩子一样说“擦”,好的 我们不想让这事发生 我们要躲着它。Asteroids are serious business,but they#39;re exciting. (spaceship noise)Except we are in space so its (silence)(航天器噪声)除了我们在太空时 它此时(无声)行星需要被认真对待 但是它们让我们兴奋, Article/201501/351293。

Economic growth in China has dropped below seven percent for the first time since the global financial crisis began.自从全球金融危机开始以来,中国的经济增长率首次降至百分之七以下。It adds further pressure on Beijing to cut interest rates again and take other measures to stimulate activity.这给北京带来更大的压力,并通过再次降息、采取其它措施刺激经济活动。Investment slowed but the picture was slightly better than had been feared.投资放缓,但局面比人们担心的要好一些。The world’s second largest economy grew by 6.9 percent between July and September compared to the same period last year.中国作为世界第二大经济体,七月至九月之间相比去年同期增长了百分之6.9。Analysts expect the gradual slide to continue.分析师预计将逐步继续下滑。Our economy is under a lot of pressure from the growth slowdown and it’s entered a period of adjustment. The origins lie in excess productivity in the past and outdated traditional industries. But the economic fundamentals remain unchanged, and the general employment situation is healthy.我们的经济正承受着经济增长放缓的压力,并已进入一个调整期。根源在于产能过剩以及过时的传统产业。但经济基础保持不变,就业形势总体上是健康的。Chinese leaders have been trying to reassure markets so the economy is under control after the summer’s shock devaluation and stock market plunge.在夏季遭遇货币贬值和股票暴跌之后,中国领导人一直努力安抚市场,使经济受到控制。September’s figures dampened optimism.九月的数据不太让人感到乐观。China’s central bank has cut interest rates five times since last November.自去年十一月以来,中国中央已五次下调利率。But Monday’s GDP ing was the worst since 2009.但周一的国内生产总值是自2009年以来最糟糕的。译文属。 /201510/404621。

洛杉矶交响乐团的小提琴家Robert Gupta, 讲述了他给一个优秀的精神分裂症患者教授音乐的故事,以及他的体会。演讲之后, Gupta再次被请上舞台表演了从巴赫的大提琴第一组曲改编的小提琴前奏 Article/201501/352828。

At this point few people would have wanted to show the victorious, all-powerful Christ with that shameful instrument of suffering, the cross.很少有人愿意看到胜利的全能的耶稣与他耻辱的受难刑具十字架放在一起。He had told his disciples that he was the way, the truth and the life, but it#39;s very difficult to show any of these physically.他曾告诉门徒,他是道路,是真理,是生命,但这些东西都无法用具象表现出来。He had announced that he was the light of the world, but it#39;s really hard to show light in a mosaic, especially if, as here, you#39;re dealing with a not very good artist.他也曾宣称自己是世界之光,但马赛克图案很难表现出光芒,尤其当艺术家水平并不算太高明的时候。The mosaicist at Hinton St Mary, instead of a symbol, gave him a monogram, the Chi Rho#39;-those two letters of the Greek alphabet that begin Christ#39;s name in Greek, written as though they were X and P in our alphabet.我们这位亨顿圣玛丽的艺术家没有使用任何象征物,而是釆用了本文开始时提到的希腊字母来表明基督的身份,In our mosaic, they lie like a halo behind Christ#39;s head.并将它表现为基督身后的光环。It was the symbol adopted by the Roman emperor Constantine, after his conversion to Christianity in the year 313.它是公元313年,罗马的君士坦丁大帝转变了对基督教的态度后所采用的标志。Our floor was almost certainly made about 40 years later.我们几乎可以肯定这块地板制作于约40年后。We can be pretty confident of that, because both Christ and Bellerophon wear their hair in the fashion of about 350.基督与柏勒洛丰的发型都是公元350年左右流行的发式,即是明。It was Constantine#39;s conversion at the battle of the Milvian Bridge that in fact made our floor possible.米尔维安大桥战役时,君士坦丁改变了对基督的态度,之后才可能有这样的地板出现。Before he converted, no villa owner would have dared display their Christian faith so brazenly-practising Christians had been persecuted.此前,没有一个别墅主人敢如此大胆地公开宣扬自己信仰基督,因为基督徒一直受到迫害。But now, everything was different.但现在一切都不同了。Professor Dame Averil Cameron of Oxford University explains:牛津大学教授埃弗利尔卡迈隆女爵士解释道:;The Emperor Constantine seems to have converted himself to Christianity, and started to favour the Christians.据说战前,君士坦丁在天空中看到了十字架,因而改信了基督。He is supposed to have seen a vision of a cross in the sky some time before the battle, and thereafter he never deviated from giving privileges to Christians, which was a complete overturning of what had been happening when Christians had not even been legal.之后他始终赋予基督徒极大的特权,彻底扭转了此前基督教不合法时的情况。 Article/201506/383115。