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洪泽县妇幼保健院治疗内分泌多少钱淮安六个月人流Books and Arts; Book Review;Politics in India; Iron lady;文艺;书评;印度政治;铁娘子;Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life. By Rani Singh.索尼娅·甘地:非同寻常的一生;拉尼·辛格著。LAST year a supporter of Sonia Gandhi threatened legal action and succeeded in preventing the publication in English of “The Red Sari”, a fictionalised life which had aly had a successful run in Spanish and Italian. Although a couple of biographies have been published in India, Rani Singh’s “Sonia Gandhi: An Extraordinary Life, An Indian Destiny” is the first for an international market.《红色纱丽》一书歪曲地描述了索尼娅#8226;甘地的生活,此书的西班牙语和意大利语版本都广受欢迎。而英文版《红色纱丽》一书的出版却受到了索尼娅#8226;甘地的一名持者的阻挠,他扬言要采取法律手段,最终他成功了,英文版并没有出版。在印度国内,尽管有一些关于索尼娅#8226;甘地的传记已经出版,但拉丽辛格的《索尼娅#8226;甘地:卓越的一生,一个印度人的宿命》却是第一本面向全球读者的传记。When Sonia married Rajiv, son of the prime minister, Indira Gandhi, in Delhi in 1968, nobody predicted great things for her. She was pretty, personable and very shy. Like her husband, she had few academic qualifications. Her father was a builder from a town on the outskirts of Turin. Although the Nehru-Gandhi family was not, as Ms Singh states several times, aristocratic, they and their circle could certainly be snooty. It was not unusual in the 1990s to hear Sonia Gandhi referred to in Delhi social circles as “the Italian au pair”.1968年,索尼娅#8226;甘地在新德里和当时的印度总理英迪拉#8226;甘地(甘地夫人)的儿子拉杰夫#8226;甘地结婚。人们对她并无多大的期待。索尼娅#8226;甘地面容姣好,姿态优雅,害羞内敛。同她丈夫一样,她在学术上建树甚少。她的父亲是一个建筑工人,来自都灵市郊一个小镇。辛格不止一次将尼赫鲁-甘地家族描述为是有着贵族习气,尽管事实情况并非完全如此,但他们的小圈子的确是高傲势利。(尼赫鲁-甘地家族本可以待人傲慢,但事实上,他们这个小圈子并不像辛格在书中不止一次的描写的那样喜欢摆贵族的架子)在20世纪90年代,新德里的社交圈将索尼娅#8226;甘地称为“意大利帮工”的情况已经很少再出现了。Today Mrs Gandhi is the most powerful politician in India. Earlier this year when she went for treatment at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Centre in New York, the government was left rudderless. Characteristically, no announcement was made as to where she had gone, or whether her illness was serious. Cabinet ministers were reduced to asking each other, and even in some cases the media, for information about her condition.如今,索尼娅#8226;甘地已是印度最有权力的政治家。今年的早些时候,她前往纽约的梅莫瑞尔#8226;斯欧恩-凯特林 癌症中心接受治疗,政府群龙无首。有一个典型的例子:政府就她的去向,健康状况没有做任何的声明。内阁部长们不得不相互询问,有些时候甚至向媒体打听索尼娅#8226;甘地的情况。When she returned to India in September and resumed her duties as president of the ruling Congress Party, the immediate crisis appeared to stabilise. Mrs Gandhi’s position—which might best be described as a dynastic moral authority—now stems less from the fact that she is Rajiv’s widow than from her intuitive strategic sense and her discreet, often silent, ability to assert political control.当索尼娅#8226;甘地九月份回到印度,再次开始她国会党主席的工作时,原本混乱的状况一似乎下子秩序井然。人们关于她的地位最恰当的描述是“王朝的精神领袖”,原本是因为她是拉吉夫的遗孀,而现在则更多的是因为她在政治上直觉敏锐,思想具有战略性,寡言慎行,对政治工作有绝对的掌控能力。It is hard to determine just how she does this, since her senior colleagues know they would soon fall from favour if they broke the omerta that surrounds her. Sonia Gandhi almost never gives interviews, although the few she has done on Indian television have been surprisingly open and direct, recounting the tragedy of her husband’s assassination in 1991 and her own inclusive social ideals.人们不知道索尼娅#8226;甘地是如何做到这些的。但她身边和她共事多年的同事们知道,要是他们胆敢损害索尼娅#8226;甘地的美好形象(风言风言),他们也将地位不保。索尼娅#8226;甘地极少接受采访,在她为数不多的几次电视访问里,她一反常态地非常公开和直接地讲述着1991年他的丈夫遇刺的悲剧经历,分享着她自己的社会理想。Ms Singh says she follows “her own brand of socialism”, which is an exaggeration. Rather than socialism, it is an emphasis on protecting the disadvantaged even while proceeding with India’s at times rapacious version of capitalism. Since she does not hold a ministerial post, Sonia Gandhi can appear detached from government policy, and row back from difficult decisions when they prove unpopular. A symbolic performance is combined with studious political negotiation.辛格说索尼娅#8226;甘地在践行她独有的社会主义,这实在有些夸大其词。与其是说走社会主义之路,索尼娅只是在印度大肆发展资本主义的同时更强调保护弱势群体的利益。由于她并没有内阁的席位,索尼娅可以表现得和政府的政策相背而行,当政府的决定不受欢迎时再提出自己的见解。这种象征性的表演常常体现在和与政府频繁进行的政治性协商中。There are several difficulties with this biography. Ms Singh, a London-based journalist and broadcaster, appears to think that her duty as a biographer is to write a hagiographical defence of her subject. The enthusiastic tone extends to most members of the Gandhi family. When Indira Gandhi made a controversial snap decision to nationalise India’s big banks, the er is told simply that crowds danced in the streets in jubilation: “Indira had an instinctive feeling for what would please people and would move heaven and earth to deliver.”辛格是一名驻扎在伦敦的记者和播音员。在写这本书的时候有很多困难。她认为自己作为传记的撰写者,其职责就是要为她书中主角树立正面形象,因此她对甘地家族成员的评价都甚高,当记叙到甘地夫人当机立断,推行了一项颇有争议的国有化印度大型的政策时,辛格仅仅描述了人们在街上欢乐地跳舞庆贺。她还写到“甘地夫人天生知道如何迎合别人,她也竭尽全力地利用这一点。”There is no indication that Ms Singh has had access, during her research, to either Sonia Gandhi herself, or to any of the people who are close to her. The book shows scant political understanding. Sikh militancy, Kashmir, the Sri Lanka conflict and the Bangladesh war are recounted in school textbook prose, accompanied by some baffling non sequiturs.没有任何的迹象表明辛格在撰写这本书做研究期间,有机会接近索尼娅#8226;甘地或是她身边的人。此书政治见解略显浅薄。书中关于锡克教的斗争,克什米尔,斯里兰卡冲突,孟加拉的战争的记叙走只停留在教科书的水平,同时还记叙了一些不相关的战争。(还下了一些不想干的令人困惑的结论)When the narrative becomes more personal, the er is offered anecdotes such as this: “Presented with a tray of freshly made juices, Sonia studied the options carefully: papaya, lime, orange, fresh mango, and coconut water, before choosing the last one.” Would history have turned out differently if she had chosen the lime?当作者叙述平日的琐碎生活之时,读者会读到这样的句子“索尼娅面前放着众多的鲜榨的果汁,有番木瓜汁,酸橙汁,橘汁,新鲜芒果汁和椰子汁,她细细地选择着,最后选择了椰子汁。如果她最后选了酸橙汁,这对历史有什么影响呢? /201305/242165淮安治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱 Post-office banking邮政Put your money where your mail is邮件在哪儿,钱就在哪儿Americas postal service ponders a foray into financial services美邮政业或将涉足金融业WITH a workforce of just over 491,000 in 2013, the ed States Postal Service is second only to Walmart among civilian employers in America. But it still employed more than 200,000 fewer people last year than it did just nine years earlier—when it handled nearly 500m more pieces of mail and had almost 2,000 more retail offices. The rise of e-mail has left Americas massive postal service with far less to do, and it has been scrambling to find ways to raise revenue.2013年,美国邮政务公司雇员超过491000人,成为仅次于沃尔玛的美国第二大雇主。九年前美邮需要处理近5亿封邮件,拥有2000多个办事处,和那时相比去年还是减少了超过20万雇员。电子邮件的崛起导致美国大量的邮政务没什么业务可做,他们开始寻求其他的收入增长点。Earlier this year its inspector-general released a white paper suggesting that post offices should begin offering financial services, such as cheque-cashing, small loans, bill payments, international money transfers and prepaid cards to which salaries or benefits could be transferred. The reasoning is simple: a lot of Americans have scant access to banks and a lot of post offices have too little to do.今年初,美邮总监发布的白皮书显示邮政业要开始提供金融务,这些务包括票兑现,小额贷款,账单付,国际转账以及能够预的工资卡。这么做的原因很简单:许多美国人对的需求得不到满足而一堆邮局又无事可做。More than one-quarter of American households are unbanked or underbanked, meaning they either lack a current or savings account, or they have one but still use alternatives to banks such as cheque-cashers and payday lenders. That is an expensive habit: the average underbanked household has an annual income of only ,500 or so, yet spends around 9.5% of that on fees and interest charged by these banking substitutes.超过四分之一的美国家庭没有账户或者没有得到充足的金融务,这意味着他们没有这种倾向或者没有储蓄账户,也可能他们有账户,但选择如票承兑人或发薪日贷款人等替代方式。这是种代价很高的习惯:一般来说没有账户的家庭年均收入25500美元,而付给这种替代机构的费用和利息达到9.5%左右。High-street banks find it hard to make money serving poor customers, since they tend to have little money on deposit that the banks can lend out. Penalties such as overdraft fees are not always enough to compensate. Since 2008, 93% of bank-branch closings have come in areas where median household income is below the national average.大型为穷人提供务很难赚到钱,因为他们的存款太少,而要把这些钱贷出去。透费这种惩罚措施并不总是能够偿还成本。自2008年起,93%的行陷入这样的境地—家庭账户收入的中值低于国家平均水平。These are the distressed customers to whose rescue the USPS hopes to ride. Some 59% of its post offices are in places with either a single bank or none at all. In rural hamlets they are often one of very few commercial establishments; even in the postal services diminished state, there are still more than seven post offices for every Walmart in America. Post offices aly sell money orders and provide electronic remittances to nine Latin American countries; from 1911 to 1967 the USPS also held personal deposits. Providing small, brief loans at lower interest rates than payday lenders could save low-income consumers hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars in interest and fees. The post office would compete not with banks, but with their more expensive stand-ins.正式这些贫穷的顾客点燃了美邮的希望。美邮59%的邮政所周围只有一家或者没有。在美国乡下,他们常常是为数不多的商业机构之一;即使是在邮政务日益萧条的州,邮政所和沃尔玛的数量比也大于7:1。邮政所造就开始向9个拉丁美洲国家卖邮政汇票并提供电子汇款务;1911年到1967年之间,美邮还有个人存款业务。提供利率比发薪日贷款人低的小额短期贷款,能为低收入客户节省数亿甚至数十亿美元的利息和费用。邮政局不是和竞争,而是在和比收费高的替代机构竞争。Some, notably the head of the committee of the House of Representatives that oversees the USPS, are unconvinced. They see the postal services expansion into financial services as government overreach, and a delay of the necessary “right-sizing” of a massive agency that does far less than it used to. Jennifer Tescher, who heads a charity focused on the underbanked called the Centre for Financial Services Innovation, notes that the USPS “has zero capacity, understanding or capability in this arena”. “The only asset they bring to the table”, she believes, “is distribution.” Even that is of limited value outside rural areas: Ms Tescher notes that just because a spot lacks bank branches does not mean it has no cheque-cashers and corner shops selling prepaid cards—many with longer and more convenient opening hours than the post office.众议院委员会负责人指出美邮的做法明显不具信力。他们把邮政业扩张到金融领域的行为视作政府的手伸的太长,认为这是在拖延这个远远低于过去功效的大型机构合理精简的步伐。一个专注于那些无法得到充分金融务的人的慈善团体—金融务创新中心的负责人詹妮弗说美邮不了解这一领域,既没资格也没能力。她相信美邮唯一的优势是渠道,即使这在农村以外地区基本没有价值。Tescher女士提到这些区域缺少网点并不意味着没有票承兑人和贩卖预付卡的小店—和邮局相比,他们的营业时间更长、更方便。Although turning the USPS into a part-time financial institution may seem outlandish in America, roughly 1 billion people in 50 countries rely on their postal systems for financial services, according to the Universal Postal Union, the ed Nations agency that helps the post arrive on time. The business models vary widely. In some countries post offices act as a payment centre, allowing people to receive remittances, pay bills and top up or tap money stored on their mobile phones. Some operate full-service banks: Japan Post, for instance, is one of the worlds biggest. In other countries, such as Brazil, commercial banks form partnerships with post offices; in Malawi private banks can rent space from post offices.根据万国邮政联盟,尽管美邮成为兼职的金融机构在美国看起来很奇怪,但世界上50个国家的10亿人依靠邮政系统提供的金融务。这种商业模式差别很大。在一些国家,邮局充当付中心的角色,人们可以接收汇款、付账单利用移动电话存取款。有一些则成为提供全面务的:比如日本邮政就是世界上最大的之一。在像巴西一类国家,商业和邮政成为合作伙伴;在马拉维,私人能向邮局租借场地。A World Bank study found last year that postal banks are likelier than conventional ones to provide accounts to those outside the financial mainstream. The bigger the postal network, the greater the ability to reach such people. That may not convince those who would like to see the USPS shrink, but for those who want to preserve it, it could help to justify its scale.去年世界研究发现,相对于传统,邮政更有可能为主流金融区域之外的人提供务。邮政网络越大,接触到这些人的能力就越大。这也许不足以说那些希望美邮精简的人,但对于那些想要保持它的人来说,这能帮助他们明美邮规模的合理性。 /201404/291901淮安有地方检查男性专科吗

淮安有名的桥Private equity私募股权融资Tax attack税收攻击Leveraged buy-outs face legal scrutiny衡平收购面临法律审查Aug 24th 2013 |From the print editionTAX planners at private-equity firms are having an unusually busy summer. A fiscal ruling in Sweden and a court case in America are threatening to upend the arrangements that buy-out firms use to minimise their tax bills.私募股权公司的税务规划师这个夏天非一般的忙碌。瑞典的金融管制以及美国的一起案件有可能颠覆收购公司用于最小化其税收单的安排。Both cases relate to a tax loophole used by private-equity firms in America and much of Europe. Under “carried interest” rules, buy-out executives pay (relatively low) capital-gains taxes on profits made from buying and selling companies, in the same way investors or entrepreneurs do. This is odd, given that the money wagered on private-equity deals comes overwhelmingly from outside investors, not the executives themselves. It would make more sense for these profits to be taxed like salaries, or bankers’ bonuses, at the (higher) income-tax rate.这两起事件都与一个税收漏洞有关,这个漏洞在美国和欧洲大部分地区的私募股权公司被利用。根据附带权益规则,控制股权收购的主管跟投资者和企业家一样付相对较低的资本利得税,这项税是针对公司买卖获利所征收。鉴于押在私募股权融资交易中的资金大部分来自外部投资者,而不是主管,所以这项规则很奇怪。这些利润应该按照工资税或者家的红利,征收更高的所得税更合理。That is exactly what Sweden’s tax administration has decided. In a ruling on August 20th it demanded SKr647m (m) of back taxes from EQT, a local private-equity fund, and its executives. The amount covers the difference between the 25% capital-gains rate and the 57% income tax for 2007-09, plus interest and penalties. EQT is not alone: dozens of other executives at other firms have been handed multi-million-kronor bills as a result of the tax authorities’ change of heart. The potentially impoverished bosses say they are confident courts will find in their favour on appeal.瑞典的税务局就是这样做的。在8月20日的一起判决中,税务局命令一个当地的私募股权基金EQT及其主管补交税款6.47亿瑞典克郎(9900万美元)。这笔税款包括25%的资本利得税和自2007年到年的57%的所得税加上利息和罚金。不只是EQT一家,其他几十家公司的主管也因为税务局中心的改变而交出了数百万克朗的资金。这些即将变成穷光蛋的老板说他们很有信心法庭能找到有利于他们的请求。The American case, decided on July 24th, chips away at carried interest from another angle. An appeals court in Boston ruled that Sun Capital, a private-equity fund that specialises in turning around distressed companies, is liable for some pension obligations of a firm it bought in 2006, and which subsequently went bust.美国的案子于7月24日作出判决,从另一个角度撤销了附带权益。位于波士顿的一家上诉法院判决私募股权基金太阳资本对其于2006年购买的一家公司的养老金付负有责任,这家公司最终破产。太阳资本专注于使运转不佳的公司好转。The case is limited to pensions (and is being contested by Sun Capital) but the precedent could have a wider tax impact, says Jon Zorn of Ropes amp; Gray, a law firm. The core of the ruling blows away a legal fiction that private-equity funds are passive investors who do not actively control the companies they buy. That premise is also used to justify putting profits into the lower tax bracket.这起案件局限于养老金,并且太阳资本提出了异议。但是格雷律师事务所的Jon Zorn表示,先前的例子对税收更有影响。判决的核心推翻了私募股权基金都是不会主动控制收购公司的消极投资者的法律假想。该假定之前也常常用于将利润划为更低的税率等级征税的辩护。Executives in Sweden and America complain about the uncertainty created by the cases. They have a point. It would be better to make clear that private-equity profits should be taxed as income, and carried interest done away with.瑞典和美国的主管抱怨案件引起的不确定性。他们有一个观点。弄清楚私募股权利润应该按照所得征税,并且废除附带权益,这样更好。 /201308/254358淮安念珠菌龟头炎治疗多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Dealing with asteroid strikes应对小行星撞击A close shave近地掠过After a hit and a near miss minds are focusing on the risks from space rocks在一次撞击和一次近距离擦肩而过后,人们开始关注来自外太空岩石的威胁One close shave with an asteroid is cause for excitement.一次小行星近地掠过是一种刺激,Two on the same day is scary.同一天发生两次就是惊险了。On February 15th planet Earth experienced exactly that, as a hunk of itinerant space rock passed by extremely close.在2月15日,行星地球正经历了这样的惊险:一块流动的大块头太空岩石在咫尺的距离掠过地球,While another exploded spectacularly in the skies above Russia.而另一块则十分壮观得在俄国上空爆炸。The first asteroid, called 2012 DA14, had been known to astronomers for around a year.第一颗小行星名为2012 DA14,天文学家在大约一年前发现。They had calculated that there was no risk of collision. But the 30-metre, 190,000-tonne rock came close: 27,700Km above the surface, inside the orbit of some satellites.他们计算出小行星的轨道,并无撞击危险。但这枚直径30米、重达190000吨的石块离得是那么近:距地表27,700千米,处于一些卫星轨道内。It was the nearest ever recorded for an asteroid that size.对这种大小的小行星,这是有记录以来距离最近的一次。The second came quite literally out of a clear blue sky, appearing without warning and then disintergrating about 30 seconds later over Chelyabinsk.第二颗在一片晴空万里中毫无警告得出现了,约30秒后在车里雅宾斯克市上空解体了。According to NASA, the 10,000-tonne meteor released about 500 kilotonnes of energy when it broke apart, equivalent to the yield of a largish nuclear bomb.来自NASA的数据显示,这颗10000吨重的陨石在肢解时释放了大约500吨质量的能量,相当于一颗大型核弹的爆炸当量。Only the height of the detonation-dozens of kilometers up–kept the fatality count at zero, although more than 1,000 people were injured as windows were blown out of buildings.好在爆炸发生在数十公里的高空,未有人员死亡。虽然有超过1000人受伤,但只是被震碎的建筑物玻璃伤到。This double whammy has focused minds on the threat from asteroids, something that astronomers have long known is real but which tends to be treated with giggles whenever it is brought outside the lab.这次双重晦气已引起人们对小行星威胁的关注。长久以来天文学家们就清楚这种实实在在的威胁,但一旦在实验室外提起就会引来哄堂大笑。Some politicians have nevertheless taken action.不过还是有些政客们采取了行动。In 1998 Americas Congress ordered NASA to begin cataloguing the very largest, planet killer asteroids-defined as those more than a kilometer across.美国国会在1998年下令NASA将那些大型的行星杀手级别的小行星编入目录,直径超过1公里的都归入其中。The agency reckons it has accounted for more than 90% of them.NASA认为超过90%的这类小行星都已记录在案。But as the impact from such a beast would be catastrophic, the few undiscovered rocks still represent a threat.但是由于这种怪兽可能带来灾难性的撞击,少部分未被发现的此类岩石仍然是个威胁。Deep impact深度撞击These days, a mix of national organizations and universities run an alphabet soup of detectors.目前,一群来自不同国家组织和大学的研究人员开始了初步的探测。But the field is still a bit of backwater, and budgets are tight.但是该领域仍是一潭死水,预算很紧张。John Tonry, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii, is building an asteroid-hunting telescope called ATLAS with m from NASA.John Tonry, 一位来自夏威夷大学的天文学家,正在建造一个名为ATLAS的小行星搜索望远镜,NASA提供了500万美元的经费。Dr Tonry cannot afford to hire a proper telescope engineer, and is having to design the device himself.士Tonry负担不起一个正式的望远镜工程师,必须亲自设计这台望远镜。ATLAS is intended to spot mid-sized city killers like 2012 DA14.ATLAS望远镜的目的是为了辨认出类似2012 DA14这样中等大小的城市杀手。Astronomers reckon the risk from these is at least as great as that from the biggest ones because there are many more of them.天文学家估测这类小行星的威胁绝不在那些更大的小行星的威胁之下,因为数量实在太多。Exactly how many more, though, is hard to say because, being small, they are hard to see.不过至于准确数量却很难说,因为他们实在太小难以被发现。ATLAS should be able to spot a rock on a collision course a few days before it hits, giving time to organize a hasty evacuation.ATLAS应该可以提前数天发现一块沿着撞击轨道运行的岩石,争取足够的时间组织快速疏散。Of course, rather than evacuating the impact zone, it would be better if there were some way to deal with a threatening asteroid more directly, by nudging it into a different orbit.当然,比起疏散撞击区域,找到一个更直接应对小行星威胁的方法会更好,比如把小行星推入不同轨道。Asteroid deflection suffers from a even greater giggle factor than asteroid detection, but several ideas have been proposed. One popular method is to use nuclear weapons.让小行星偏向的想法比小行星探测更会招致哄笑,但已经有人提出了一些主意。Detonating a nuke near an asteroids surface could boil away some of the rock and-by Newtons third law of motion-impart a shove in the other direction.一个通俗的方法是使用核武器。在小行星表面附近引爆一枚核弹可以蒸发掉一些岩石质量。根据牛顿第三运动定律,还会在其他方向产生作用力。Done early enough, this would shift the objects orbit sufficiently to stop it hitting Earth.如果爆炸时间足够提前,这足已改变小行星的轨道,防止与地球的撞击。(当然这毫无意义,只是纯粹在卖弄学问罢了。Alternatively, simply ramming the offending rock might provide enough force to provoke a suitable reaction and change in orbit.作为另一种选择,针对来犯岩石的很普通的撞击,也许能产生足够的作用力引发反作用力,进而改变轨道。The European Space Agency plans to launch, in 2015, a spacecraft called Don Quijote that will test the feasibility of doing this.欧洲航天机构计划在2015年发射名为堂吉诃德的太空船,以测试这种方法的可行性。Other ideas are more elegant: painting the rock white, for instance, will alter the way it interacts with sunlight, nudging it into a new orbit.其他的主意要优雅得多:比如把岩石表面涂成白色,这样将改变太阳光对其的作用力,也就改变了运行轨道。Or rocket motors might be strapped to it, to propel it in a desirable direction. Or a large spacecraft could orbit around it, where its gravity would alter the asteroids orbit around the sun.或者在岩石上捆绑一个火箭发动机,将其推向一个想要的方向。再或者发射一个大型太空船绕其运行,太空船的引力将会改变小行星绕太阳运转的轨道。The trouble is that many of these ideas rely on having plenty of warning. Even small asteroids are big, as 2012 DA14 shows.问题在于,这里面的很多主意都依赖于充足的预警时间,即使是处理如2012 DA14般的小块头小行星。That means shifting them at short notice is going to be difficult.这就意味着,在很短的预知时间下,将很难改变他们的轨道。When Americans National Research Council studied the problem in 2010, it came to the conclusion that even nuclear weapons would require warnings times measured in years or decades.当美国国家研究委员会在2010年研究这个问题时,得出一个结论:即使是使用核武器也需要数年甚至数十年的预警时间。Evacuation, it said, was the only feasible option for dealing with little warning. Others are more optimistic.委员会同时提到,在面对那些很难被辨认出而不期而至的小行星时,疏散是唯一可行的办法。The day before the explosion over Russia researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara, proposed putting into orbit a solar-powered laser that could use its beam to vaporize the surface of an incoming asteroid and thus knock it off course, even at a few days notice.其他人要乐观一些。就在俄国上空的爆炸发生前一天,来自圣巴巴拉加利福尼亚大学的研究人员提出一个把太阳能激光器发射到小行星轨道的方案,使用激光蒸发掉小行星表面的物质。这样即使只有数天的预警时间,也能使其偏离轨道。Bet your life?用你的生命做赌注?Hard-nosed economists might wonder whether spending money on asteroid research-either for detection or deflection-is really worth it.精明实务的经济学家也许会怀疑在小行星研究上投资是否物有所值,不管是小行星探测或是轨道偏移。After all, for all their drama asteroid strikes are rare, and there are plenty of other threats to worry about.毕竟,小行星撞击是个非常戏剧性且罕见的,而我们还有众多其他的威胁需要担忧。But the relative lack of information makes the true risk difficult to calculate.但是由于信息的相对匮乏,真正的风险难以评估。An asteroid strike is an event with a low probability, but a high death toll when it does happen.小行星撞击是低概率事件,但是一旦发生,就意味着大量的死亡。That, as Dr Tonry points out, does funny things to risk calculations.士Tonry指出,这让计算风险变得有些奇异。Our best guess is that you can expect maybe 100 people a year to die from asteroid strikes, he says.他说,我们最好的估算是,每年大约会有100人死于小行星撞击,Of course, what that really means is that you might see 100,000 death every thousand years, or 100m every million.当然,实际上这意味着每隔数千年发生一次10万人的死亡,或者每百万年发生一次1亿人的死亡。After dodging two potential catastrophes in one day, the world may decide it is better to be safe than sorry.在一天之内躲过了两次可能的灾难之后,我们的世界也许会决定,安全总比遗憾好。 /201312/269271淮安市第二人民医院电话

淮安哪有男性医院 Finance and Economics;Spanish banks; False summit;财经;西班牙;远未结束;Mark down loans, raise capital, repeat;减少贷款,提高资金,重复此道;Like exhausted climbers nearing the summit only to find a higher peak beyond, Spains flagging banks face another push for the top. In February the Spanish government hoped at last to put an end to worries about lenders health when it asked them to set aside billions in provisions and to raise more capital. It also pushed for mergers to reduce capacity and improve margins in an overcrowded market.正如精疲力竭的攀登者接近峰顶时才发现前方还有座更高的山峰一样,西班牙疲弱的们面临着又一个困难。2月,西班牙政府要求按规定预留数十亿并筹集更多的资金,希望以此最终消除有关健康的担忧。政府还促使并购者们在过度拥挤的市场中减小规模,提高利润。These measures provide some comfort. Spains central bank says that since the middle of 2008, banks have set aside 112 billion Euro(148 billion Dollar) against loan losses. This year it asked them to set aside another 54 billion Euro in provisions and new capital (although this double-counted some write-downs that had aly taken place). With these plump cushions, Spains banks can shrug off losses amounting to about half of their loans to property developers. The IMF now reckons that Spains largest banks have enough capital to withstand most shocks, although its smaller and weaker ones remain vulnerable.这些举措带来了一些安慰。西班牙央行声称自从2008年中期以来,们已经预留了1120亿英镑(1480亿美元)来应对贷款损失。今年央行要求们再预留540亿英镑以及新的资金(尽管这样重复计算了有些已经发生的减记金额)。有了这些充足的缓冲,即使贷款损失高达房产开发商贷款总额的一半,西班牙的们也不屑一顾。现在国际货币基金组织认为西班牙的大们有足够的资金来抵御大部分冲击,尽管其较小较弱的依旧脆弱。European economy欧洲经济As a result of the write-downs, regulators have achieved one objective. Few investors now fret about property-development loans blowing up Spanish banks. The worry now is about all the other loans on banks balance-sheets, against which there are almost no provisions (see chart). Take residential mortgages, which have so far held up remarkably well. Less than 3% of residential mortgages have started to wobble, a surprise in a country where unemployment is close to 25%.监管者已通过减记达到了一个目标。现在很少有投资者担忧房产开发贷款会弄垮西班牙。现在的担忧是资产负债表上的其它贷款,而这些几乎没有预留资金。(见图表)。以目前为止表现还不错的住房按揭贷款为例,在一个失业率接近25% 的国家,只有不到3%的住房按揭贷款开始出现问题,这令人惊讶。Spanish officials argue that mortgage losses are so low because the loans were mostly issued to creditworthy borrowers with low loan-to-value ratios and no incentive to walk away from their debts. There was almost no subprime lending and little buy-to-let activity. Affordability has been helped by low interest rates.西班牙官员声称抵押贷款损失之所以如此之低是因为贷款大多发放给信誉良好的借款人,他们贷款价值比率较低,没有逃离其债务的动机。西班牙几乎没有次级贷款和随意贷款的行为。低利率也有助于确保付能力。Investors will take some convincing. “People just do not believe the numbers,” says one analyst. “There has been a lot of ‘extending and pretending or renegotiation of mortgages.” One mechanism by which banks are holding down bad loans is by encouraging struggling customers to switch from normal mortgages to ones where they repay only the interest. The latest data show that terms are being modified on some 26,000 mortgages a month.投资者们将会有些信。“人们只是不相信这些数字,”一位分析员这么说道。“有很多关于“扩大和假装”或是重新就抵押贷款进行谈判的说法”。阻止坏账上升的机制之一,就是鼓励那些苦苦挣扎的客户们从常规抵押贷款转向那种他们只需付利息的模式。最新的数据显示一个月之内就有26000份抵押贷款条约做了修改。The proportion of wobbly mortgages in Spain looks low when compared with those in Ireland. There the central bank and BlackRock, an asset manager, reckoned that actual lifetime losses on residential mortgages would range from 7% to 12% (meaning that rates of non-performing loans, some of which may in time start to perform again, could be higher still). Even if losses in Spain are far below those in Ireland, banks are still likely to need a lot more capital.与爱尔兰相比,西班牙的抵押贷款坏账比例看上去较低。爱尔兰央行以及某资金管理机构BlackRock认为,住房抵押贷款的实际寿命损失在7%至12%之间(意味着不良贷款率可能会更高)。即使西班牙的贷款损失远低于爱尔兰,们仍然可能需要更多的资金。Some investors reckon 60 billion-80 billion Euro is required to restore confidence. The IMF is coy about giving a number, but it too thinks more capital is needed, perhaps in asset-management companies set up to look after dud loans. But attracting private capital will be tough. That would pass the problem to the Spanish government, whose finances are under scrutiny, or to Europes bail-out funds, whose firepower is more limited than advertised.有些投资者认为重塑信心需要600-800亿英镑。对此谨慎的国际货币基金组织未给出具体数字,但它也认为需要更多的资金,也许正是那些用来监管不良贷款的资产管理公司需要更多的资金。但是吸引私人资本将会很难。这将会把问题转嫁给已接受财政审查的西班牙政府,或是火力比宣传的更为有限的欧洲纾困基金。 /201305/240003淮安清浦区治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好的淮安哪个医院妇科好

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