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长春一汽总医院处女膜修补长春协和医院人流做的怎么样长岭县中医医院咨询 Science and technology科学技术Another Earth?另一个地球?Home away from home远离家乡的家ONE of the more memorable slogans to come out of the climate-change talks in Durban over the past few days is:在过去几天的Durban气候变化会谈上提出的较难忘的口号之一就是:there is no planet B.没有星球B,But what if there were?但是如果有呢?Over the past couple of decades astronomers have logged thousands of so-called exoplanets在过去的几十年内,天文学家记载了数以千计的所谓的外行星worlds which orbit stars other than the sun.饶太阳以外的星球轨道运行的宇宙。On December 5th the scientists in charge of Kepler, a space telescope designed to look for such planets, confirmed their instruments discovery of its first Earthlike world.12月5号,负责开普勒号的科学家确认他们的仪器发现了第一个类地球星体,It is dubbed, rather unromantically, Kepler 22b.开普勒号是专门为寻找这样的类地球星体而设计的太空望远镜。The existence of this planet, which circles a star 600 light-years away, in the constellation of Lyra,存在这么一个行星,它环绕天琴座星系中一颗600光年远的恒星运行,之前被怀疑的不存在,had previously been suspected. Kepler, which belongs to NASA, Americas space agency, works by observing dips in a stars brightness as a planet passes in front of it.开普勒号,隶属于美国国家航空与宇宙航行局,即美国航天局,它通过观察当行星通过时恒星光亮度的变化来工作。It flags likely looking reductions as candidate planets, of which Kepler 22b was one.它标识显现的光度弱化可能为候选行星,开普勒22b就是一个。But three passes are needed to confirm a planets existence, and Kepler 22b has now passed this test. Crucially, it orbits well within its stars Goldilocks zone:但是一个行星的确认需要通过三个检测,开普勒22b现在已经通过检验。最重要的是,他环绕着其恒星的适居带很好地运行;neither too close nor too far away for liquid water to exist on its surface.不会太近也不太远液体水可能存在在上面。It joins two other Earthlike planets.它加入了另外两个类地球行星。Gliese 581d and HD 85512 b—discovered by another instrument within the past few years.Gliese 581d 和HD 85512 b—在过去的几年里被另外的仪器发现的。In truth, the term Earthlike is a stretch.事实上,类地球行星这个词言过其实,Kepler 22b has a radius 2.4 times that of Earth, and if it is made from roughly the same stuff its surface gravity will also be about 2.4 times as strong.Kepler 22b半径是地球的2.4倍,如果它和地球的组成大致相同,它的表面引力也将大约高达地球引力的2.4倍。But NASAs astronomers remain unsure whether it is predominantly gaseous, liquid or solid.但是美国国家航天与宇宙航行局的天文学家仍不能确定它主要是气体的、液体的或是固体的。Nevertheless, Kepler 22b is the most promising exoplanet yet found.然而,Kepler 22b 是目前发现的最有希望的外行星。Unlike the others, which skirt the edges of their stars Goldilocks zones, Kepler 22b orbits comfortably within its own.不像其他行星不在恒星的适居带,Kepler 22b 在它的适居带舒适地运行。NASAs researchers reckon its surface temperature is about 22C, compared with 15C on Earth.美国国家航空与宇宙航行局的研究人员通过与地球表面温度15C比较,估算出它表面的温度大概是22C。Its parent star is similar to the sun, again unlike those of the other two candidates, both of which orbit cooler, dimmer stars.它的母恒星与太阳相似,这又与其他两个候选外行星不同,其他两个候选外行星都环绕较冷的、较昏暗的恒星运行。Indeed Gliese 581ds parent is a red dwarf—the tiniest stellar species.Gliese 581d的母恒星确实是一个红矮星-最小的星系。That means its Goldilocks zone is so close to it that the planet may be tidally locked, as the moon is to the Earth.那意味着适居带非常接近它以至于行星可能被潮汐力锁住,就像月亮对于地球一样。If that were the case, one side of Gliese 581d would be permanently lit while the other experienced unending darkness.如果是那样的话,Gliese 581d的一面将会是常年光亮的,而另一面将会是无尽的黑暗。These three potentially habitable exoplanets may soon be joined by many more.很快可能有更多的外行星加入这三个可能适合居住的外行星中。In the two and a half years since its launch, Kepler has spotted 2,326 candidate planets.Kepler自发射以来的2年半里已经发现了2,326候选行星。About 650 others have been discovered by other instruments.其他仪器大约发现了另外650个行星。That plethora allows astronomers to start drawing conclusions about how common various sorts of planets are.大量的行星使天文学家开始得出行星种类繁多的结论。Of Keplers haul, 9% seem to be of a similar size to Earth;Kepler捕获的行星中9%大小与地球相似;a further 29% are Super Earths—planets substantially larger than Earth that are nevertheless rocky.Kepler 发现的行星29%是超级地球-实质上比地球大,不过地球是岩石类行星。Forty-eight of Keplers unconfirmed candidates look as if they orbit within their stars habitable zones; of those, ten seem to be Earth-sized.Kepler未能确认的候选行星48%看起来似乎是在适居带运行;其中,有10个与地球大小类似。The ultimate goal, of course, is to let astronomers make a plausible estimate of the total number of planets in the galaxy, of the number that could conceivably support life, and of the fraction of those that could sustain human colonists.当然最终的目标是让天文学家对系的行星总数、确定可以维持生命的行星数和那些可以维持人类殖民者生命的行星比例做出一个接近可信的估算。If only a few of Keplers possible Earthlike planets turn out to be real, that third number is likely to be in the millions.如果Kepler类地行星中只有很少被明是真的,第三个数可能是数百万。Such knowledge will mark an historic transition, says Chris Lintott, an astronomer at Oxford University who is giving the Kepler team a hand with the data analysis,一位牛津大学的天文学家Chris Lintoot说这些知识是历史转变的标志,他对Kepler团队给以数据分析的援助,since the uncertainties around the question of whether life exists elsewhere will cease to be astronomical and become purely biological.从此关于其他地方是否存在生命问题的不确定性将不再是天文学问题,Based on the preliminary data, it looks as if there are numerous suitable planets.而是变成了纯粹的生物问题基于这些初始数据,似乎有许多合适的行星,The science of exobiology may soon cease to be an oxymoron.外空生物学将不再是一个矛盾修饰。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245485长春阴道收紧哪个医院好

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德惠市第二人民医院做无痛人流多少钱Science and technology科学技术Solar power from space太空太阳能Beam it down, Scotty老兄,传下来吧Harvesting solar power in space, for use on Earth, comes a step closer to reality在太空获取太阳能以供地球之用:梦想距现实又近了一步THE idea of collecting solar energy in space and beaming it to Earth has been around for at least 70 years.在太空获取太阳能并传送回地球这一创意存在了至少有70年了。In “Reason”, a short story by Isaac Asimov that was published in 1941, a space station transmits energy collected from the sun to various planets using microwave beams.由艾萨克·阿西莫夫创作、1941年发表的短篇故事《推理》,描述了一个太空站将获取的太阳能以微波束的方式传送至多个星球的场景。The advantage of intercepting sunlight in space, instead of letting it find its own way through the atmosphere, is that so much gets absorbed by the air.相比于让阳光穿过大气层后再获取太阳能,在太空中截取太阳能的一大优点就是大气吸收的能量很少。By converting it to the right frequency first a space-based collector could, enthusiasts claim, yield on average five times as much power as one located on the ground.热衷者声称,首先通过调节阳光至适当频率,在太空中的太阳能收集器可以吸收五倍于地面收集器的能源。The disadvantage is cost.缺点在于成本高。Launching and maintaining suitable satellites would be ludicrously expensive.适用卫星的发射和维护成本会高得惊人。But perhaps not, if the satellites were small and the customers specialised.但也许不会—如果卫星足够小、且是为专门客户务。Military expeditions, rescuers in disaster zones, remote desalination plants and scientific-research bases might be willing to pay for such power from the sky.军事远征队、灾区救援人员、偏远的脱盐工厂和科研基地也许会愿意为太空太阳能买单。And a research group based at the University of Surrey, in England, hopes that in a few years it will be possible to offer it to them.英国萨里大学的一个研究小组希望在未来几年内可以提供太空太阳能。Heavenly power天国能源This summer, Stephen Sweeney and his colleagues will test a laser that would do the job which Asimov assigned to microwaves.今年夏天,斯蒂芬·斯维尼和同事将测试一个激光器,该激光器用来完成阿西莫夫为微波“指派”的任务。Certainly, microwaves would work: a test carried out in 2008 transmitted useful amounts of microwave energy between two Hawaiian islands 148km apart, so penetrating the 100km of the atmosphere would be a doddle.当然,微波可以发挥作用:2008年进行的一项测试为相距148公里的夏威夷两岛传送了大量的微波能,所以穿越100公里的大气层应该易如反掌。But microwaves sp out as they propagate.但微波在传送过程中会扩散。A collector on Earth that was picking up power from a geostationary satellite orbiting at an altitude of 35,800km would need to be sp over hundreds of square metres.接收35,800公里外的地球同步卫星传送的能源所需的地面收集器需覆盖数百平方米。Using a laser means the collector need be only tens of square metres in area.而使用激光器则意味着收集器面积仅需达到几十平米。Dr Sweeneys team, working in collaboration with Astrium,斯维尼士的团队正与卫星和太空公司Astrium合作。a satellite-and-space company that is part of EADS, a European aerospace group, will test the system in a large aircraft hangar in Germany.Astrium隶属于欧洲一航天集团欧洲宇航防务集团。斯维尼士的团队将在德国一座大型飞机库测试该系统。The beam itself will be produced by a device called a fibre laser.光束将由光纤激光器发出。This generates the coherent light of a laser beam in the core of a long, thin optical fibre.该激光器利用细长的光纤核心汇聚激光束。That means the beam produced is of higher quality than other lasers, is extremely straight and can thus be focused onto a small area.这意味着产生的光束比其他激光器发射的光束质量更高,最直接,也因此可以汇聚到更小的区域内。Another bonus is that such lasers are becoming more efficient and ever more powerful.另外一个益处就是此类激光器效率正逐步提高、力量更大。In the case of Dr Sweeneys fibre laser, the beam will have a wavelength of 1.5 microns, making it part of the infra-red spectrum. This wavelength corresponds to one of the best windows in the atmosphere.斯维尼士采用的光纤激光器发射的光束波长将达到1.5微米,从而使其达到红外线的光谱范围。该波长正处于大气最佳窗口之一。The beam will be aimed at a collector on the other side of the hangar, rather than several kilometres away.光束将瞄准飞机库另一侧的—而不是数公里之外的——收集器。The idea is to test the effects on the atmospheric window of various pollutants, and also of water vapour, by releasing them into the building.通过释放各种污染物以及水蒸气至机库中,该创意旨在测试这些物质对大气窗口的影响。Assuming all goes well, the next step will be to test the system in space.如果一切都进行顺利,下一步将是在太空中测试该系统。That could happen about five years from now, perhaps using a laser on the International Space Station to transmit solar power collected by its panels to Earth.这可能要在五年之后实现,或许会利用国际空间站上的激光器将空间站电池板收集的太阳能传送回地球。Such an experimental system would deliver but a kilowatt of power, as a test.作为测试,该试验系统将只传送一千瓦的能量。In 10-15 years Astrium hopes it will be possible to deploy a complete, small-scale orbiting power station producing significantly more than that from its own solar cells.Astrium 希望在未来10到15年的时间内能够建立一个完整的、小规模的、沿轨道运行的太阳能站,利用自身的太阳能电池发出大量电能。Other researchers, in America and Japan, are also looking at using lasers rather than microwaves to transmit power through the atmosphere.美日其他研究者也在考虑弃微波、用激光器,穿过大气层将能量传送回地球。NASA, Americas space agency, has started using them to beam energy to remotely controlled drones.美国航天机构国家航空航天局已开始采用激光器传送能源至遥控飞机。Each stage of converting and transmitting power results in a loss of efficiency, but with technological improvements these losses are being reduced.能量转化、传送的每一个环节都会有一定的功耗,但随着技术的改进,损耗正在降低。Some of the latest solar cells, for instance, can covert sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of more than 40%. In the 1980s, 20% was thought good.例如,部分最新型的太阳能电池将阳光转换成电能的功率超过了40%。而在上世纪80年代,20%的功率就很高了。Whether the Astrium system will remain a specialised novelty or will be the forerunner of something more like the cosmic power stations of Asimovs imagination is anybodys guess.Astrium 系统将是一个专业用途的创新,还是某个更接近阿西莫夫想象中的太空太阳能电站的先导?一切都还是未知数。But if it comes to pass at all, it will be an intriguing example, like the geostationary communications satellites dreamed up by Asimovs contemporary, Arthur C. Clarke, of the musings of a science-fiction author becoming science fact.但倘若系统通过测试,它定将激起人们的兴趣,正如与阿西莫夫同一时代的科幻小说作家亚瑟·C·克拉克所梦想的地球同步通讯卫星一样——梦想最终成为了现实。 /201304/236714 Business商业报道The music industry音乐产业Beliebing in streaming高举丁日的旗帜Record bosses now hope that online streaming could become a big enough business to arrest their industrys long decline唱片公司老板们正希望线上流媒体能成为一盘足够大的生意,以阻止他们产业的长期衰退AT THE headquarters of Pandora, an online-radio firm, in Oakland,位于奥克兰市的Pandora总部中,about a dozen headphone-clad analysts fill in a long questionnaire as they listen.约有12名头戴耳机的分析员听着歌曲信息,完成着一份很长的调查清单。They rank whether a songs mood is joyful or hostile, the vocalist breathy or gravelly.他们会将一首歌的基调做出分类,如欢快或狂暴;同时也会对歌唱家进行分类,如气息流派或声线沙哑型。They note whether they can hear electric guitars, lutes or bagpipes.他们会记录一首歌曲当中是否有电吉他、琉特琴或风笛等等的乐器演奏。Their ratings help to shape algorithms that push music to the services 76m users.他们的分类评级,是构成一款拥有760万名用户音乐务的关键程序之一。Pandora is in the vanguard of a revolution in which ever more consumers are streaming music over the internet to their smartphones or computers,如今Pandora正是这样一场革命的先锋,消费者们正以前所未有的数量进入到音乐流媒体的世界当中,通过互联网这一渠道,他们不再收藏音乐,instead of owning collections of songs.而是直接通过自己的智能手机和电脑收听音乐。For the first time since Apple popularised the paid download in 2003,这是自2003年苹果公司普及付费下载模式以来,the record business is changing key again.唱片行业的又一次巨变。From wax cylinders via vinyl, cassettes and CDs to MP3s,从乙烯树脂制成的黑胶唱片,发展到了卡带和CD唱片,再到了MP3,it is undergoing another format shift—maybe,此行业又将面临一次音乐制式转换。some in the business muse, its last.而有些人沉思道,或许这是唱片行业的最后一次变革。Streaming services give music-lovers access to millions of songs,流媒体务能够让音乐爱好者们接触成千上万的歌曲,but the services are not all alike.但这些务类型都不尽相同。Online-radio versions, including Pandora and Apples iTunes Radio, choose what consumers hear,包括Pandora和苹果音乐电台在内的线上电台模式,能够为消费者们提供他们想听的音乐,and the firms make their revenues through advertising.并且务商将通过广告业务实现盈利。Others, such as Spotify and Deezer, let customers select songs from a catalogue of 20m-30m, charging premium subscribers a monthly fee.另一方面,如声破天和Deezer的务商,则让消费者们从200万至300万的曲目中挑选歌曲,并对高级会员收取月费。Free services that stream music s, such as YouTube, also get plenty of play.一些免费的音乐录影带流媒体务,如YouTube公司,也在市场中分到了一杯羹。All the variants pay the record labels some fraction of a penny each time someone clicks on a song.以上各类的音乐务的每一次点播,都意味着需要给予唱片公司一定的报酬。Streamings rise makes music bosses as giddy as a bunch of teenage Beliebers queuing to see Justin Bieber.流媒体业务的迅猛发展,让唱片公司老板们都处于轻佻浮躁的状态当中,就像一群排队等着见丁日的丁日粉一样。Yet at first glance a report on March 18th by IFPI, a record-industry group, suggests that things are still getting worse.然而,在最初看到唱片业组织IFPI在3月18日发布的报告之时,形势不容乐观。Music labels worldwide revenues fell by 4% last year to 15 billion, a reversal of 2012s slight rise.与2012年的轻微上升截然相反,去年唱片公司全球收入为150亿美元,较往年下降了4%。But much of the fall was due to Japanese consumers finally giving up on CDs, as much as the rest of the world had aly done.但这很大程度上要归因于日本消费者的转变。他们终于放弃了对光碟产品的购买,跟上了世界其余国家早已达到了的市场态势。A closer look shows that streaming services are starting to bring the business back into profit in countries that have suffered steady declines, such as Italy.而进一步细究可知,在一些音乐产业持续衰退的国家,比方说意大利,流媒体务已经开始将这一行重新带入盈利当中。Streaming now has around 28m paying subscribers, and several times as many who use free versions.如今,流媒体务的付费用户约为280万人,免费用户则是前者的数倍之多。Last year subscription-based versions like Spotify had combined revenues of more than 1 billion, up more than 50% from 2012.就像Spotify之类的以付费订阅为基础的务商们,去年获得了超过10亿美元的总收入,与2012年相比业绩上涨超过了50%。That figure does not include online-radio firms, which last year had revenues of 590m in America alone,这一数字并不包括线上电台模式的公司。仅以美国当地来计算,去年线上电台模式的公司获得了5亿9千万美元的收入,a rise of 28% from the year before.较往年相比涨幅为28%。In America, the largest music market, 21% of the industrys 2013 revenues came from streaming, whose growth more than offset declines in CD sales.在全球最大的音乐消费市场美国,2013年唱片行业21%的收入来源于流媒体,而该项业务的增长效益超过了相抵之下光碟销售的下滑。Streaming services have taken off thanks to wider smartphone adoption, faster internet connections and the sp of cheap online cloud storage for music files.流媒体务的成功发展归功于以下几点原因:更广泛的智能手机应用,更快的网络连接,以及音乐文件的廉价线上云储存务。Even so, only 4-5% of music consumers in America and Britain have so far signed up for subscription streaming,即便在这样的市场环境下,目前美国和英国的音乐消费者当中,仅4-5%订购了流媒体务。says Mark Mulligan of MIDiA Consulting.MIDiA咨询公司的马克·穆里根表示。But if just 10% of the people in rich countries were to subscribe, the industrys fortunes would be transformed,但只要富裕国家中有10%的人选择订购,那么整个唱片行业的命运将会转变。says Claudio Aspesi of Sanford C. Bernstein, another research outfit.伯恩斯坦分析师克劳迪奥·阿斯佩西这样认为。YouTube, Googles popular online service,谷歌公司旗下最热门的线上视频网站YouTube,is expected to launch a paid-for music-streaming service in the coming months, which should help boost the numbers.有望在未来数月中实施对音乐流媒体务的收费,而这将令付费的用户数量激增。So might bundling music with a mobile-phone subscription, as ATamp;T is doing with Beats,将音乐与手机务捆绑销售也能达到同样的促进效果,而这正是美国电话电报与魔音的合作项目。a seller of headphones that has branched into subscription music.魔音公司是一家跻身进入付费音乐领域的耳机销售商。Arms around the world着眼全球Having previously fought losing battles against technological change, record executives have been quicker to embrace streamings surge.在输掉了前面几场科学技术战役后,唱片公司的老总们正迫不及待地依靠流媒体业务的快速增长打一个翻身仗。Until recently Apples iTunes was the sole king reigning over the digital-music realm;直到最近为止,苹果音乐一直是唯一一位统治着数字音乐世界的霸者;now there are dozens of princelings.而如今,则进入到了群雄并立的时期。This gives more negotiating power to the surviving three major record labels, down from six 15 years ago.这能让仅存的唱片巨头从15年前的6家缩减至目前的3家,拥有更多的谈判优势。I see myself as an arms dealer selling to everyone who will buy, says a gleeful record executive.一位心情愉悦的唱片公司老总说:我把自己当成一位军火商,只要有人买,我就卖。Streaming is also good news for independent labels, some of which are enjoying double the market share they had on CDs.流媒体的发展对于独立唱片公司来说,也是个极好的消息,其中一些公司将市场份额扩大到了光碟时期的两倍。It is also making it easier for music to travel beyond national boundaries.与此同时,跨国界的音乐传播也因此变得更为便利。We are getting revenue from markets where we never had a presence in the physical world, such as Brazil,现在,我们正从以前没有进入过的实体唱片市场当中取得收入。says Fredrik Ekander, the boss of Cosmos, a Swedish label.瑞典唱片公司Cosmos的老板Fredrik Ekander表示。Charles Caldas of Merlin, a licensing agency for independent labels, says streaming also helps monetise the nostalgia market.查尔斯·卡尔达斯是全球性版权许可机构Merlin的CEO,而他认为流媒体同样能让怀旧之情转换成利润流入。In the physical world more than two-thirds of sales are for new releases;在实体唱片市场当中,超过三分之二的音乐销售额是由新发行的歌曲构成的;on Deezer only a third of songs streamed are new.而在Deezer,只有三分之一的流媒体点播是新歌。To distinguish themselves from rivals and help users navigate their vast catalogues, streaming firms are offering curated playlists,为了胜过同行的务以及为了更好地帮助用户管理曲目,流媒体公司们提供了精选的播放列表,compiled by algorithms, celebrities and consumers themselves.而这份列表是由系统算法、歌手和消费者自身共同编制而成的。Users can also see what their friends on social networks are playing, and share tracks and playlists,用户们不仅仅可以看到他们在社交网站上的朋友所听的歌曲,还能对外分享歌曲和播放列表,which helps new acts take off.同时这也促进了新歌手的成长。Avicii, a Swedish DJ, has become the most streamed artist on Spotify.在声破天网站上,一位瑞典DJ艾维奇成为了最多点播量的艺人。Streaming is forcing a creative but undisciplined industry to pay more attention to data.流媒体的发展令一个从前具有创造性但管理模式混乱的行业,变得更加注重数据处理。In early March Spotify reportedly paid 200m for Echo Nest,在三月初据报道称,流媒体音乐务Spotify宣布它已经收购了音乐智能技术公司Echo Nest,which analyses data for music services and helps shape playlist algorithms.后者为诸多流媒体公司提供数据分析,以及构建播放列表等务提供持。Beats soon followed by purchasing TopSpin Media, which collects data to help artists connect with their fans.魔音公司随即收购了TopSpin Media,而这是一家能够通过采集信息去帮助艺术家们与粉丝联系的公司。Warner Music Group recently launched a new label in partnership with Shazam, a music-recognition app.华纳音乐集团近期与音乐雷达合作成立了一家新的唱片公司。Together they will trawl Shazams listener data to identify rising artists to sign up.他们将一起收集分析Shazam的听音数据,以寻找并签下冉冉升起的新星。Providing the streaming services can be persuaded to share their data,提供流媒体务的商家,也能够与唱片公司们分享自己的数据。record labels will be able to see the response to new songs immediately,而在这样的情况下,唱片公司们能够马上得知一首新歌的反响,and put marketing dollars behind those that strike a chord.并能从中挑选出扣人心弦的歌曲,从而投入市场推广资金。Performers will get a better idea where their fans live, to optimise their tour schedules.与此同时,音乐表演者们也能够对他们自己粉丝的居住地有较好的了解,从而优化他们的巡回演出计划。The economics of streaming look quite different from those of earlier music formats.流媒体的盈利模式与先前的音乐格式相比显得十分不同。On-demand streaming services pay a record label about three-tenths of a cent each time one of its songs is played,以需求量为标准的流媒体务商在每首歌点播之时,会给予唱片公司的3/10美分,and online-radio services even less.而网络电台务商则付得更少。But music fans may play a favourite tune dozens, maybe hundreds of times,但一些粉丝或许会连续播放一首自己喜欢的曲子数十遍,甚至上百遍,so those fractions of pennies can add up.因此这些零零碎碎的加总能得到一个很高的数字。Streaming subscribers pay around 120 a year,流媒体的付费订阅者每年大约要付120美元,which is more than double what the average American music consumer spends.而这一数字大约是平均美国音乐消费者花费的两倍。Yet some performers are unconvinced.然而,一些歌手却对此表示怀疑。Thom Yorke, the lead singer of Radiohead, has called Spotify the last desperate fart of a dying corpse.Radiohead乐队的主场汤姆·约克将Spotify称为一个垂死之人所放的绝望的最后一个屁。Music services have responded by being more open about how artists are paid,而务商们对此的回应是,让歌手们的收入方式更为自由,and arguing that their cheques will grow larger as more people sign up, as has happened in Sweden.并表示歌手们的收入会随着付费订阅人群的增加而增加,就像瑞典的案例一样。It is more complicated in countries with a well-established download market,音乐市场状况在一些早已建立起了下载规范的国家来说显得更为复杂,such as America and Britain, where industry executives worry that streaming may cannibalise downloads.比如美国和英国,这些国家的老板们担心流媒体务或许会催生出将音像资料分割开来的非法下载。However, the bigger issue for artists is that so few people overall pay for music, says Will Page, an economist at Spotify:然而,Spotify的经济顾问威尔·佩吉表示,对于歌手来说更大的问题是只有很少一部分人为音乐务付费。Half the population in the West spends nothing on music.他说:目前西方国家当中的半数人口享受着免费音乐,You cant cannibalise zero.对此你可以不必担心所谓的分割下载能够损害唱片行业利益。For years music has been a toxic place to invest.多年以来,唱片行业都不是一个投资的好领域。But the internet is at last bringing sexy back, as Justin Timberlake, a pop star turned actor and entrepreneur, might say.但最终随着网络发展,唱片行业或许最终能像贾斯汀·汀布莱克所说的一样,实现强势回归。Since investors have poured more than 1 billion into digital-music services in private transactions.自年以来,私人交易领域中投资者们已经对数字音乐务投入了超过100亿美元。Speculation is mounting that Spotify, which was reportedly valued last year at more than 5 billion, will soon go public.针对Spotify公司近期上市的传闻越来越多,而据报道称去年这家公司的估值已经超过了50亿美元。Shares in Pandora, aly listed, have nearly tripled in the past year.上市公司Pandora的股价在去年几乎增长至原先三倍的水平。Its market capitalisation is now almost 7 billion.目前,该公司的市场价值约为70亿美元。Such valuations assume that the services popularity will continue to grow,从这样的估价我们可以推断出,流媒体市场的热度将会持续上涨,and that subscription-based ones will persuade a sufficient proportion of those using their free versions to upgrade to paid varieties.并且付费订阅的务商也会令足够大的一部分使用免费务的用户,升级进入到付费市场当中来。Worryingly, churn tends to be high: around 46% of users of subscription services have either switched or say they plan to, according to Mr Mulligan of MIDiA.令人担忧的是,此行业的客户流失率也很高:来自MIDiA机构的穆里根先生所提供的资料显示,约有46%的付费订阅用户已经改变自己的音乐消费或者正打算改变。Nevertheless, people in the record industry are talking about another golden age.尽管如此,唱片行业的人都讨论着新一轮黄金时代。There is bound eventually to be a shake-out among the many new streaming services.在这为数众多的新进入市场的流媒体务商当中,最终肯定会进行一次洗牌。But for the music labels, it now seems clear that, once the physical CD has eventually gone the way of the wax cylinder,但目前对于唱片公司来说,如果实体光碟最终像黑胶唱片一样逐渐消亡,they will still have a profitable way to exploit their catalogues,那么他们也能找到另外一条有钱赚的路子,以继续歌曲创作事业。based on music fans being offered instant access to a near-limitless online jukebox.而这条路,便是持续地为音乐爱好者们提供一个几乎毫无限制的线上点播务。 /201403/281871长春武警医院官网预约免费长春双阳区流产多少钱

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