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2019年07月20日 11:55:09来源:龙马解答

  • Lightning Helps Fertilize The Soil闪电有助于肥沃土壤Our bodies need protein, and proteins contain nitrogen. The air we breathe has plenty of nitrogen to satisfy our needs.人体需要蛋白质,蛋白质中含有氮元素。我们呼吸的空气中有许多可以满足我们需求的氮,But—that nitrogen is not available to us directly from the air.但我们无法直接从空气中汲取氮,The only way we can get nitrogen is from the plants we eat, or from the animals we eat that eat the plants.我们获得氮元素的唯一方法就是通过我们吃的植物或是以植物为食的动物中获得。Heres The Problem:问题出现了:A nitrogenmolecule in the air consists of two atoms which are held together very tightly.空气中的氮气分子是由两个连接紧密的氮原子组成,In order for us to absorb nitrogen, the two atoms must be separated.要吸收氮元素就必须将两个原子拆开,But the two atoms are held together so tightly that our body chemistry does not have enough energy to process them.但是人体内产生的化学能并不足以打破如此紧密的连接。This is where lightning comes in. Obviously we dont have to be struck by lighting in order to satisfy our need for nitrogen!这时候,闪电就有用武之地了。很显然的事,我们不需要为了满足对氮元素的需求而去遭电击。However, in a thunderstorm there is enough electrical energy in lightning to separate the nitrogen atoms in the air.但是,狂风暴雨中的闪电释放的能量足以拆散空气中的氮原子,Once the atoms are separated they can fall to earth with rain water,被打散的氮原子随着雨水落入泥土,and combine with minerals in the soil to form nitrates, a type of fertilizer.与泥土中的无机物相结合形成硝酸盐(可作为肥料)。The nitrogen-containing nitrates in the soil are absorbed by the plants,泥土里含氮的硝酸盐会被植物吸收,and when we eat the plants or the animals which eat the plants, we get the nitrogen in a form which our bodies can use.当我们吃到这些植物,或者吃到以这些植物为食的动物时,我们就能以身体可吸收的形式获得氮元素了。So, in addition to providing a spectacular light show, and scaring us to death, lightning also helps fertilize the soil.所以,闪电除了能展现电闪雷鸣的壮观景象和把我们吓坏来之外,还能有助于肥沃土壤。 /201207/190270。
  • Business Biotech patents Taking it personally商业 生物技术专利 对人下药A legal fight over a new generation of medicine新一代药品的法律纠纷DRUG research is in dark times, as pipelines dry up and development budgets are cut.但有一束光带来了一线希望。But one shaft of light pierces the gloom.随着新药品种开发减少,药品的研发资金缩减,药品研究正处于黑暗时期。;Personalised medicine; promises to craft drugs for individuals.;个性化药品;承诺为个人定制药品。Genetic tests will identify those who will benefit from specific medicines.基因测试将识别出那些从特制药品中获益的人。Treatment will be more effective; waste will drop.从而加强治疗效果;降低浪费水平。Personalised medicine has sparked excitement among drugmakers, doctors, hospitals and patients.个性化药品让制药商、医生和病人均欣喜若狂。It has also sparked a legal brawl.这也引发了法律纠纷。On December 7th Americas Supreme Court heard arguments in Mayo v Prometheus.2011年12月7日美国高等法院听取了梅奥V普罗米修斯的辩论。The suit, despite a name that suggests an ancient liver sandwich, may be crucial for biotechnology firms.这一诉讼虽然以暗示古代肝三明治的名义进行,但是对于生物公司来说至关重要。America is the worlds hub for drug research.美国是全球药品研究中心。By definition, personalised medicine includes the study of genetic mutations and other personal characteristics.按定义,定制药品包括对于基因突变的研究和其他个性化特征。However, American law bars patents of nature and abstract ideas.但是美国的法律禁止给自然和抽象的概念颁发专利。The question is which discoveries in personalised medicine may be patented.问题在于个性化药品的哪一种发现可能授予专利。Prometheus is part of a series of suits over biotech patents.普罗米修斯公司是陷入一系列生物技术专利权之争的公司之一。Courts have been active because Congress has not.因国会无动于衷,法庭便积极地应对。A recent patent reform provided little clarity.最近的专利改革提供模棱两可的解释。Congress merely ordered a study of genetic testing.国会仅是指示对基因测试进行研究。Judges have been bolder: in July a federal court ruled that genes could be patented.法官们是更加的大胆:7月份联邦法庭裁决基因可获得专利。On December 7th the suits losers appealed to the Supreme Court.12月7日该案件的败诉方上诉至最高法院。But Prometheus may have greater practical import, says Hans Sauer of the Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group.生物科技产业组织(BIO)的汉斯.萨奥尔说,但普罗米修斯案可能实际起的作用更大。Firms are studying genetic correlations that might predict a drugs efficacy or determine the cause of a disease.研究遗传相关的公司可能预计到药品的功效或决定疾病的缘由。Prometheus may determine whether methods using such correlations may be patented.普罗米修斯案可能裁定使用这种相关方法是否能授予专利。The fight has attracted the heavyweights of health care.这场官司吸引了卫生保健业重量级人物的眼球。On one side is Prometheus Laboratories, a Californian company that has patented a way to optimise certain drug treatments for individuals.一方是因优化某种个性化药物治疗的方法获得专利的加州普罗米修斯公司,On the other is the Mayo Clinic, a health and research centre.另一方是健康研究中心,梅奥诊所。Prometheuss supporters include BIO and several tech firms.普罗米修斯公司的持者包括BIO和几个高科技公司。Roche and Abbott, two big drugmakers, gave warning against invalidating patents on diagnostic tests.两大医药巨头罗氏制药和雅培公司对诊断试验专利无效提出了警告。Mayos allies include the American Medical Association.梅奥的联盟包括美国医学协会。The patents in question do not concern genetic tests, though the suits outcome will affect them.对于专利权的争议与基因测试无关,尽管这一案件的审理结果会影响到基因测试。They concern tests for the effectiveness of thiopurines, drugs that have long been used to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohns disease.他们关心的是巯基嘌呤是否适当的测试。巯基嘌呤是一直用来治疗胃肠道功能失调如克罗恩病的药物。Their effect depends on how they are metabolised.该药物的是否有效取决于其是如何新陈代谢的。Neither thiopurines nor tests for metabolites (substances produced by metabolism) were new when Prometheuss patents were filed in 1998.在普罗米修斯公司申请专利时不管是巯基嘌呤还是代谢物(由新陈代谢引起的物质)的测试都不是什么新鲜事物。But the patents cover the process for determining whether a given dose produces concentrations of metabolites within a recommended range.但是这一专利包括决定是否给定的药物剂量在推荐范围内能产生大量的代谢物过程。The dose of thiopurines could be adjusted accordingly.巯基嘌呤的剂量可以随之调整过来。Prometheus sells a test based on its patents to hospitals and clinics.普罗米修斯公司因测试方法申请了专利权而将其卖给医院和诊所。In 2004 Mayo developed a competing test, with different recommended levels of metabolites.2004年梅奥研制出了有竞争力的测试,对代谢物使用不同的推荐指数。Prometheus sued.普罗米修斯公司以此状告梅奥诊所。Mayos lawyers say Prometheus has patented a mere observation of the bodys natural workings.梅奥的律师说普罗米修斯公司申请的仅仅是观察人体自然运行的专利。Let the claim stand, Mayo argues, and firms will win broad patents over basic biological relationships, stifling innovation.梅奥辩道,若让普罗米修斯公司胜诉,公司将超越基本的生物基础而获得广泛意义的专利权从而阻碍创新。Prometheus and its allies warn of an alternative apocalypse.普罗米修斯公司和其联盟则警告这是另一场大灾难。A judgment in Mayos favour, they contend, will undermine existing patents and shrivel investment in personalised medicine.偏向于梅奥的持方争辩道这将破坏现有的专利及导致对个性化药品的投资减少。The Supreme Court may not make such a broad judgment.最高法院可能不会做出广泛的评判。It may instead hand down a narrower ruling that leaves many questions unanswered.相反,最高法院有可能将采用较小范围的裁定使得许多问题悬而未决。A natural phenomenon may not be patented, but which applications of that phenomenon might be?自由现象有可能不会授予专利,但是自然现象的哪种应用属于专利范围呢?When studying genetic correlations, which so-called discoveries are truly novel?在研究遗传相关的命题时,哪一种所谓的发现是真的新鲜出炉?Eventually personalised medicine may transform patients care and firms business models.最终个性化药品可能转变病人的护理和企业的经营模式。In the near future, the greatest beneficiaries may be patent lawyers.在不久的将来,最大的的受益者将是打专利权官司的律师。 /201211/211584。
  • Sitting alone on the city bus, Einstein believes he has glimpsed the secret of the Universe. 独自一人坐在公交车上,爱因斯坦相信他已经窥探到了宇宙的奥秘。For Einstein , space was this place where stuff walls and didnt do anything, they have stuff in it. 对于爱因斯坦来说,空间是个四周有墙的地方,而且有东西在里面。This space combined with time to become spacetime is a more dynamic understanding of this arena that everything takes place in becoming more alive in a way . 这个空间与时间结合成为宇宙时间,成为一个更为活跃的时空,这一领域一切都以一种更有活力的方式发生着。Things very outlandish very very strange things.事情非常古怪,已经到了稀奇古怪的程度。Rarely had anything so radical been submitted to Europes most prestigous scientific journals .欧洲最权威的科学期刊上几乎没有刊登过如此深入的研究。It was a complete outside to the physical phase to date as he was being in Switzerland being a patent clerk and yet he was abmicious enough to think that he could chanllenge the whole of established physics at the time .他在瑞士专利局的职员身份对于物理领域来说简直是外行,但他仍然有信心足挑战整个物理学。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175154。
  • We all shop for groceries, but we don’t always think about how the stores we shop in influence our buying decisions.Many consumers shop on autopilot and stores, they take advantage of that.我们都去杂货店购物,但我们不一定知道我们光顾的商店是怎样影响顾客的购买决定。许多消费者都去商店自主选购,商店则利用这一点。Researchers found that shoppers who started on the right-hand side of the store and shopped in a counterclockwise direction spent more on average than shoppers who started on the left. Consumer report says stores use displays that stick out (to) make products look more tempting, manufacturers pay stores to place their products in certain areas. So be sure to check shelves below eye level and those items at the end of the aisle.They may not actually be on sale.研究人员发现,从商店右边开始逛以及以逆时针方向逛商店的购物者比从左边开始逛的购物者平均花费更多。消费者报告说道,商店利用伸出式排列使商品看起来更加诱人。厂家付钱给商店,以把商品摆在特定的位置。所以一定要检查低于眼镜位置的货架和那些摆在过道尾巴上的商品。他们可能不打折。Now according to consumer reports, Americans make an average of 88 trips to the store each year and spend an average of 60, but you can save hundreds of dollars a year by shopping smart.根据消费者报告,美国人平均每年去商店光顾88次,平均花费5060美元,但是如果多花点心思,你就可能每年节省数百美元。Begin by taking a flyer. Consumer Reports says that stores will often sell items for less than they paid for them to draw you into the store and get you to buy more expensive items, but just because an item is in a flyer, doesn’t mean it’s on sale.首先从传单开始。消费者报告说,商店通常会以低于批发价的价格出售产品,吸引消费者进入商店,从而让你买更贵的商品。但是传单上的低价商品在商店并一定有售。Coupons are also a great way to save. Newspaper inserts are still the main source for coupons, but you can also find coupons online at store online sites, and manufacturer websites as well.优惠券也是一种省钱的好方法。优惠券仍主要来源于报纸插页,但你也可以在商店的官网上找到电子优惠券。Loyalty that pays as well, consumer Reports says stores are increasingly saving the best deals for customers who have loyalty cards, but be sure to check the store’s privacy policy before giving up your personal information.忠诚度也能帮您省钱。消费者报告称,商店倾向于为持有会员卡的顾客保留最好的优惠。但是在提供个人信息之前,一定要考察一下商店的隐私保护策略。Finally don’t keep your age a secret.Some stores offer extra savings to older shoppers on certain days.If you have two products that look the same, don’t compare the item price, check the unit price instead. That’s the cost per ounce or cost per pound, and Consumer Reports recommends trying the store brand. Almost 3 quarters of respondents to a consumer report survey said they bought store brand products, and 89% of those respondents reported that the store brands were as good or better than the national brand.最后,不要对年龄保密。有些商店在特定的日子,会为年老的顾客提供额外的优惠。如果有两件看起来一样的商品,不要去比较总体价格,而是要比较单价。看它是以盎司还是英镑为单位计价,消费者报告还建议试试商店自己的品牌。在消费者报告调查中,几乎3/4的受访者说他们购买过商店的品牌产品,89%的受访者说商店品牌跟全国的品牌一样好,或者比全国的品牌更好。For top tips, I’m Alison Kosik.贴心提示,我是埃里森·柯西卡。201205/184385。
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