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2019年07月23日 05:22:10 | 作者:爱问网 | 来源:新华社
Chinese auto maker Geely Automobile Holdings GELYY -2.92% said it would consider reducing the number of cars it exports to Ukraine for assembly should the political situation there deteriorate.中国汽车制造商吉利汽车控股有限公司(Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd., 简称:吉利汽车)表示,如果乌克兰的政治局势恶化,将考虑减少对乌克兰的待装汽车出口量。#39;So far we haven#39;t seen a lot of influence on our business,#39; said Ralph Chen, senior brand-management director at Geely International Corp., an arm of Geely engaged in international activities, including exports. #39;We#39;re going to do something if the situation [deteriorates]. But so far we#39;re good.#39;上海吉利美嘉峰国际贸易股份有限公司(Geely International Corp.) 负责品牌管理的高管陈鹏(Ralph Chen)说,到目前为止,吉利尚未发现业务受到太大影响。吉利美嘉峰国际贸易是吉利汽车的子公司,负责包括出口在内的国际事务。他说,如果情况(恶化),他们会采取一些措施,但到目前为止,情况良好。He said Geely sold more than 15,000 cars in Ukraine on a retail basis last year, up 32% from the same period a year earlier.他说,吉利汽车去年在乌克兰的汽车销量为1.5万辆左右,较上年增长32%。He described the country as a #39;top three#39; export market for Geely. Russia Geely#39;s top export market, with around 30,000 vehicle retail sales last year, he said. Ukraine follows, while Saudi Arabia rounds off the trio of the car maker#39;s most important markets.他将乌克兰称为是吉利汽车的前三大出口市场之一。他表示,俄罗斯是吉利汽车最大的出口市场,去年销量为3万辆左右。乌克兰次之,沙特阿拉伯排在第三。Geely sold 549,518 cars last year world-wide, up 14% on the year-earlier period. Around one-fifth of its total sales are to export markets.去年吉利汽车的全球销量为549,518辆,较上年增长14%。出口市场的销量占其总销量的五分之一左右。Russia and Ukraine together account for around 42% of Geely#39;s export volumes, according to a recent research note from Citi Research.据花旗研究(Citi Research)近期的一份研究报告称,在俄罗斯和乌克兰的销量占吉利汽车总出口量的42%左右。Mr. Chen said Geely is in close contact with its dealers in Ukraine. Possible steps could include reducing the number of disassembled cars it sends to Ukraine each month for assembly.陈鹏说,吉利汽车正在与乌克兰的经销商密切接触。可能采取的措施包括减少每月送至乌克兰的待装汽车数量。He said Geely currently sends between 1,500 and 2,000 cars to Ukraine each month, but didn#39;t specify the degree to which this number might be curtailed.陈鹏表示,吉利汽车目前每月出口至乌克兰的待装汽车数量在1,500至2,000辆之间。但他未说明这个数量可能会有多大程度的削减。Cars could be destroyed if a war breaks out, he said.他说,如果爆发战争,汽车可能会遭到破坏。Geely works through a single wholesaler in Ukraine, which then distributes through its network of dozens of dealers, including one with a few outlets in the Crimea region.吉利汽车通过在乌克兰的一家批发商销售汽车,后者通过其几十家经销商进行销售,其中一家经销商在克里米亚有几个门店。He said Geely is also looking to diversify into other markets such as Brazil, where the company introduced its sedan Emgrand EC7 earlier this year.他表示,吉利汽车还寻求向巴西等其他市场拓展业务,今年早些时候该公司将吉利帝豪(Emgrand) EC7引入巴西。Great Wall Motor Co., another Chinese auto maker active in Ukraine, said in a statement there had been #39;no effect#39; to its business #39;under the unstable situation of Ukraine.#39; It added that the company would monitor the situation on the ground.另一家活跃在乌克兰市场的中国汽车制造商长城汽车股份有限公司(Great Wall Motor Co., 简称:长城汽车)在一份公告中称,在乌克兰局势不稳定的情况下,该公司业务未受到影响。该公司还称,将关注乌事态发展。 /201403/279297

Posting snapshots of what#39;s for dinner is a favorite pastime of social-media users, but making dishes appear as delicious as they taste is an elusive skill.把晚餐照片发到网上,是社交媒体用户喜欢的一项消遣活动,但让菜肴看上去和尝起来一样美味,却是一项不太好把握的技能。With a few professional tweaks, though, amateur food photographers can give their smartphone-captured meals a major upgrade. Austin, Texas-based food photographer Jody Horton believes nearly any dish can make for a pretty picture -- extensive food styling not required. Items ranging from pecan pralines to barbecue have taken center stage in Mr. Horton#39;s work for publications such as Texas Monthly and Southern Living.但是,经过几条专业点拨,业余美食摄影师也可以让他们用智能手机拍摄的美食照跃升一个档次。得克萨斯州奥斯汀美食摄影师乔迪·霍顿(Jody Horton)认为,几乎任何菜肴都可以拍出一张漂亮的照片,同时还不需要做很多的食物造型工作。在霍顿为《得州月刊》(Texas Monthly)、《南方生活》(Southern Living)等刊物拍摄的作品当中,从山核桃果仁糖到烧烤,各种美食都曾占据中心舞台。First of all, when taking food snapshots, he says, #39;Don#39;t overthink it.#39; The result should look natural.首先他说,在拍美食照的时候“不要想太多”。拍出来的照片应当显得自然。While stressing out about perfect plating is unnecessary, Mr. Horton does pay attention to the plate itself. #39;You want to be sure that the food will separate from the surface on which it#39;s sitting,#39; he said, so a red apple on a red plate likely won#39;t photograph well. Consider creating a contrast between the plate and the table, such as white china on a dark wood surface, as well.虽然强调完美造型是没必要的,霍顿还是很注意盘子。他说,“要确保食物与承托它的表面是分开的”,所以红盘子上放一个红苹果拍出来的效果很可能就不是很好。也要考虑在碗碟和桌子之间形成反差,比如把白色瓷盘放在深色木质表面上。But if that#39;s not possible, a white plate on a white surface almost always works. In a pinch, placing a white plate on a white napkin or paper towel allows the food to #39;become the star,#39; Mr. Horton says.但如果办不到,白色表面上放白色盘子几乎总是可行的。霍顿说,万不得已的情况下,将白色盘子放在白色餐巾或纸巾上面可以让食物“成为主演”。Good lighting is key. Natural light that comes from behind the food is best, he says, so Mr. Horton turns off indoor lights and the camera#39;s flash, and he places the plate in front of a window that provides indirect sunlight.良好的用光是关键。霍顿说,从食物背后照过来的自然光是最好的,所以他会关掉室内灯光和相机的闪光灯,把盘子放在一扇有非直射日光照进来的窗户前面。If it#39;s after dark or natural light is unavailable, he suggests making sure only one type of light is on -- not both a halogen lamp and a fluorescent overhead light, for instance -- and that the artificial light comes from behind the food, if possible.如果是在天黑以后或者没有自然光的条件下拍摄,他建议确保只有一种光源开启(比如不能让卤素灯泡和荧光顶灯同时打开),而且在可行的情况下,这种人工光线也要从食物背后照过来。Restaurants, unfortunately, are inherently difficult spots to shoot food. When taking professional pictures, Mr. Horton usually moves the entire table to the desired light, an option not available to the average diner. But candlelight placed just out of the shot can add nice texture, even if it might take a few tries to find the best candle placement.可惜餐馆天生不是方便拍摄美食的地方。在拍摄专业照片的时候,霍顿一般会把整张桌子搬到理想光照环境中,而普通餐馆都不具备这个条件。但刚好在画面范围之外的烛光可以增添不错的质感,即便可能要试几次才能找到放置蜡烛的最佳位置。The most fail-safe angle for taking a food picture is from directly above, with only the food in the frame, Mr. Horton says. That way, the picture taker doesn#39;t have to worry about a distracting background.霍顿说,拍摄美食照片最保险的角度还是直接从上往下拍,且画面范围内只有食品。这样拍照的人就不必担心背景喧宾夺主。When shooting from overhead, it#39;s helpful to hold a piece of paper out of the frame but opposite your light source to bounce light back toward the food.在从顶头拍摄的时候,可以在画面范围之外逆着光线照过来的方向举一张纸,把光线反射到食物上面,这样也是有帮助的。Those who want a little ambiance in their photos should consider taking their smartphone camera even higher by standing on a chair. #39;Something that I do a lot that people find really compelling is overhead table shots,#39; Mr. Horton says, adding that they bring in the layout of the table, while still allowing the lighting to be fairly simple. Plus, he says, #39;you don#39;t have to worry about people closing their eyes or having weird expressions.#39;如果想在照片中加入一点气氛,那么就应该考虑站在椅子上,把手机举得再高一些。霍顿说:“我经常拍、大家又非常佩的一类,是从上方拍摄的桌子的照片。”他还说,这样的照片会显现出桌面的布局,同时又使用光能够比较简单。另外他还说,“你不必担心人们闭上眼睛或露出奇怪的表情”。Certain types of food can be especially hard to photograph well. Foods in #39;bland#39; colors can be problematic, as well as casseroles, because it can be hard to tell what they are. Drinks are challenging because glass is so reflective, and they have a shorter #39;shelf life,#39; with melting ice and wilting garnishes. (One tip: Light them well.)某些种类的食物有时候特别难拍。色“平淡的”食物以及焙盘都有可能不好处理,因为有可能很难分辨出是什么东西。饮料的拍摄是一种挑战,因为杯子太反光,且饮料的“保质期”更短,冰块会融化,装饰品会发蔫。(一条建议:把光线用好。)Food photography can be about much more than the final product on the plate. #39;Some of the most interesting moments happen during preparation,#39; says Mr. Horton.美食摄影涉及的东西可能远远不止于盘子上的成品。霍顿说:“有些最有意思的时刻是在制作的过程中。”Something like fried chicken waiting at the table in a brown paper bag, grease spots included, can provide the opportunity to tell a story in a single photo, he says. #39;It suggests more before it, and you know more is coming after it.#39;他说,有些摄影作品可以用单幅照片讲出一个故事,比如桌子上静静地放着褐色纸袋包装的炸鸡,油脂形成的斑点都可以看到。“它说明之前发生过一些事,你也知道之后还会发生一些事。” /201402/275963

Suddenly, as you may have noticed, millennials are everywhere. Not that this group of people born after 1980 and before 2000 — a giant cohort now estimated to number at least 80 million Americans, more than the baby boom generation — was ever invisible. What#39;s changed is their status. Coddled and helicoptered, catered to by 24-hour TV cable networks, fussed over by marketers and college recruiters, dissected by psychologists, demographers and trend-spotters, the millennial generation has come fully into its own. The word ;millennial,; whether as noun or adjective, has monopolized the nonstop cultural conversation, invariably freighted with zeitgeisty import.你可能已经注意到了,突然之间到处都是千禧一代,也就是出生在1980年之后、2000年之前的人。在美国,这个庞大的群体估计至少有8000万人,比婴儿潮时代的人还多。你之前并不是没有注意到他们,只是他们的地位发生了变化。他们被娇惯,享受24小时有线电视网,被市场营销人员和大学招生人员过分关心,被心理学家、人口学家和时尚达人剖析,如今他们终于形成了气候。“千禧”这个词不管是用作名词还是形容词,已经垄断了无休无止的文化交流,总是盛载着时代思潮。This newspaper is no exception. A recent search of The New York Times database turned up no fewer than 122 mentions of ;millennial; so far in 2014, on topics ranging from TV and pop music to travel and literature.《纽约时报》也不例外。最近在本报的数据库里进行搜索,发现2014年到目前为止“千禧”一词至少被提到122次,主题涉及电视、流行音乐、旅行和文学。A random sampling:我随便选了几段:1. ;Fusion was created in October as both a cable network and a digital network aimed at a younger, so-called millennial audience and is committed to telling and delivering the news in ways that a young audience expects.;1. “10月份创立的Fusion是针对更年轻的千禧一代的有线电视网和数字网络,致力于用年轻观众期待的方式讲述和传递新闻。”2. ;Lana Del Rey, the pouty, retro torch singer for the millennial generation. ...;2. 复古伤感歌手“拉娜·德雷(Lana Del Rey)有着撅起的嘴唇,深受千禧一代喜爱……”3. ;On the heels of hotels like Yotel and Aloft, a crop of new brands is designed for millennial travelers.3.“继Yotel和Aloft等旅馆之后,出现了一大堆为千禧一代旅行者设计的新品牌……”4. ;Elyria is disengaged and depleted in a manner that put me in mind of the characters in the novels of Tao Lin, that Zen summoner of millennial ennui.;4. “林韬堪称千禧年倦怠感的禅宗召唤者,伊利里亚(Elyria)的与世隔绝和精疲力竭让我想起了他小说中的人物。”Why this microscopic attention paid to a generation whose oldest members are only now entering the prime of their adult lives? One answer is that millennials, the first people to come of age in the 21st century, with its dizzying rate of technological change, have been forced to invent new ways of navigating it.千禧一代中年龄最大的现在也才刚步入成年的巅峰时期,可人们为什么对这一代人进行了如此细致的观察?其中一个原因是,他们是21世纪的第一批成年人,技术革新的飞速发展迫使他们想出新办法来驾驭它。But first, what besides youth sets millennials apart from their elders — the wizened silent generation, the graying boomers, the midlife Gen-X#39;ers?但是首先,除了年轻,还有什么能把千禧一代和老去的沉默一代、头发花白的婴儿潮一代和步入中年的X一代区分开来呢?The usual answer seems to be ;narcissism; — self-absorption indulged to comical extremes. We all can recite the evidence: the breathlessly updated Facebook profile, the cascade of selfies, the Kardashians.最常见的似乎是“自恋”——他们的自恋已经到了可笑的地步。我们都能举出很多例子:不停更新的Facebook,数不清的自拍照,以及卡戴珊。Millennials know this litany, too. ;People have been calling me a narcissist since I was 3,; says Hannah, the character Lena Dunham plays in ;Girls,; her comedy of millennial manners. It#39;s a small joke on Hannah but a bigger one on the anxious, hovering adults who supplied the clucking soundtrack when she was growing up.千禧一代也知道这些长篇大论。“从我三岁起,就有人说我自恋,”电视剧《都市女孩》(Girls)中莉娜·杜汉姆(Lena Dunham)扮演的汉娜(Hannah)说。杜汉姆创作的这部喜剧讲的是千禧一代的行为方式。对汉娜来说这是个小玩笑,但是对她成长过程中的那些焦虑彷徨,啧啧做声的成年人来说,这可不是小事。But a very different picture of millennials emerges from what may be the most illuminating literary project of our era, the Pew Research Center#39;s sequence of reports on millennials. The 2010 edition, subtitled ;Confident. Connected. Open to Change,; offered an X-ray of its first wave, the ;roughly 50 million millennials who currently span the ages of 18 to 29.;皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)关于千禧一代的系列报告可能是我们这个时代最具启发性的人文项目,它展示出一个非常不同的千禧一代形象。该报告2010年版的副标题是《自信,互联,乐于变革》(Confident. Connected. Open to Change),它剖析了第一批千禧一代,也就是“大约5000万18岁至29岁的千禧一代”。What Pew found was not an entitled generation but a complex and introspective one — with a far higher proportion of nonwhites than its predecessors as well as a greater number of people raised by a single parent. Its members also have weathered many large public traumas: the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, costly (and unresolved) wars, the Great Recession. Add to those the flood of images of Iraq and Katrina (and, for older millennials, Oklahoma City and Columbine) — episodes lived and relived, played and replayed, on TV and computer screens.皮尤研究中心发现,这一代人并不是只懂享受,他们复杂而自省——和前辈们相比,非白种人的比例高了很多,而且有很多人是在单亲家庭长大的。这一代人还经历了很多重大公共创伤:911恐怖袭击,代价惨重(且悬而未决)的战争,经济大衰退。另外,伊拉克和卡特里娜飓风的图像在电视和电脑屏幕上播了一遍又一遍——对于年长的千禧一代来说,还有俄克拉荷马市飓风和科伦拜恩校园击案。For a generation digitally wired from childhood, and reared on apocalyptic s and computer-generated movie epics, not to mention the exploits of hackers, these events showed the real world to be as tightly networked, and for that reason as easily disrupted as the virtual one, even as the grown-ups in charge, the guardians of order, seemed overwhelmed and overmatched, always a step behind.这一代人从小就使用数码产品,观看灾难视频和充满电脑特效的电影大片,还遭受过黑客攻击,所以在他们看来,现实世界是密切相连的,因此也像虚拟世界一样易受攻击,而那些掌控大局的成年人和秩序维护者似乎不知所措,总是处于下风,晚了一步。It is no surprise, as Pew reported, that the millennial generation is skeptical of institutions — political and religious — and prefers to improvise solutions to the challenges of the moment. It is one thing to own a smartphone, as so many of us do. It is quite another to have mastered its uses at age 10.皮尤研究中心的报告指出,千禧一代对各种机构(政治机构和宗教组织)都持怀疑态度,更喜欢赶快想出解决当下问题的办法。这并不奇怪。有智能手机是一回事,我们中的很多人都有,但是从十岁就掌握它的各种用处是另一回事。Thus, in a range of areas, millennials have not only caught up, but have jumped out in front.所以,在许多领域里,千禧一代不只是赶上了我们,而且已经跳到了我们前面。Consider the approach many take to the workplace. Thanks to the 2008 economic crash, millennials know how fleeting wealth can be. Their solution? For many, it is to acquire not more, but less.想想他们中的很多人对待工作的态度吧。2008年的经济危机让千禧一代明白财富可能转瞬即逝。他们的解决办法是什么呢?对他们中的很多人来说,不是要去赚更多的钱,而是要少赚些钱。;Almost two-thirds (64 percent) of millennials said they would rather make ,000 a year at a job they love than 0,000 a year at a job they think is boring,; the Brookings Institution recently noted in a report by Morley Winograd and Michael Hais titled ;How Millennials Could Upend Wall Street and Corporate America.;布鲁金斯学院最近的一份报告指出,“将近三分之二(64%)的千禧一代说,他们宁愿做一份自己喜欢的、年薪四万美元的工作,也不去做他们觉得无聊的年薪十万美元的工作”。该报告的作者是莫利·威诺格拉德(Morley Winograd)和迈克尔·海斯(Michael Hais),标题是《千禧一代将如何颠覆华尔街和美国的所有公司》(How Millennials Could Upend Wall Street and Corporate America)。The generation that gave us Occupy Wall Street has embraced its own modes of entrepreneurship, found across the broad spectrum of ;creatives,; from stylists to techies, who reject the presumed security of the corporate job and riskily pursue their own ventures, even if it means working out of their parents#39; basement. At the same time, record numbers of new college graduates are applying for jobs in the Peace Corps, AmeriCorps or Teach for America.进行“占领华尔街”运动的千禧一代有自己的企业家精神,他们出现在各个“创意”领域,从造型师到计算机专业人员,他们拒绝一般人认为有保障的公司工作,冒险去追求自己的创业梦,即使要在父母的地下室里玩命工作也没关系。与此同时,应聘美国和平队(Peace Corps)、美国国民务队(AmeriCorps) 或“为美国教书”组织(Teach for America)的大学毕业生人数也创下了纪录。Consider millennial shopping habits. Even in the realm of fashion, many are indifferent to prestige brands and lavish ad campaigns, preferring to buy online or get ;disposable; clothing at H amp; M or Zara, which boasts that its organically farmed cottons are ;completely free of pesticides, chemicals and bleach.;再来看看千禧一代的消费习惯。甚至连时尚界的很多千禧一代也不在乎大牌和奢华的广告营销,他们更喜欢网购或者在Hamp;M或Zara购买“可以丢弃的”衣,这些衣号称用的是“完全不含杀虫剂、化学制剂和漂白剂”的有机棉花。The do-goodish pitch is aimed squarely at millennials, who collectively favor companies that embrace the values of good citizenship. The Brookings report says millennials overwhelmingly ;responded with increased trust (91 percent) and loyalty (89 percent), as well as a stronger likelihood to buy from those companies that supported solutions to specific social issues (89 percent).;这种行善的营销方式针对的正是千禧一代,这一代人喜欢那些信奉良好公民理念的公司。布鲁金斯学院的报告称,千禧一代中的绝大多数人“都对那些为具体社会问题提供解决方案的公司有着更高的信任(91%)和忠诚度(89%),而且更有可能购买它们的产品(89%)”。And consider food. The new generation may have had health-consciousness drilled into them at home or in school. But they have raised it to a new level. ;For millennials, food isn#39;t just food. It#39;s community,; The Washington Post reported last year in an article on the Silver Diner chain, which has developed an up-to-the-minute locavore and ;started actively catering to those on vegan, vegetarian and gluten-free diets.;再来看看饮食。千禧一代可能已经在家里或学校被灌输了健康理念。但他们把它提高到了一个新的层次。《华盛顿邮报》去年的一篇关于Silver Diner连锁餐馆的报道说,“对千禧一代来说,食物不只是食物,还是社群。”该连锁餐馆开发了一份最新的本土菜单,而且“开始积极迎合那些严格素食者、一般素食者和坚持无麸质饮食的人”。It was a shrewd calculation. An estimated 12 percent of millennials say they are ;faithful vegetarians,; compared with 4 percent of Gen X#39;ers and 1 percent of baby boomers, according to one study.这是个聪明的做法。一项研究表明,约有12%的千禧一代称自己是“忠实的素食者”,而只有 4%的X一代和1%的婴儿潮一代会这么说。Taken together, these habits and tastes look less like narcissism than communalism. And its highest value isn#39;t self-promotion, but its opposite, empathy — an open-minded and -hearted connection to others.总而言之,这些习惯和口味不太像自恋,而更像社群主义。它的最高价值观不是自我推销,而是它的对立面——同情心:和别人真心交往的开放心态。Exhibit A may be LeBron James, the N.B.A. superstar who in July announced that he would be going back to rust-belt Cleveland after four glamorous years in Miami, becoming, at age 29, one of America#39;s wealthiest boomerang children.第一个例子是NBA超级巨星勒布朗·詹姆斯(LeBron James)。他在迈阿密热火队度过辉煌的四年后,今年7月份宣布将回归没落的克利夫兰骑士队。29岁的他成为返回故乡的最富有的美国孩子之一。;Miami, for me, has been almost like college for other kids,; James explained in a statement on SI.com exuding millennial earnestness. ;My relationship with Northeast Ohio is bigger than basketball. I didn#39;t realize that four years ago. I do now.;“对我来说,迈阿密热火队有点像其他孩子眼里的大学,”詹姆斯在SI.com上发布的声明流露出千禧一代的诚恳,“我与俄亥俄州东北部的关系重于篮球。四年前我没意识到这一点,但现在我意识到了。”Four years ago, he meant, when he seemed the picture of self-importance, proclaiming on a live ESPN spectacle that he would ;take my talents to South Beach.;他指的是四年前有点自大的他在体育节目电视网(ESPN)的一次直播节目中宣称,他将“把我的才华带到南部海滩去”。But James didn#39;t develop his new vocabulary of civic obligation and social responsibility overnight. On the contrary, he was a model teammate in Miami, insistently deflecting praise to others. He also helped lead the campaign to hold the former Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling accountable for racially charged blurtings when they became public last spring.但詹姆斯没有在一夜之间想出公民义务和社会责任之类的新词。相反,在热火队他是个模范队友,总是把赞扬转给别人。去年春天,前洛杉矶快船队老板唐纳德·斯特林(Donald Sterling)的种族歧视言论曝光后,詹姆斯还帮助领导了要求他对此负责的抗议行动。Tellingly, James reacted forcefully on Twitter. In common with other millennials, he has made social media, with its many opportunities for ;oversharing; self-display, a means of communication that pushes outward, instead of turning inward.詹姆斯在Twitter上进行了有力回应。虽然社交媒体很容易成为过度自我展示的平台,但是和其他千禧一代一样,他把它们变成了一种向外沟通而非只关注自我的工具。And he is not alone. We all know about celebrity-stalking websites like Gawker and TMZ, and the harm they wantonly inflict. But the millennial Brandon Stanton, a 30-year-old former bond trader and self-taught camera portraitist, has created a counterexample in ;Humans of New York,; his popular photo blog.而且这么做的不只他一个人。我们都知道Gawker和TMZ等跟踪明星的网站以及它们对明星的肆意伤害。但30岁的千禧一代布兰登·斯坦顿(Brandon Stanton)却树立了一个相反的例子。他曾做过券交易员,后来自学成为肖像摄影师,创立了一个很受欢迎的照片客——“纽约人物”(Humans of New York)。Combing streets and parks, Mr. Stanton takes pictures of ordinary people and interviews them about their lives. The resulting images and excerpts give dignity to what might otherwise be forgotten faces in the urban crowd. Published in book form, ;Humans of New York; became a No. 1 best seller last fall.斯坦顿在街上和公园里为普通人拍照,并采访他们的生活。最后的照片和采访节选将尊严赋予都市人潮中可能被忽略的一张张面孔。去年秋天,结集出版的《纽约人物》荣登畅销书榜首。A similar theme illuminates the writings of Leslie Jamison, a 31-year-old Yale graduate student who has emerged as an accomplished essayist in her acclaimed book ;The Empathy Exams.; On the surface, Ms. Jamison#39;s confessional writings look like exhibitionism — including the title essay, which records her time as a ;medical actor; enacting a script of symptoms for the benefit of medical students.31岁的莱斯莉·贾米森(Leslie Jamison)的著作也阐明了同样的主题。她是耶鲁大学的研究生,凭借饱受赞扬的《同情心检查》(The Empathy Exams)一跃成为知名散文作家。表面上看,贾米森的自传体作品有点暴露癖——包括书中的同名散文,说的是她为医学院的学生们充当“医学演员”,按照脚本表演各种疾病症状。Yet she has been deluged with mail from grateful ers, who have poured forth their own, often harrowing experiences. ;I found myself becoming an unwitting confessor to countless strangers,; Ms. Jamison wrote last month in The Guardian. ;I started to feel like confession could be the opposite of solipsism.;不过她后来收到了大量充满感激之情的读者来信,他们通常是向她倾诉自己的痛苦经历。“我发现自己无意中对着无数陌生人忏悔了,”贾米森上个月在《卫报》上发表文章说,“我开始觉得忏悔可能是唯我论的反面。”On book tour, Ms. Jamison clinched the bond. ;Whenever someone asked me to sign her book, I would ask her to sign mine,; she wrote. ;It was a way to create, for a moment, the kind of symmetry that felt impossible in the letters I received.;在图书巡展上,贾米森紧紧抓住这个情感联系的机会。“不管什么时候有人请签名,我都会让她也给我签一个名,”她写道,“这能营造出一种短暂的对等,这是我在读者来信中不可能感受到的。”Empathy was a theme sounded repeatedly by some of the millennials photographed for this article, and interviewed in an online slide show that accompanies it.我们为本文拍摄了其中一些千禧一代的照片并采访了他们——在本文随附的幻灯中你能看到他们的照片和采访节选——从他们口中我们经常听到的一个主题是“同情心”。One said he hoped to succeed because ;the better you#39;re doing, the more you can share with other people.; Another pointed out that while he was nursed on the traditional American dream — ;this idea that if you worked hard and got good grades and did all the right stuff you would succeed; — he has developed a more pragmatic version of it suited to the economic realities of the 21st century.有个人说他希望成功是因为“你做得更好,就有更多的东西能和别人分享”。另一个人指出,虽然他从小接受传统美国梦的教育——“如果你努力工作,取得好成绩,做所有正确的事,你就会成功”——但他摸索出了一个更更适应21世纪经济现状的美国梦。;I know that as hard as I work — and I work very hard — I very well may fail. And it#39;s liberating to know that.; The key word is ;liberating.; In the age of the start-up, of fortunes gained and lost overnight, of flawed ideas in need of continual debugging and re-tweaking, failure is the default outcome and also, at times, the ground zero of eventual triumph.“我知道就算我努力工作——而且我工作得非常努力——我也很有可能会失败。知道这一点会让你觉得释然。”这里的关键词是“释然”。在这个创业时代,在这个可能一夜暴富、一夜破产的时代,在这个需要对有缺陷的创意不断矫正和调整的时代,失败是默认结果,有时也是最终成功的起点。No wonder, then, that ;millennials are the nation#39;s most dogged optimists,; as Pew reported in a new study this spring. ;They believe their own best days are ahead.;难怪皮尤研究中心在今年春季发布的新报告里说,“千禧一代是美国最顽固的乐观主义者”,“他们相信最好的时光就在前方”。They, and we, can expect some less-than-best days, too. Cultural transformations are seldom cost-free. And they#39;re not always permanent. A new generation, as yet unnamed, is growing up in the world the millennials have made and may aly be working on its own revision of the nation#39;s moral life.他们,还有我们,也可以预测到一些不那么好的日子。文化转型很少是不用付出代价的。而且这种转型也并不是一成不变的。尚未命名的新一代正在千禧一代创造的世界里成长,而且可能已经在书写他们自己的美国精神生活新版本。 /201409/327975

Yet another set of ominous projections about the Ebola epidemic in West Africa was released Tuesday, in a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that gave worst- and best-case estimates for Liberia and Sierra Leone based on computer modeling.本周二,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)发布了一份报告,对西非的埃拉疫情做出了不乐观的预测。该报告使用计算机建模,针对利比里亚和塞拉利昂的疫情,进行了最坏和最好情况的估计。In the worst-case scenario, the two countries could have a total of 21,000 cases of Ebola by Sept. 30 and 1.4 million cases by Jan. 20 if the disease keeps sping without effective methods to contain it. These figures take into account the fact that many cases go undetected, and estimate that there are actually 2.5 times as many as reported.在最坏的情况下,到9月30日,这两个国家可能共有2.1万宗埃拉病例,如果病情不断蔓延,缺乏有效的方法来遏制它,那么到明年1月20日,会增至140万宗。CDC考虑到很多病例都没有被发现,估计实际病例可能是统计数据的2.5倍,据此得出了以上预测。In the best-case model, the epidemic in both countries would be “almost ended” by Jan. 20, the report said. Success would require conducting safe funerals at which no one touches the bodies, and treating 70 percent of patients in settings that reduce the risk of transmission. The report said the proportion of patients now in such settings was about 18 percent in Liberia and 40 percent in Sierra Leone.报告称,在最好的情况下,到1月20日,这两个国家的疫情“几乎会结束”。要实现这一点,就需要安全地开展丧葬,在这个过程中不让任何人触及尸体,并且需要在可以降低传染风险的环境中,治疗70%的患者。该报告表示,目前处在这种环境中的患者,在利比里亚只有约为18%,塞拉利昂约为40%。The caseload projections are based on data from August, but Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, the C.D.C. director, said the situation appeared to have improved since then because more aid had begun to reach the region.该报告根据8月的数据,做出了疫情猖獗的预测,但CDC主任托马斯·R·弗雷登(Thomas R. Frieden)士表示,8月之后,随着更多的援助逐渐抵达了该地区,疫情似乎有所改善。“My gut feeling is, the actions we’re taking now are going to make that worst-case scenario not come to pass,” Dr. Frieden said in a telephone interview. “But it’s important to understand that it could happen.”“我的直觉是,鉴于我们目前采取的行动,最坏的情况不会应验,”弗里登士在接受电话采访时说。“但重要的是要明白,那是有可能发生的。”Outside experts said the modeling figures were in line with estimates by others in the field.外界专家称,CDC的建模数目与该领域其他人的预测相吻合。“It’s a nice job,” said Ira Longini, a professor of biostatistics at the University of Florida who has also done computer modeling of the epidemic. “It summarizes the extent of the problem and what has to happen to deal with it.”“这份报告很不错,”佛罗里达大学生物统计学教授艾拉·朗吉尼(Ira Longini)说,他也对这次疫情进行了计算机建模。“它总结了问题的严重程度,以及要应对它,必须开展哪些工作。”Bryan Lewis, an epidemiologist at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, agreed that the estimates were reasonable, perhaps even a bit low compared with those generated by other models. He said that if some of the latest data from the World Health Organization is plugged into the C.D.C. model, “the very large numbers of estimated cases are, unfortunately, even larger.”布莱恩·刘易斯(Bryan Lewis)是一名流行病学家,供职于弗吉尼亚理工大学(Virginia Tech)弗吉尼亚生物信息学研究所(Virginia Bioinformatics Institute),他认为这些估计是合理的,相对于其他模型得出的估计数目而言,甚至有点偏低。他说,如果CDC的模型使用世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,简称WHO)的一些最新数据,那么“很不幸,这些已经非常大的病例估计数目,甚至就会变得更大”。The current official case count is 5,843, including 2,803 deaths, according to the W.H.O.WHO目前的官方数据显示,病例数目已达5843例,其中包括已经死亡的2803例。The C.D.C. estimates omit Guinea, which has been hit hard, because the epidemic struck in waves that could not be modeled.CDC没有对几内亚的猖獗疫情进行估计,因为在该国,埃拉是一波一波来袭的,研究者无法对此建模。The W.H.O. published its own revised estimates of the outbreak on Monday, predicting more than 20,000 cases by Nov. 2 if control does not improve. That figure is more conservative than the one from the C.D.C., but the W.H.O. report also noted that many cases were unreported and said that without effective help, the three most affected countries would soon be reporting thousands of cases and deaths per week. It said its projections were similar to those from the C.D.C.本周一,WHO修订了自己的估计数字,称如果疫情控制状况没有得到改善,那么到11月2日,病例数目将超过2万例。这个数字比CDC的预计保守,但WHO的报告还指出,很多病例都未经报告,如果缺乏行之有效的帮助,疫情最严重的三个国家很快就会报告每周数千人的死亡数目。WHO说,自己的预测与CDC的很相似。The W.H.O. report also raised, for the first time, the possibility that the disease would not be stopped but could become endemic in West Africa, meaning that it could become a constant presence there.WHO的报告还首次指出,这种疾病不会消失,而是可能会成为西非的地方病,这意味着,埃拉可能在那里成为一种常见病。President Obama’s promise last week to send 3,000 military personnel to Liberia and to build 17 hospitals there, each with 100 beds, was part of the solution, Dr. Frieden said. But it was not clear when those hospitals would be y, or who would staff them.上周,奥巴马总统承诺,将派遣3000名军事人员到利比里亚,搭建17家医院,每家提供100张床位;弗雷登士说,这是整个解决方案的一部分。不过目前还不清楚,这些医院将在何时准备好,以及由谁来提供医疗务。Dr. Frieden said the Defense Department had aly delivered parts of a 25-bed unit that would soon be set up to treat health workers who become infected, a safety measure he said was important to help encourage health professionals to volunteer. He said that more aid groups were also arriving in the region to set up treatment centers, and that a “surge” of help would “break the back of the epidemic.”弗雷登士说,国防部已经提供了一些材料,用来搭建一个25个床位的病房,以便治疗那些感染了埃拉的医疗人员,搭建工作将很快完成。他说,这是一个很重要的安全措施,有益于鼓励医务人员担当志愿者。他说,还有更多援助团正在抵达该地区,以搭建治疗中心,而且“一”援助将会“很好控制住埃拉疫情”。Dr. Jack Chow, a professor of global health at Carnegie Mellon University and a former W.H.O. official, said, “The surge only becomes realized when those beds are up and operating and the workers are delivering care.”卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)全球卫生教授周启康士(Dr. Jack Chow)曾是WHO官员,他说,“只有当这些床位都建好,投入使用,而且有人提供医疗务时,这一援助才能变成现实。”He added, “If even the medium case comes to pass, with, say, 700,000 cases by January, the epidemic will quickly overwhelm the capabilities that the U.S. plans to send.”他还说,“就算只是出现了预测的中间情况,比如1月时,病例数目达到70万例,那么疫情也将迅速压垮美国计划提供的援助。”The W.H.O. reported that a new center had just opened in Monrovia, the Liberian capital, with 120 beds for treatment and 30 for triage. Patients were aly lined up at the door.WHO的报告称,一家新的治疗中心刚刚在利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚开业,它拥有120张治疗床位,还有30张床位用于分诊。患者已经在门口一字排开。The report from the C.D.C. acknowledged that case counts were rising faster than hospital beds could be provided. It said that in the meantime, different types of treatment would be used, based in homes or community centers, with relatives and others being given protective gear to help prevent the disease from sping.CDC报告承认,和可以提供的床位数目相比,病例数目的增长速度更快。该组织表示,在此期间,可以采用不同类型的治疗方式,让患者在家中或社区中心里,接受亲戚和其他人的护理。护理者将获得保护设备,以防止疾病蔓延。The ed States government is also sending 400,000 kits containing gloves and disinfectant to Liberia to help families take care of patients at home.美国政府还将运送40万份手套和消毒剂到利比里亚,以帮助患者的家人在家中护理他们。At least one aid group in Liberia is aly shifting its focus to teaching people about home care and providing materials to help because there are not enough hospital beds for the sick. Ken Isaacs, a vice president of the group, Samaritan’s Purse, said, “I believe inevitably this is going to move into people’s houses, and the notion of home-based care has to play a more prominent role.”在利比里亚,由于没有足够的床位供患者住院,至少有一个援助组织已经转移工作重心,开始侧重于教导人们如何开展家庭护理,并提供相应的物资。该组织名为撒玛利亚救援会(Samaritan#39;s Purse),其副主席肯·艾萨克斯(Ken Isaacs)说,“我认为护理工作将在家庭中开展,这一点不可避免,而家庭护理这个概念可以发挥更加突出的作用。” /201409/332243

Jack Livings spent time in China as a student and an English teacher in the #39;90s. The American author recently published #39;The Dog,#39; his first collection of short stories, set in the contradictory landscape that is modern China.美国人利文斯(Jack Livings) 20世纪90年代曾在中国留学并担任英语教师,他最近出版了一本名为《那只》(The Dog)的书,这是他的第一本短篇故事集,其中的故事以错综复杂的现代中国为背景。The stories touch on everything from a factory owner forced to donate vast sums of money to charity in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake to a retired racing dog rescued from becoming dinner to a fictionalized account based on the true story of a group of glassworkers charged after Mao Zedong#39;s death with creating a crystal sarcophagus in just 10 months--a task that normally takes three years.利文斯的新书《那只》这本故事集内容丰富,既有2008年四川地震后被迫向慈善机构大量捐款的工厂主的故事,也讲述了一只退役的赛如何获救避免成为盘中餐的故事,还有根据真实故事创作的关于玻璃厂工人的小说,这些工人在毛泽东死后仅用10个月的时间就制造出了一口水晶棺,而这项任务通常需要耗费三年时间。The author, who works in the licensing division at Time Inc. in New York, talks about the challenges of writing about China from afar, precision of language and finding the human element in a story. Edited excerpts:利文斯目前在Time Inc.纽约办公室的专利许可部门工作。他谈到了写这本书时所面临的挑战,例如从遥远的地方描写中国,语言的精准度以及在故事中发掘人的元素。以下为采访节录:Where did you draw your inspiration for the characters in your stories?你从哪里获得灵感来写故事中的这些人物?#39;The Dog#39; [the story from which the book takes its name] is based on a story one of my English students told about this horrible experience she had where they were going to take a racing dog out to the country and barbecue it and she stepped in and said no. I didn#39;t start writing that till I had been back for at least five years, but that story just stuck with me.《那只》(也是这本书的书名)来自于我的一名英语学生给我讲的可怕经历。有些人想把一只退役的赛带到乡下做成烤肉,这名学生挺身而出制止了这件事。我回国至少五年之后才开始写这个故事,但这件事一直在我脑海中挥之不去。Several came from ideas based on news stories I . A couple came from a weird mix of my own sick brain and things I was ing at the time. Very few actually contained any characters based on people I met.还有一些角色的灵感来源于我读到的新闻报道。另外一些是我自己脑海里的想法和当时阅读的东西结合的产物。很少有故事是根据我在现实中遇见的人而创作的。Why did you want to write fiction about China?为什么会想写关于中国的小说?I#39;m a fiction writer. That#39;s how I look at the world. I admire what writers like Evan Osnos and Peter Hessler [who have written nonfiction books about China] do. But if I were going to write nonfiction about China, I would have had to be there for at least 10 years.我本来就是写小说的,这是我看待世界的方式。我很钦佩像欧逸文(Evan Osnos)和彼得#12539;海斯勒(Peter Hessler)这样的(撰写过有关中国的非小说类作品的)作家。但如果我自己也要写一部非小说类的作品,那我至少得在中国住上10年才写得出来。For a fiction writer, distance is a good thing, although it can lead to horrible mistakes if you#39;re not careful.对于小说家来说,距离是个好东西,但如果在创作中不小心,距离也会导致作品漏洞百出。How much research did you do to ensure you didn#39;t make mistakes? Particularly with the story about the crystal sarcophagus?为了不出错你做了多少研究?尤其是对水晶棺那篇故事?The more I worked on it, the more it became like a Hollywood film #39;based on a true story.#39; I started with some oral histories from three glassworkers who were involved in the project that were in places contradictory. They were all speaking in that super-red hero-of-the-revolution language and were very proud of the work they had done.Jennie Yabroff利文斯在写这个故事时,我越写越觉得它成了一部“根据真实事件改编”的好莱坞电影。一开始,我从当时参与制作水晶棺的工人那里了解了一些口头历史,但他们的讲述存在前后矛盾的地方。这些工人说话的语气都是“又红又专”,对自己所做的工作特别自豪。I about the embalming process Mao went through. I old patents and applications from the #39;30s. I worked on it for about a year and half, and about eight months in, when I thought I had it down, the Shanghai government released some top-secret information about Shanghai factories#39; work on the coffin, which no one had ever referenced before. When that turned up, I just tried to make it all work together while keeping the essential center of the story factual. All the research contradicted itself at every turn.我阅读了一些对毛泽东遗体做防腐处理的资料,还阅读了上世纪三十年代的专利及申请材料。研究进行了大约一年半的时间,大约到了第八个月的时候,我想可以开始动手写了,这时上海市政府公布了制作水晶棺的上海工厂的一些绝密信息,以前从来没有人提到过这些信息。在相关信息公布后,我要做的就是把这些材料组织起来,同时确保故事的中心内容符合真实情况。在每个阶段的研究工作都会出现前后矛盾的问题。Did writing a fictional account of a real event like this give you a sort of creative license?像这样通过小说的方式来描述一个真实的事件,你能否获得创作自由?I was concerned with the first few stories I wrote that I would get facts wrong and all the China hands would come after me. The story about the sarcophagus was researched very heavily--to a point. I couldn#39;t figure out how they built this coffin in 10 months. I was studying chemistry and physics, and I came within an inch of calling up the Corning glass company to ask them to get a curator or someone who probably could#39;ve told me in five minutes how they did it. But ultimately I didn#39;t. You can do too much research when you#39;re writing fiction. You need to retain the ability to go off in a wild direction.当我开始写前几个故事的时候我担心会弄错事实,害怕到时候会遭到全中国的指责。从某种角度来说,我对水晶棺的故事进行了大量的研究。我理解不了他们如何能在10个月之内完工。我研究了化学和物理,甚至差点给康宁(Corning)玻璃公司打电话,让他们找个人,用5分钟的时间告诉我他们是怎么做的。但最后我没有打。在写小说的时候你可能会做太多的研究。你需要留出自由想象的空间。Most of the stories are written from a Chinese perspective. Was that difficult?大部分的故事都是从中国人的角度写的,这是否有一定难度?The essential humanity of human beings translates pretty well. But I was sitting there writing with an idiom dictionary and two Chinese dictionaries. I would write a sentence and then spend two hours researching whether that character really would#39;ve said that. For example, I couldn#39;t have them say #39;ohmigod#39; because a Chinese person just wouldn#39;t say that.人类最根本的人性是互通的。但我写作的时候旁边一定会摆着一部成语字典和两部中文字典。有时候写出一个句子后我会花上两个小时来研究那个人物会不会真的说出那样的话。例如,我不能让故事中的人物说“哦我的上帝啊”,因为中国人不会这么说。Were you worried about making mistakes?你是否担心犯错误?I could always completely get it wrong. I gave a ing in D.C. last week and had a person in the front row, a mainland Chinese person, who gave me 10 minutes of criticism. But the risk is part of what kept it interesting.很多时候我可能会完全弄错。上周我在华盛顿举行了一次阅读会,有一位来自中国大陆的人坐在前排,之后这个人批评了我10分钟。但风险也是让这件事情有意思的一个方面。Some of your stories deal with sensitive issues, like Uighur-Han relations. Why did you choose to focus on such subjects?你写的一些故事里带有敏感性话题,比如维吾尔族和汉族的关系。你为什么要着重描写此类主题?I wrote that story at least six years ago and it#39;s the only story I wrote out of a kind of politically motivated anger. The difference between writing a position paper, or an editorial or piece of fiction is that I hope this story makes to some degree clear that institutionalized violence destroys everything, not just the people who are victims. It also destroys the people who are committing the acts of violence. The denigration goes all the way around. As opposed to saying, look at what the [police are] doing, aren#39;t they horrible, I hope there was at least a subtle nod that this situation is bad for everyone.我写那个故事的时候至少是六年前了,这是我唯一一篇取材于因政治引发的愤怒的作品。无论是写一份意见书、一篇社论还是小说,区别就在于我希望这个故事能在一定程度上表明,制度化的暴力将引发全方位大面积的破坏,摧毁的不仅仅是受害者。它还摧毁了那些干出暴力事件的人。各方互相诋毁。我不想说,看那些警察都做了些什么,他们就不残暴吗,我更希望人们能够稍微认同我的观点,那就是这种情况对谁都不是好事。Will your book be translated into Chinese?你的书会翻译成中文吗?I would love to see it translated, but I#39;m not sure. I hope there#39;s something that would be moving to a Chinese er but am curious whether it#39;s a little too simple on the surface. It wouldn#39;t be surprising for someone living in Beijing to about forced donations, but I hope the human element would translate.如果能翻译成中文当然最好,但我不确定。我希望书中的一些内容能够被中国读者所接收,但我也很好奇对于这些读者来说,这本书表面看来是不是太肤浅。那些居住在北京的读者读到强制捐款事件时一定觉得这没什么好奇怪的,但我希望文字之下的人性因素能得到共鸣。What#39;s up next?你的下一部作品是什么?I#39;m currently working on a novel set in New York in the late #39;70s. I thought it would be nice to not have to fact check everything since I#39;m writing about the U.S., but it turns out that#39;s just the way I write. I use research as a way to build the world.我在写一部小说,发生在70年代末的纽约。我曾经认为,因为是在写美国,就不用去核查所有的事实了,那该多好啊,但事实明,这就是我写作的方式。我把研究调查作为构建世界的一种方式。 /201408/322668

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