龙岩检查精子要多少钱365共享

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 龙岩检查精子要多少钱120门户
Science and technology科学技术Sociable spiders社会性蜘蛛Come into my parlour欢迎来做客A strange example of co-operative behaviour in arachnids一种懂得合作的不寻常的蜘蛛SPIDERS are known for many things.蜘蛛为人熟知的特点很多,Sociability is not one of them.但社会性不在其列。Most spiders are more likely to try to eat their neighbours than befriend them.多数蜘蛛更有可能想吃掉自己的邻居,而非跟它们做朋友。Given that there are at least 43,678 species of the critters, though, it is not too surprising that a few have overcome their natural grumpiness and teamed up to form societies.不过考虑到这种生物至少有43678种,有那么几种能克天生乖戾的性情结群而居也就不足为奇了。So far, about two dozen such social spiders have been identified.目前已知的社会性蜘蛛约有24种。And among them, something really strange has just been found.其中还发现了一些奇特之处。For one type of spider society turns out to involve two different but closely related species.在一种包含蜘蛛的群落中,有两种亲缘关系很近的蜘蛛。It is as though anthropologists had discovered villages populated both by human beings and chimpanzees.这就像是人类学家发现村落中既住着人类也住着黑猩猩。This was discovered by a team led by Lena Grinsted of Aarhus University in Denmark.这一现象由丹麦奥尔胡斯大学莉娜·格林斯蒂德带领的团队发现。They were studying a social species of spider called Chikunia nigra, living near Beratan Lake in Bali.当时他们在研究一种生活在巴厘岛贝拉坦湖畔、名为Chikunia nigra的社会性蜘蛛。Later, as they looked in more detail at their specimens, they realised its genes and genitalia revealed that it was actually two species, according to their findings just published in Naturwissenschaften.后来随着对标本研究的日益深入,他们发现基因和生殖器都表明标本分属两个物种。其研究结果新近见刊于《自然科学》。Exactly what the spiders get out of being social is not clear.社会性对蜘蛛有何益处目前尚不清楚。They do not hunt together.它们并不共同捕食。One explanation may be that the colony is acting like a giant creche.一种可能的解释是,这一群体像是大型托儿所。Ms Grinsted discovered this possibility by experiment.格林斯蒂德女士通过实验得出了这种可能性。First, she identified 19 females who were looking after recently hatched young, and another 20 who had eggs.首先,她找到19只照料新孵化幼虫的雌蜘蛛以及20只刚产过卵的雌蜘蛛。In each case she introduced an intruder, in the form of a spider from the same colony.然后,她将来自同一群体的一只蜘蛛作为入侵者分别引入上述两组个体。Both mothers and mothers-to-be were surprisingly tolerant of what would, in most spider species, be a serious threat.这些蜘蛛妈妈及准妈妈出人意料地表现出容忍性,而不像多数种类的蜘蛛那样将之视为严重威胁。Only 40% of the time did they attempt to chase the intruder away, or bite it.它们只在40%的时间中试图赶走或咬噬入侵者。Ms Grinsted then took another 40 spiders and swapped some of their broods.随后格林斯蒂德女士又取了40只蜘蛛并互换其部分幼虫。The upshot, she found, was that a female was as likely to look after and guard anothers brood as she was her own.她发现雌蜘蛛会将之视为己出,照料、保护幼虫。Which is intriguing, but not all that extraordinary in social groups which are composed of closely related individuals.这一现象虽有趣,但在个体亲缘关系相近的群体中也不算罕见。Except that Ms Grinsted now knows that this cannot always be the case for her spiders, since two different species are involved.只是格林斯蒂德女士现在已知道她的蜘蛛并非如此,因为其中包含两个物种。The species in question are pretty similar, which would seem to rule out another common cause of collaboration: that different creatures bring different adaptations to the party, thus dividing the labour of staying alive into specialisms.而且两种蜘蛛非常相似,这就排除了合作的另一常见原因,即不同生物在适应该群落过程中发生不同变化,从而为生存进行了专门化分工。Because Ms Grinsted did not know at the time of her experiment that two species were involved, she cannot be sure how many of the fosterings she induced were cross-specific.因为做实验时格林斯蒂德女士并不知道涉及两个物种,因此她现在无法确定有多少幼虫交换是在种间进行的。The two species seem more or less equally abundant, so the chances are it was about half of them.这两个物种似乎一样多,因此可能有一半是种间交换。If colony members are acting as foster mothers in the wild, something most odd is going on.如果在自然环境中该群体的成员也乐于做养母,这就是最奇怪之处:Altruism is not a concept often associated with spiders. Xenophilic altruism is truly bizarre.利他主义这个概念通常与蜘蛛没什么关系;种间利他主义发生在蜘蛛身上,就更让人难以置信了。 /201310/259910This disused car park is a near-perfect location for raising chicks, and only a short flight from a plentiful supply of food. Skimmers get their name from their unusual feeding technique--their extended lower bill detects fish just below the water surface. 这个废弃的停车场是抚养幼鸟的一个近距离的最常场所,这里距离丰富的食物来源仅地有一段很短的飞行距离。燕鸥因它们独特的捕食技巧而命名——它们延伸的下喙可以探测出距离水面不深处的鱼。The heavy use of east coast beaches by people has threatened skimmer numbers. It’s ironic that this man-made car park made out of crushed oyster shell should become a substitute.人们大量使用东海岸的沙滩威胁到了燕鸥的数量。很讽刺的是,这个停车场充满了人造的牡蛎壳碎屑,现在却成为了燕鸥的替代栖息地。Skimmers raise their chicks on a fish diet. But they serve their portions whole which can cause problems for their young. 燕鸥用鱼喂养它们的幼鸟。但是他们确是为大部分提供的,因此会对幼鸟产生不好影响。The increasingly human landscape of North America can make wildlife spectacles a rare event. But there are situations when it brings nature closer to people. That’s exactly what has happened here in this power plant in Florida. These are West Indian manatees, residents of the Florida coast. People and manatees don’t usually get along. Increasing boat traffic has become a big threat to manatees and some bear the scars of painful encounters with boat propellers.由于北美人类用地的增加,很难看到野生动物聚集的景象了。但是在有些情况下,这也使自然离人们更近了。在佛罗里达的这个发电厂的景象正能反应这一点。这些是西印度海牛,它们是佛罗里达海岸的常住居民。人类和海牛不能很好相处。海上交通变得越来越拥挤,这威胁到了海牛,有的海牛被船上的螺旋桨打到,留下了深深的伤疤。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/270421

Neuroscientists opinions about the brains of birds have changed.神经系统科学家关于鸟类大脑的传统观念发生了转变。In humans and other mammals,the roof of the forebrain has evolved into the cerebral cortex, a structure responsible for flexiblelearning and reasoning.人类和其他哺乳动物的前脑顶层已经进化为大脑皮层,这一结构主管弹性学习和推理能力。Early neuroanatomists thought that the forebrain roof was small and simple in birds, with itsforebrain instead being dominated by structures in its base, called the basal ganglia.早期的神经系统科学家认为鸟类的前脑顶层在大脑中面积小,构造简单,且并非由大脑基底部名为基底神经节的结构组成。Without anelaborate forebrain roof, it seemed that birds couldnt be very smart.因此,鸟类并不拥有复杂精妙的前脑顶层,这似乎决定了鸟类智商有限。Recent research shows that birds are a lot smarter than scientists once thought.最近的研究表明鸟类要比科学家想象的聪明得多。To give just afew examples, the New Caledonian crow can manufacture and use tools.例如,新喀里多尼亚乌鸦会制作和使用工具。The African grey parrotcan learn to classify objects into categories, and the Florida scrub jay stores food in dozens ofcaches and can remember their locations for future use.非洲灰鹦鹉能学会对东西进行分类,佛罗里达灌丛鸦会将食物存储在不同的地方,并且能记住位置,以备将来之需。It turns out that neuroanatomists had it all wrong about bird forebrains.结果是神经解剖学家 对鸟类前脑的研究完全错误。During more than 300 million years of separate evolution, the forebrain roofs of birds and of mammals each grew largerand more elaborate, but in different ways.在3亿多年各自的进化过程中,鸟类和哺乳动物的前脑顶层分别以不同的方式变大变精。The roof of a birds forebrain is so different from thecerebral cortex of a mammal that the neuroanatomists had confused most of it with enlargedbasal ganglia.鸟类的大脑顶层与哺乳动物的大脑皮层差别如此之大以至于神经解剖学家 将其与增大的基底神经节基本都弄混了。201408/322222Did you ever wonder what occurs inside your body whensomething funny happens?你有没有想过当一些有趣的事情发生的时候,你身体内部会发生怎样的变化呢?What is this thing we have in ourbrains that makes us say “ha-ha” when someone slips on abanana?当我们看到有人踩到香蕉皮摔倒会“哈哈”大笑,那到底是什么让我们做出这样的反应呢?One way to find out is to watch the brain laugh.找出的方法之一就是观察大脑。Thats whatDartmouth neuroscientist William Kelley did.达特茅斯神经学家威廉凯利就做了这样的实验。He and his team had a number of volunteers watchan episode of Seinfeld while being monitored by an MRI-thats a machine that allows researchersto see which parts of the brain are active at any given time.他让许多志愿者观看了一集“宋飞正传”,同时监测他们的核磁共振成像。这样研究人员就能看到任一特定时段大脑的哪个部分是活跃的。They then synchronized the MRI datawith the laugh track to see how the brain changes when its registering something funny.然后研究远让磁共振数据与笑的轨迹同步,观察当有趣的事情发生时大脑的变化。Theresno one “funny center” in the brain–but the findings were pretty suggestive.大脑内没有“滑稽中心”这样一个地方—但结果很有启发。When subjects were looking at something funny, the two regions in their left hemispheres lit up.当注意到有趣的事情时,左大脑半球的两个区域就会兴奋。From previous studies these regions are known to be associated with resolving ambiguity. Is theresomething in “getting it” thats related to the process by which we work with unclear informationuntil we suddenly see the pattern in it?从前面的研究中我们得知,这些区域是与解决歧义有关的。明白滑稽事情与我们处理不了解的信息过程有关系吗?A couple seconds later two other brain regions became active, called the insula and the amygdala.The insula is associated with emotion, so it seems likely that this is the brain feeling good when itgets the joke–the “ha-ha” response.几秒钟后,其它两个区域就会变活跃,这两个区域叫脑岛和扁桃腺。脑岛与情感有关,因此很有可能是大脑接收到笑话时感觉很好,然后做出“哈哈”大笑的反应。The amygdala is associated with memory formation.扁桃腺与记忆的形成有关。As the researchers point out, while you maynot be able to remember every plot detail in a Seinfeld episode, you can probably remember the jokes.正如研究人员指出,尽管你不能记住”宋飞记“的每一个情节,但能记住其中的笑话。Humor stays with us, forming a lasting memory. Get it?幽默能够保持形成一个长久的记忆。明白了吗? /201408/321928

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