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2019年06月17日 13:48:54

Charles L. Dodgson wanted to be remembered for his mathematical innovations as an Oxford don rather than his colorful personal life and 1865 book, “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” but despite his efforts to hide behind the pen name Lewis Carroll, it was Alice who made him famous.查尔斯·L·道奇森(Charles L. Dodgson)希望人们记住自己在牛津担任教授期间的数学创新,而不是自己丰富多的个人生活,以及1865年出版的《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》(Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)。然而,尽管他努力藏身在笔名刘易斯·卡罗尔(Lewis Carroll)之后,“爱丽丝”还是让他出了名。For the 150th birthday of Alice, authors and curators are mining Dodgson’s correspondence and diaries and editions of her story, which has been published in 174 languages. (An events and publications database is at lewiscarrollresources.net.)今年是爱丽丝一书出版150周年纪念日,这本书如今已被翻译为174种语言出版(关于这本书的大事记和出版资料收录于lewiscarrollresources.net),各种作者与策展人深入研究道奇森的信件和日记,以及爱丽丝故事的各种版本。Edward Wakeling, a Dodgson biographer, drew on his own collection of 23,353 documents for his forthcoming book “Lewis Carroll: The Man and His Circle” (I. B. Tauris). Dodgson took about 3,000 photos in his spare time, and a third of them will appear in a second forthcoming book from Mr. Wakeling, “The Photographs of Lewis Carroll: A Catalogue Raisonné” (University of Texas Press), due this summer.爱德华·韦克林(Edward Wakeling)是道奇森的传记作家,他在搜集了23353份文件后,写出了即将出版的《刘易斯·卡罗尔:他和他的朋友圈》(Lewis Carroll: The Man and His Circle, I.B. Tauris)一书。道奇森在空闲时间里拍了大约3000张照片,其中1/3将会出现在韦克林的下一本书《刘易斯·卡罗尔照片选》(The Photographs of Lewis Carroll: A Catalogue Raisonné, University of Texas Press )中,该书将于今年夏天出版。Mr. Wakeling intends to debunk the enduring suggestion that Dodgson, who died in 1898 at 65, disliked the company of adults and had an unhealthy interest in little girls. The biography describes lively, diverse friends including actresses, poets, dentists, judges and British royals.道奇森于1898年逝世,享年65岁,韦克林这本书意在驳斥人们长久以来的想法:他生前并不喜欢与成年人为伍,而是对小女孩们有着病态的兴趣。这本传记栩栩如生描写了道奇森的各种朋友,包括女演员、诗人、牙医、法官和英国贵族。Dodgson largely avoided journalists, however, which did not help his reputation.不过道奇森总是躲着记者,这对他树立名声没什么好处。“His rigorous attempts to protect his privacy and to shun all forms of publicity made successive generations suspect he had something to hide — some dark secret,” Mr. Wakeling writes in the new biography.“他很注意保护自己的隐私,躲避任何形式的曝光,这令一代又一代人觉得他肯定有想隐瞒的东西——比如什么见不得人的秘密,”韦克林在这本新传记里写道。Mr. Wakeling has steadily acquired archival material. In October, at Cheffins auction house in Cambridge, England, he paid about ,100 for Dodgson’s three photos of Constance Mary Powell, a Yorkshire schoolgirl whose family was friends with the Dodgsons.韦克林一直都在收集档案材料,10月,他在英格兰剑桥的柴芬斯拍卖会上花了5100美元买下道奇森为约克郡女学生康斯坦斯·玛丽·鲍威尔(Constance Mary Powell)拍下的三幅照片,她家与道奇森家是朋友。Mr. Wakeling also tracks forgeries that have turned up. In 2006, a volume that Dodgson was said to have signed in 1876 was posted on eBay, and Mr. Wakeling declared it a fake. (It was withdrawn.) “The clincher for me was that the person it was inscribed to, Lewis Carroll hadn’t even met yet,” he said.韦克林也揭露赝品的踪迹。2006年,eBay上有一卷据说是道奇森于1876年亲笔签名的书,韦克林说它是假的,后来它也被下架了。“我的据是,刘易斯·卡罗尔当时还没有遇到那本书的题字里提及的人。”On Feb. 10, memorabilia including Dodgson’s math publications and recently restored paper filmstrips, starring Alice from the 1930s, will appear in “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” an exhibition at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin. In June, the British Library will ship Dodgson’s illustrated manuscript to New York for the first time in three decades for a show at the Morgan Library amp; Museum, “Alice: 150 Years of Wonderland.” And this summer, Oak Knoll Press will publish “Alice in a World of Wonderlands,” a three-volume study of the 7,600 editions of Dodgson’s tale.2月10日,奥斯汀得克萨斯大学哈利·兰塞姆中心将举办“爱丽丝漫游奇境记”展览,届时将展出道奇森的作品,包括他发表的数学著作,以及新近修复的胶片,包括从20世纪30年代起拍摄的爱丽丝形象。6月,大英图书馆将把道奇森的绘画手稿运至纽约,这是30年来的头一遭,这批手稿将在根图书馆与物馆的“爱丽丝:漫游奇境150年”展览中展出。今年夏天,奥克斯·克诺尔出版社将出版三卷本的《爱丽丝漫游各种奇境》(Alice in a World of Wonderlands),书中研究了这个故事的7600种不同版本。The Grolier Club in New York will show various translations in the fall, borrowing from the volumes’ general editor, Jon A. Lindseth. Mr. Lindseth’s gifts to Columbia will be shown in a fall exhibition about Alice at the university’s Rare Book amp; Manuscript Library. And other major private collections are going on view, including loans from August and Clare Imholtz at Hornbake Library at the University of Maryland; Byron and Victoria Sewell at the Huntington Museum of Art in West Virginia (with a catalog from Evertype); and Charlie Lovett at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center.纽约的格罗里埃俱乐部将在今年秋天展出这本书的各种不同译本,它们由这些书的总编辑乔恩·A·林德赛斯(Jon A. Lindseth)出借。林德赛斯赠给哥伦比亚大学的礼物将于今年秋天,在该校的珍本与手稿图书馆举办的爱丽丝展中展出。此外还有其他若干大型个人收藏也会对外展出,其中有马里兰大学霍恩贝克图书馆的奥古斯特与克莱尔·伊姆霍尔兹(August and Clare Imholtz)藏品展,西弗吉尼亚亨廷顿艺术馆的拜伦与维多利亚·塞维尔(Byron and Victoria Sewell)藏品展(包括一份来自艾弗泰普出版社的目录),以及查理·拉维特(Charlie Lovett)在纽约公共图书馆为林肯表演艺术中心举办的活动。Alice connoisseurs enjoy tracing her to the ends of the earth. Mr. Lindseth said in an interview that Mongolian, Kazakh, Tajik and Montenegrin versions were among the most challenging to find. Mr. Imholtz said, “Today came in the mail an Esperanto translation of ‘Through the Looking Glass,’ printed in Ekaterinburg where the Czar was killed.”爱丽丝的研究者们追溯她的踪迹,直到天涯海角。林德赛斯在采访中说,蒙古语、哈萨克语、塔吉克语和黑山语的译本是最难寻觅的。伊姆霍尔兹说,“今天我收到一份世界语译本的《爱丽丝漫游镜中世界》(Through the Looking Glass),它是在叶卡特琳堡印刷的,沙皇就是在那里遇刺。”DRAWN, ELABORATELY精美的绘画For 19th-century German-American communities, painted pages known as fraktur marked rites of passage. In jagged calligraphy — hence the name, which derives from the Latin word for broken — certificates celebrating births and marriages were wreathed in flowers and angels. Many of these fraktur are appearing in the next few weeks at auctions, antiques fairs and museum shows.19世纪,德裔美国社区开始使用德文尖角字体(fraktur)装点各种成人仪式的页面。这种字体源自于拉丁文字母,以充满尖角著称,用于装点出生和结婚,周围还装饰着鲜花和天使。接下来几周,德文尖角字体会出现在很多拍卖会、古玩会和物馆展览上。Lisa Minardi, a curator at Winterthur museum in Delaware, has worked on the exhibitions, poring through thousands of fraktur and noting the evidence that artists trying to make a living produced them in haste. The artists charged pennies per sheet, Ms. Minardi said, and when they marred a page with an ink splotch or misspelling, “Sometimes they make it into a little flower and keep going.”特拉华州的温特瑟尔物馆策展人丽莎·米纳迪(Lisa Minardi)已经筹办过若干展览,研究过几千份德文尖角字体印刷品,她注意到,德文尖角字体的艺术家们为了谋生,经常粗制滥造。她说,作者每制作一份作品,只收取几分钱的费用,如果他们在纸上溅上了墨水渍或拼错了单词,“有时候他们就画一朵小花遮住,糊弄过去。”Fraktur shows will open in February and March at Winterthur, the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Free Library of Philadelphia. Ms. Minardi’s catalog for the Philadelphia Museum show, “Drawn With Spirit: Pennsylvania German Fraktur from the Joan and Victor Johnson Collection” (Yale University Press), points out recurring motifs from practitioners who did not sign works and have not yet been identified. They are known for now with monikers like the Exotic Scenery Artist, the Color Block Artist and the Ruffled Tulip Artist.温特瑟尔物馆、费城艺术馆和费城自由图书馆都将在二月和三月举办德文尖角字体展。米纳迪为费城艺术馆展览撰写的目录名为:“以灵魂绘制:宾夕法尼亚德国尖角字体,来自琼与维克多·约翰逊(Joan and Victor Johnson)的收藏”(耶鲁大学出版社),她在目录中指出,某些一再重复的主题来自若干从不署名,且至今未能识别的作者们。如今人们用代号称呼他们,诸如“异国风情艺术家”、“色块艺术家”和“褶边郁金香艺术家”。The Johnsons kept collecting even as the show and catalog were underway. Last January, they paid about ,800 for an 1820s fraktur painted with birds and bouquets at a Pook amp; Pook auction in Downingtown, Pa. The painter, Friederich Speyer, a Lutheran schoolmaster, wrote in uneven letters. Charming flaws can be detected throughout the Johnson collection: hearts and flower petals have asymmetrical lobes, and text lines slant.直到展览和目录筹备期间,约翰逊夫妇还在继续扩充自己的收藏。去年1月,他们在宾夕法尼亚州唐宁镇的Pook amp; Pook拍卖会上花了3800美元,购买了一份19世纪20年代的德国尖角字体作品,上面绘有鸟儿和花束。作者弗里德里希·斯皮耶(Friederich Speyer)是一位路德会校长,使用参差不齐的字母书写。在约翰逊夫妇的藏品中可以发现种种迷人的瑕疵:心形与花瓣有着不对称的叶片,一行行文字微微歪斜。Cara Zimmerman, an Americana specialist at Christie’s in New York, stood before a fraktur birth certificate, for sale on Jan. 23 at the auction house (estimated at 0 to 0), with a misshapen rectangle of text and mismatched stars along the border. “It’s that freehand nature that’s so fabulous,” she said.卡拉·齐默曼(Cara Zimmerman)是纽约佳士得的一位美国专家,1月23日,她将主持该拍卖行对一份德国尖角字体出生的拍卖(估价200到400美元),文字呈歪曲的矩形,边框上有不协调的星星图案。“这就是这种艺术品著名的手绘特征,”她说。The Christie’s lot had previously belonged to the folk art dealer Edith Gregor Halpert, as did a number of the Johnson pieces. Among the other celebrated past owners of the Johnson acquisitions are Albert Barnes, du Ponts and Rockefellers.佳士得的拍品原本属于民间艺术交易商伊迪丝·格莱格尔·哈尔珀特(Edith Gregor Halpert),约翰逊的若干藏品也来自她那里。约翰逊的藏品中还包括来自阿尔伯特·巴恩斯(Albert Barnes)、都彭(du Ponts)和洛克菲勒等著名藏家的藏品。Ms. Minardi will be lecturing about fraktur on Jan. 24 at the Winter Antiques Show in Manhattan. At the show, Olde Hope Antiques from New Hope, Pa., will offer fraktur painted with parrots and flowers (from ,000 to ,000 each) and a trio with tulips (,000 for the set). At the Metro Curates show, opening Jan. 22 in Manhattan, the dealer Jeff R. Bridgman from Dillsburg, Pa., is bringing fraktur with flowers, birds, hearts, suns and crowns, made for two sisters (,500 for both fraktur). Leatherwood Antiques from Sandwich, Mass., has floral certificates (,800 for a pair) that belonged to Edith Gregor Halpert and then Andy Warhol.1月24日,米纳迪将在曼哈顿的冬季古玩展上就德国尖角字体做一次讲座。在这个展览上,宾夕法尼亚州新霍普的老霍普古玩馆将提供绘制着鹦鹉与花朵的德国尖角字体艺术品(每份22000美元到28000美元不等),以及一份绘有郁金香的三件套作品(一套24000美元)。在1月22日于曼哈顿开幕的Metro Curates展上,宾夕法尼亚州迪尔斯堡的艺术商杰夫·R·布里奇曼(Jeff R.Bridgman )将带来装饰着花朵、鸟儿、心形、太阳和王冠的德国尖角字体艺术品,由两姊制作(两份10500美元)。马萨诸塞州桑德维奇的莱塞伍德古玩馆有花朵装饰的德国尖角字体书(5800美元两份)。它们最初属于伊迪丝·格莱格尔·哈尔珀特,后来又属于安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)。From March 5 to 7, a fraktur symposium at the McNeil Center for Early American Studies at the University of Pennsylvania will cover topics including paint formulas, botanical motifs and early collectors who purchased works from descendants of the original patrons.从3月5日至7日,宾夕法尼亚大学的早期美国研究学会将在麦克尼尔中心举办德国尖角字体研讨会,探讨绘图公式、植物主题、以及那些原始拥有者的后代们手中买下这些艺术品的早期收藏家。 /201501/356559龙岩治疗阳痿专业医院福州市人工受精多少钱The lifting of the California ban against selling foie gras (the hyperfattened liver of geese or ducks, brought about by overfeeding the live animals) is pretty much a nonissue, except to point out that as a nation we have little perspective on animal welfare. To single out the tiniest fraction of meat production and label it “cruel” is to miss the big picture, and the big picture is this: Almost all meat production in the ed States is cruel.加州取消鹅肝(通过对活鸭、活鹅进行过度喂食造成的脂肪肝)禁令是个无关紧要的小事,顶多只是表明,我们这个国家对动物福利是没什么想法的。将肉类生产中这个微不足道的部分单独拿出来,称其为“残酷”,是不能体现全局的,而全局是这样:美国几乎所有的肉类生产都是残酷的。The sale and production of foie gras was prohibited in California in 2012. Though the ban was widely ignored — foie gras was served for free in many restaurants and sold illegally in others — it’s now legal to serve it. (Production remains banned.)加州在2012年发布了鹅肝的销售和生产禁令。不过,没什么人把这项禁令当回事——很多餐厅免费供应鹅肝,还有些餐厅在非法销售它——现在又可以合法供应了。(生产依然是禁止的。)But so what? Foie gras is among the most overrated of luxury ingredients, ranking right up there with caviar and truffles. Done right, all three are delicious, but we can call them rich people’s food, and as such they’re not that important except to chefs who want to impress rich people or rich people who want to be impressed.但那又如何?鹅肝是世界上最过誉的奢侈食材之一,和鱼子酱和松露并驾齐驱。会做的话,三种食材都很美味,但我们可以称之为富人食物,因此它们也就不那么重要了,除非是厨师想要取悦有钱人,或有钱人想要被取悦。Of the three, from the point of view of pleasure, foie gras is the least important (many organ meats are more enjoyable), although it’s the easiest to produce and the least expensive. The best truffles are white, mostly Italian, difficult to find and stunningly pricey — upward of ,000 a pound. The best caviar (beluga) comes from Iran, Russia and a couple of other countries with shores on the Caspian Sea; not only are prices comparable to truffles, fishing these endangered sturgeon is strictly regulated.从愉悦的角度看,鹅肝是三种食材里最不重要的(很多器官要比它更美味),但却是最易于生产的,也是最不昂贵的。最好的松露是白色的,大多为意大利产,很难得,也贵得出奇——可以卖到1000美元一磅。最好的鱼子酱(白鲸鲟)产自伊朗、俄罗斯以及其他一些里海沿岸国家;它的价格堪比松露,而且捕捞作为濒危物种的鲟鱼是受到严格监管的。Foie gras is not only available at relatively moderate prices (you can buy it now for something like - a pound), but it’s also never out of season and produced domestically. And it’s a showpiece: Most chefs cook it not because they love it but to appeal to food snobs, who can report, “We went to XX last night and had the most amazing foie.” Right. (See this headline, which is vulgar but not wrong; don’t bother to the “story.”)鹅肝不但价格相对廉宜(现在每磅只要50到75美元就能买到),而且永远不会过季,又是本土生产。它是炫技用的:多数厨师会做,但不是因为他们喜欢,而是能吸引自命不凡的食评人,这些人接着会写:“昨晚我们去哪哪,吃到了美妙绝伦的鹅肝。”是啊。(看看这个标题,话糙理不糙;那‘报道’就不必看了。)I’m not aware of a movement against killing sturgeon or other fish whose eggs can be used to make imitation caviar. This may be because fish are generally under-considered in the world of animal welfare, or because the most desired caviar comes from so far away or because it’s more precious than foie gras. But it also may be because caviar doesn’t invoke horrible images of gavage, as the process of overfeeding poultry is called — images that feature, not to put too fine a point on it, funnels.据我所知没有人在发起反对捕杀鲟鱼或其他鱼籽可以用来模仿鱼子酱的鱼类。这可能是因为鱼类在动物福祉的世界里通常是比较受忽视的,或者因为最让人向往的鱼子酱来自太遥远的地方,又或者因为它比鹅肝还金贵。但也可能是因为鱼子酱不会让你联想起强行喂食的恐怖画面,也就是对禽类进行过度喂食的工艺——不想说太多细节,但画面中包含漏斗这样的东西。It’s not a pretty thought, and it’s a less pretty sight. Of course, foie gras can also be produced without actually force-feeding because, like many animals — including humans and dogs — ducks and geese will happily eat anything that meets their standards. You don’t have to force them: They will stuff themselves anyway. So although the process may be “unnatural,” it’s not necessarily “torture.”这个想法不怎么美好,而画面就更是丑陋了。当然,鹅肝也可以在不进行强迫喂食的情况下生产,和许多动物一样——包括人类和——鸭和鹅会欣然吃下一切符合它们要求的东西。你不用强迫它们:它们反正都会把自己往死里撑的。所以虽然这个过程会有些“不自然”,却不一定是“折磨”。As to whether this is “good” for the animals, that’s another question. But let’s get our priorities straight. Statistically, foie gras is insignificant; according to a spokesman at Hudson Valley Foie Gras, one of the country’s main producers, the market in the ed States involves just under 600,000 animals per year.至于这对动物是不是有“好处”,就是另一个问题了。不过我们首先把优先级摆出来。统计数据上看,鹅肝是微不足道的;据美国主要鹅肝生产商哈德逊鹅肝公司(Hudson Valley Foie Gras)一位发言人称,美国鹅肝市场每年涉及的动物不到60万只。My elementary math estimates that the ed States chicken broiler industry kills more birds than that every single hour of every single day. (We produced an estimated 38.5 billion pounds of chicken in 2014, at an average of 6 pounds per bird.) Almost all of those birds are raised in conditions that range from unnatural to torturous.以我小学水平的数学估算,美国肉鸡产业在每一天的每一个小时里宰杀的鸡都比这个多。(我们在2014年生产了约385亿磅鸡肉,每只鸡平均产出6磅肉。)而几乎所有肉鸡都是在不自然或带来折磨的环境中饲养的。If you allow that the same is true of most animals raised in the ed States, from dairy cows (which last year produced roughly 206 billion pounds of milk) to egg-laying hens (over 98 billion eggs) to cattle raised for beef (24 billion pounds), you are looking at an industry that produces cruelty on a scale that’s so big and overwhelming few of us can consider it rationally or regularly. And if you consider that cattle, for example, evolved to graze on grasses and are often fattened on grains — to which their digestive systems must then adapt — you might say that part of that industry’s routine is force-feeding.如果你认为美国饲养的多数动物都是这样的情况,从奶牛(去年生产了约2060亿磅牛奶)到蛋鸡(超过980亿只鸡蛋),再到肉用牛(240亿磅),你看到的这个产业催生的暴行之庞大和普遍,已经令我们大多数人无法理性地、经常性地去思考它。比如我们考虑一下肉用牛,它们通过进化成为食草动物,但往往用谷物来育肥——这样一来它们的消化系统就必须去适应——你可以说产业惯例就是强迫喂食。This is not to say a few thousand ducks and geese don’t matter; it is to say that it’s important to keep perspective. Although the plaintiffs used a federal statute (see the Poultry Products Inspection Act) to overturn the ban, and although that makes some animal welfare advocates uneasy, federal law is often used to trump state regulations, both good and bad. The legal experts I spoke to were wary, but did not see that this ruling, for example, set a precedent that might threaten California’s new egg-raising requirements, about which I wrote on New Year’s Day.这并不是说几千只鸭或鹅不重要;而是说看到全局是很重要的。原告利用了一项联邦成文法(参阅《家禽产品检验法》[Poultry Products Inspection Act])来推翻禁令,这让一些动物权益倡导人士感到不安,但联邦法律经常成为对付州监管的杀手锏,有时是好事有时是坏事。和我聊过的法律专家对这项裁决有所警觉,但不觉得它创下了什么先例,比如能威胁到加州蛋鸡养殖新规的那种,这方面我在新年那天写过。So, since this is not the last word on foie gras in California (or elsewhere), let’s stay tuned. If it’s ultimately and legally determined that foie gras production is cruel, inhumane or both, labeling it so would strengthen the argument that so are the current means of production for most industrially raised animals (and their products). This is best seen as a test case, not as a significant defeat or victory. Foie gras itself just isn’t that important.所以,这并不意味着加州(或其他任何一个地方)鹅肝之争盖棺定论,我们要继续关注。如果最终在法律上裁定鹅肝生产是虐待,或不人道行为,或两者兼有,那么正式判定这一点会强化一种看法,即当前大多数工业养殖动物(以及相关产品)的生产所使用的手段,也都是这样。最好别把它看成是一次重大的失败或胜利,而是看成一个试验案例。鹅肝本身真的不那么重要。 /201501/355038Teachers may seem strict and boring but I bet they crave for being a student again and have fun. Probably, that is why this school teacher from Thailand carried away while checking test papers.教师通常是又严厉又乏味的,不过我相信,他们内心也渴望能再和学生一样愉快的玩耍。大概正由于此,这位泰国的老师在批改试卷时着实“任性”了一回。 Students usually doodle when, either they finish exam early or they don’t know what to write on the question paper. These doodles are mainly unfinished and totally random. However, this school teacher took the opportunity to complete the unfinished doodles with his own artistic skills. After a while, when students noticed what their teacher was doing, they started drawing more and requested to add more stuff. 当学生们在考试时间截止前完成了试卷,或者不知道该在试卷上写什么的时候,他们常常在试卷上涂鸦。这些涂鸦之作往往是未完成的随性之作。可是,这位老师却趁此机会,运用自己的美术天才续画了这些未完成的涂鸦画。后来,当学生们发现老师的续画作品之后,他们开始变本加厉的画画,要求老师再接着他们的作品画下去。A few of these drawings only needed a little touch from the teacher while others got new body parts or characters.下面这些涂鸦画中,有的只需要老师画龙点睛,有的则被加上了新的主体或者人物。 /201504/369452福建查生育那家医院好

龙岩查激素专科医院福州做精子检测去哪最好If you noticed that Chanel took its handbag prices off its website earlier this week, we now know why: yesterday, Women#39;s Wear Daily reported that the brand will begin “harmonizing” its global prices on April 8. That means some markets will see significant increases in handbag prices, while others will see big drops.如果你注意到了,在本周的早些时候,网站上香奈儿的手提包降价了,那么我们现在也就明白了为什么昨天的女装日报报道该品牌将于4月8日开始“调和”其全球价格。这意味着一些市场上手提包价格大幅上涨的同时,其他手提包的价格会降低。For shoppers in the US, the impact of the policy change will be somewhat subdued, but those who frequently buy in Europe and Asia are probably aly aware of the issue Chanel#39;s trying to resolve with its new policy. Because of currency fluctuations and the decreasing power of the euro, a Chanel bag bought in France can cost as little as half of what it costs in China.策略的变化对于美国购物者影响较小,但是那些亚欧地区的消费者可能已经明白了,香奈儿是想用这个新的策略来消解一些问题。由于汇率波动和欧元的贬值,一个香奈儿包在法国的价格几乎没有中国的一半。Naturally, that leads to enterprising resellers who scoop up as many bags as they can in the European market to sell in Asian countries, where prices are steep. The reseller charges a bit of a markup and makes a profit, the buyer saves some money and still gets the bag and, ultimately, Chanel loses control of its supply chain and all the valuable market data that goes with it. It also muddies the waters when consumers are trying to sort out what#39;s real and what#39;s counterfeit.当然,这引起了那些有魄力的分销商尽可能多的在欧洲市场抢购皮包,然后再将这些低成本的包销售到价格较高的亚洲。分销商会在成本的基础上有所加价,从而获取利润。并且,(与原来相比)买家在省钱的同时依旧拥有了包。最终,香奈儿失去了对其供应链的控制和所有伴随它的有价值的市场数据,这也使消费者在努力鉴别真假的时候变得糊涂。The first three pieces of Chanel inventory to get this treatment are three popular handbags: the Boy Bag, 11.12 Flap Bag and Classic Flap Bag. According to WWD, the price of Boy (the size isn#39;t stipulated) in Europe will rise from Euro 3,100 to Euro3,720, while in China, it will fall from ¥32,700 to ¥26,000. For the 11.12, the European prices will rise from Euro3,550 to Euro4,260 and the Chinese prices will fall from ¥38,200 to ¥30,000. Even if you#39;re not familiar with the exchange rates, you can tell these are large changes–the Boy Bag will increase by almost 0 in Europe, which is a far larger increase on a ,300 bag than the usual 10%. The changes for the Classic Flap weren#39;t released, but because the previous prices were the same for it and the new 11.12 bags, shoppers can likely expect similar prices in the new structure.香奈儿存货中的前三个得到这样处理的是三种受欢迎的手提包,它们分别是:Boy Bag,11.12 Flap Bag和 Classic Flap Bag。根据女装日报报道,Boy系列(型号未规定)在欧洲市场上的价格将从3,100欧元升至3,720欧元,然而在中国,此皮包的价格将从32,700人民币跌至26,000人民币。至于11.12皮包在欧洲地区的价格将从3,550欧元升至4,260欧元,与此同时,此皮包在中国的价格将从38,200人民币跌至30,000人民币。即使你不熟悉汇率,你可以辨识出其间发生的重大变化—Boy皮包的价格在欧洲增加了将近650美元,这与通常的在3,300美元的包上增加10%相比,是一个大的增长。Classic Flap皮包的变化没有被释放,但对于该皮包来说,以前新式的和旧式的价格是相同的,顾客可能会预料出在新的结构中,此皮包也会保持类似的价格。As previously mentioned, American shoppers don#39;t have quite as much to worry about; Chanel says that prices in the US, Canada and Japan are aly pretty well aligned, so changes will be much more subtle than they will be in Europe and the rest of Asia. When we have information on what the changes will be and when they#39;ll take effect, we#39;ll pass it on to you.正如前面提到的,美国顾客没有太多的担心;香奈儿表示,美国,加拿大和日本的价格已经很好的保持了一致,所以比起欧洲和亚洲其他地区,他们的价格变化相对微妙。当我们得知会有什么变化或者何时会产生影响时,我们会告诉你们。There#39;s another element to this story that goes beyond in-boutique sales, though. The Chanel representative who spoke with WWD indicated that these changes were “about the future” of the brand, and, when pressed, admitted that wouldn#39;t just be in brick-and-mortar stores. There#39;s no date for when Chanel will embrace e-commerce for its bags, of course, but keeping prices roughly equal (the goal is to vary less than 10%) across global markets is an enormous step toward making online sales possible.然而,香奈儿在精品销售方面在努力实现超越,这是与这件事情相关的另一个因素。香奈儿的代表在女装日报上说到这些变化对于品牌来说是“关乎未来的”。并且,在被报道时,此代表承认这不仅仅只在实体商店。至于何时香奈儿皮包会与电子商务紧紧相拥,我们不得而知。但是,在全球市场内保持价格的大致相同(目标变化少于10%)对于在线销售的这种可能是一大步。 /201507/387711John Nash, a Nobel laureate and mathematical genius whose struggle with mental illness was documented in the Oscar-winning film “A Beautiful Mind”, was killed in a car accident on Saturday. He was 86. The accident, which occurred when the taxi Nash was traveling in collided with another car on the New Jersey Turnpike, also claimed the life of his 82-year-old wife, Alicia. Neither of the two drivers involved in the accident sustained life-threatening injuries.上周六,奥斯卡获奖影片《美丽心灵》主人公的原型、美国数学天才、诺贝尔奖得主约翰#8226;纳什遭遇车祸去世,终年86岁。事故发生时,纳什夫妇乘坐的一辆出租车在新泽西高速路上与另外一辆汽车相撞,纳什82岁的妻子艾丽西亚也在车祸中遇难。出租车司机以及对方车辆的司机都没有遭受致命伤。Born in West Virginia in 1928, Nash displayed an acuity for mathematics early in life, independently proving Fermat’s little theorem before graduating from high school. By the time he turned 30 in 1958, he was a bona fide academic celebrity. At Princeton, Nash published a 27-page thesis that upended the field of game theory and led to applications in economics, international politics, and evolutionary biology. His signature solution—known as a “Nash Equilibrium”—found that competition among two opponents is not necessarily governed by zero-sum logic. Two opponents can, for instance, each achieve their maximum objectives through cooperating with the other, or gain nothing at all by refusing to cooperate. This intuitive, deceptively simple understanding is now regarded as one of the most important social science ideas in the 20th century, and a testament to his almost singular intellectual gifts.1928年,纳什出生在美国西佛吉尼亚州。他很早就表现出出色的数学天赋,高中还未毕业就已经独立明了费马小定理。1958年,而立之年的纳什已是名副其实的学术界名人。在普林斯顿,纳什一篇27页的论文颠覆了弈论领域,弈论此后被广泛应用于经济学、国际政治以及进化生物学领域。著名的解决方案“纳什均衡”就是由他发现并以他的名字命名。“纳什均衡”指弈双方不一定受到零和逻辑的约束,比如,弈双方可以通过合作均取得最大收益,或者不合作承担零收益(但也没有损失)。这表面看来似乎很好理解的理论却已经成为20世纪最重要的社会学观点之一,而这也是纳什卓越智慧的明。But in the late 1950s, Nash began a slide into mental illness—later diagnosed as schizophrenia—that would cost him his marriage, derail his career, and plague him with powerful delusions. Nash believed at various times that he was the biblical figure Job, a Japanese shogun, and a “messianic figure of great but secret importance.” He obsessed with numbers and believed The New York Times published coded messages from extraterrestrials that only he could .但是,自1950年代末,纳什开始受到精神疾病的折磨,经诊断他患上了精神分裂症。他因此离婚,事业毁于一旦,他自己也饱受幻觉的折磨。他时而以为自己是圣经中的约伯,时而把自己当做日本古代的将军,时而又以为自己是“隐秘而伟大的救世主”。他沉溺于数字之中,坚信《纽约时报》中藏匿着外星人留下的密码,而只有他才能解开。Mental institutions and electroshock therapy failed to cure him, and for much of the next three decades, Nash wandered freely on the Princeton campus, scribbling idly on empty blackboards and staring blankly ahead in the library. Atlantic contributor Robert Wright, an undergraduate at Princeton in the late 1970s, remembers Nash as “some math genius that went crazy” who wore colorful sneakers and quietly watched people. His schizophrenia removed him completely from his work. By the time Nash was awarded the Nobel prize in Economics in 1994 (along with John Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten), he hadn’t published a paper in 36 years.精神病院、电击疗法都没能治愈纳什。在随后的三十年间,他游荡在普林斯顿的校园里,或在空黑板上“涂鸦”,或在图书馆中发呆。《大西洋月刊》撰稿人罗伯特#8226;赖特是普林斯顿1970年代的毕业生,他回忆到:这位“疯了的数学天才”总是穿着色的运动鞋,安静地看着人来人往。精神分裂让他完全无法工作,直至1994年(与约翰#8226;海萨尼 、莱因哈德#8226;泽尔腾共同)获得诺贝尔经济学奖的36年间,纳什再无论文发表。But like a child cured of a nightmare by the switch of a light, Nash recovered from his illness seemingly by choosing not to be sick anymore. “I emerged from irrational thinking, ultimately, without medicine other than the natural hormonal changes of aging,” he wrote in 1996. Five years later, the release of the film A Beautiful Mind, based on Sylvia Nasar’s 1998 book of the same name, amplified Nash’s extraordinary life story to an international audience. He continued to work, travel, and speak at conferences for the rest of his life.就像打开灯就能让孩子走出梦魇一般,决定不再做病人后纳什似乎就自己摆脱了病魔。1996年,他写到:“最终,我摆脱了妄想,不是依靠药物,而是随着年纪见长体内激素自然而然发生了变化。”5年后,根据1998年西尔维娅#8226;娜萨同名小说改编的电影《美丽心灵》上映,纳什与众不同的故事为全世界观众所知。而故事的主人公在接下来的人生中依旧继续工作、旅行、在大大小小的会议上发言。It’s tempting to wonder what Nash might have accomplished had mental illness not robbed him of so many productive years. But the “beautiful mind” that gave him such prodigious mathematical talent was indivisible from the one which spawned powerful delusions. In her study of creativity published in the July/August 2014 edition of the Atlantic, Nancy Andreasen related a memorable anecdote from Nasar’s book. Upon visiting Nash at a mental institution, a colleague asked how a man so devoted to reason and logical truth could believe that extraterrestrials were sending him messages.人们也许不禁想问,如果没有这么多年精神疾病的困扰,纳什又将取得怎样的成就?他的美丽心灵既带给了他巨大的数学成就,同时也让他饱受幻觉的折磨。《大西洋月刊》7/8月刊中,南希#8226;安卓森关于创造力的一篇文章就提到了娜萨书中一个令人难忘的故事:纳什的一个同事去精神病院看望他时,曾问他,身为一个如此执着于理性与逻辑真理的人,他为何会相信外星人传递信息这种事。“Because the ideas I had about supernatural beings came to me the same way that my mathematical ideas did,” replied Nash. “So I took them seriously.”纳什答道:“因为那些关于超自然生物的想法向我袭来,就仿佛曾经的那些数学观点一样。于是,我当真了。” /201505/377115福州那些医院检查精液As a graduate student at Teachers College, Columbia University, Victoria Porpora commuted to school from her parents’ home in Scarsdale, N.Y., where she grew up. The trip by Metro-North train to New York City took nearly an hour each way, because her arrival and departure point was the Harlem-125th Street Station on the East Side, and Columbia is on the West Side. “The crosstown bus was the killer,” she said. “It stops at almost every corner.”维多利亚·波尔波拉(Victoria Porpora)是哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教育学院(Teachers College)的一名研究生,她经常往返于学校与位于纽约州斯卡斯代尔(Scarsdale)的父母家之间,那是她从小长大的地方。每次搭乘大都会北方铁路(Metro-North)去纽约市,她在路上都会耗费将近一个小时,因为她上下车的地方是城东(East Side)的哈莱姆区125街车站(Harlem-125th Street Station),而哥伦比亚大学在城西(West Side)。“坐跨区公交车真是要命,”她说,“差不多每拐个弯就会停一站。”Ms. Porpora, 23, who is known as Tori, wanted to move to Manhattan, and the pieces fell into place when a friend connected her with Emma Murphy. Ms. Murphy, 22, who was living with her family in Mamaroneck, N.Y., had attended the University of Vermont for a year, but was starting at Columbia’s School of General Studies. She would have a similar commute, and was glad to team up with a roommate.今年23岁、人称多莉(Tori)的波尔波拉,曾经很想搬到曼哈顿生活,她经朋友介绍与艾玛·墨菲(Emma Murphy)相识之后,这个想法终于落实了。今年22岁的墨菲与家人一起生活在纽约州的马马罗内克(Mamaroneck),已经在佛蒙特大学 (University of Vermont)就读了一年,目前正准备进入哥伦比亚大学的通识教育学院(School of General Studies)读书。她的往返路线与波尔波拉相似,所以很高兴找个室友合住。Ms. Porpora’s graduate school friends, many of whom commuted themselves or rented rooms in Upper Manhattan, suggested she could easily hunt on her own, but she believed otherwise. “I am the queen of efficiency, and that sounded like a horrible idea,” she said. So she contacted her childhood friend Claire Marshall, a saleswoman at Citi Habitats.波尔波拉在研究生院的那些朋友大多自己往返,或在曼哈顿的上城区租房住。他们告诉她,独自一人也很容易找到住处,但她另有想法。“我是个节省女王,所以那个主意听起来一点儿也不靠谱,”她说。于是她联系了自己的一位儿时好友、花旗居屋(Citi Habitats)的女销售员克莱尔·马歇尔(Claire Marshall)。Neither Ms. Porpora nor Ms. Murphy had ever hunted for an apartment. They knew that finding a two-bedroom in their price range, up to ,800 a month, would be tough but doable. “As long as we had a kitchen and a bathroom, we were really open,” Ms. Porpora said.波尔波拉和墨菲以前都从没找过房子。她们知道,按自己提出的价格区间,找到一套月租不超过2800美元(约合人民币17538元)的两居室公寓可能会很艰辛,但还算可行。“只要有一间厨房和一间浴室就行了,其他的我们都可以接受,”波尔波拉说。Ms. Murphy felt overwhelmed. “I honestly didn’t even understand what a no-fee apartment rental was,” she said. Ms. Marshall explained it to her.墨菲则完全没有头绪。“坦白说,我甚至不明白什么叫无佣金租赁公寓,”她说。马歇尔给她解释了一番。They spent a snowy day looking, starting a bit south of Columbia at a walk-up building on West 109th Street in Manhattan Valley. The apartment, a two-bedroom with a washer-dryer, for ,795 a month, was on the ground floor, with windows facing the street. They flinched.俩人冒着大雪天去看房,从哥伦比亚大学南边不远处开始,她们在曼哈顿谷(Manhattan Valley)的西109街(West 109th Street)看了一栋不带电梯的公寓楼。那是一套两居室公寓,有一台洗衣/烘干机,月租2795美元(约合人民币17365元)。公寓位于一楼,窗户正对大街。但她们退缩了。“Everything that was installed — every appliance, every counter — everything was crooked,” Ms. Porpora said. “It felt like somebody threw together a two-bedroom out of something that was meant to be a studio or one-bedroom.”“房间里安装的每一样东西——包括每台电器、每个台面,全都变形了,”波尔波拉说,“感觉就像有人把原本的单间公寓或一居室公寓,硬生生地拼凑成了一套两居室。”Both felt claustrophobic in the tiny rooms. “I am 5-9 and that added to the level of tininess I was experiencing,” Ms. Murphy said. They passed.她们在那些小房间中感到了幽闭恐惧症。“我身高有1米8,所以尤其会觉得这里太小,”墨菲说。于是她们放弃了这套公寓。Farther south, on Amsterdam Avenue near 102nd Street, a two-bedroom in a small walk-up building was renting for ,550 a month. This one was above a restaurant. Ms. Murphy, having discussed her housing search with friends at her retail job at the Westchester mall, was wary.再往南走一段距离,在阿姆斯特丹大道(Amsterdam Avenue)靠近102街(102nd Street)的地方,有一套两居室公寓,位于一栋无电梯的小楼里,月租2550美元(约合人民币15842元),公寓下面就是一间餐馆。墨菲和几个同在韦斯切斯特商城(the Westchester)从事零售业的朋友讨论了自己找房的事之后,她的态度变得谨慎起来。“My boss told me a horror story about living above a restaurant with insects and rats and a lot of loud noise,” she said. “That was looming in the back of my head.”“我的老板刚给我讲了一个很可怕的故事,说住在餐馆上面会有许多虫子、老鼠和噪音什么的,”她说,“我到现在还在后怕呢。”Also a problem was the railroad layout, which would require one to walk through the other’s bedroom to get to the bathroom. The apartment seemed fine for a couple, Ms. Porpora said, but “it was so not conducive to any way we would want to live.”公寓的直筒式户型也是个问题,你得穿过室友的卧室才能进入洗手间。这套公寓似乎更适合夫妻居住,波尔波拉说,但“对我们而言,住起来就不那么方便了。”They soldiered on, wondering whether every place in their price range would have a drawback. “I trusted it was going to get better,” Ms. Murphy said.于是,她们继续前进,想知道在她们定的价格区间内,是不是每个地方都有不近理想之处。“我相信情况会越来越好的。”墨菲说。Still farther south, they visited a two-bedroom apartment in a five-story building. Both liked the location in the West 80s, “in an amazing neighborhood with Starbucks on one side and 150 independently owned restaurants on the other,” Ms. Porpora said, exaggerating just a bit. The rent was ,650 a month.又往南走了一段,她们来到一栋五层建筑中,看了一套两居室公寓。俩人都喜欢这套公寓不超过西80几街的位置,“这是个非常棒的社区,一边有星巴克(Starbucks),另一边有150家独立经营的餐馆,”波尔波拉说得有点儿夸张。这套公寓的月租为2650美元(约合人民币16464元)。“I noticed right away the apartment building smells nice, or at least it doesn’t smell bad, which was important for me,” Ms. Murphy said.“我立刻发现这栋公寓楼里的味道还不错,至少闻起来不恶心,对我来说这很重要。”墨菲说。The living area was an odd six-sided shape. The bathroom was minuscule. But each bedroom had a closet, and there was plenty of overhead storage, thanks to the high ceilings.这套公寓的客厅是罕有的六边形。浴室只是个弹丸之地。但每间卧室里都有一个衣柜,上面还有一大片空间可以存放东西,这多亏了那高高的天花板。The long, skinny layout seemed ideal for roommates. “The bedrooms were split so it didn’t feel they were on top of each other,” Ms. Marshall said.这对室友似乎对公寓的狭长户型非常满意。“两间卧室是分开的,所以不会感觉紧挨着对方。”马歇尔说。She told the two women that they needed to apply quickly if they were interested. They were. Ms. Murphy’s lesson about no-fee rental apartments was reinforced: This wasn’t one. The roommates split the broker fee of one month’s rent, and arrived just after Christmas in time for the new semester.她告诉两个女孩,如果她们想租下来,就得赶紧申请。于是她们照做了。墨菲还深刻领会了刚上过的无佣金租赁公寓课:这套公寓并不是。两名室友分摊了那笔佣金,即该公寓一个月的租金。她们过完圣诞节就搬了过去,等着新学期开学。Now, Columbia is an easy 20 minutes away via the No. 1 train. “I like having a home neighborhood and a school neighborhood,” Ms. Porpora said.现在,她们搭乘1号线只需20分钟,就能到达哥伦比亚大学了。“我喜欢住在一个既是住宅区、又是大学城的地方。”波尔波拉说。She pays ,250 a month for the smaller bedroom, which holds a bed and a dresser. “You couldn’t come in here with your Pottery Barn bedroom set,” she said, but it’s all she needs. Her room, and the living room, face a back alley.她每月付1250美元(约合人民币7766元),住在面积较小的卧室里,房里放了一张床和一个梳妆台。“你不可能把从Pottery Barn买的那套卧室家具都搬进来,”她说,但她要用的都有了。她的房间和客厅都面对着一条偏僻的小巷。Ms. Murphy pays ,400 a month for the larger room, where she can fit some shelves and tables. Her view is of an air shaft. “If I were to look out my window all day, I would be able to watch what my neighbors were doing,” she said.而墨菲每月付1400美元(约合人民币8698元),住在面积较大的房间里,里面还可以放几个书架和桌子。她房间外的景观是一个天井。“如果我整天往窗外看,就能看到邻居们都在做些什么。”她说。They planned to furnish the living room with a secondhand couch donated by Ms. Porpora’s sister, but learned it wouldn’t fit through the narrow hallway. “Tori’s dad is super handy and measured everything,” Ms. Murphy said. Instead, they have a futon handed down by Ms. Murphy’s father. It came apart for transport.她们原打算在客厅里摆上一座波尔波拉的送给她们的沙发,但发现客厅太窄了,沙发放不下。“多莉的爸爸非常能干,他量过了所有尺寸,”墨菲说。于是,她们用上了墨菲爸爸拿过来的一个日式坐垫。这东西在运输时可以拆开来。They were able to create both a sitting area and a dining area in the living room. They put the television in front of a window. It blocks part of the alley view, which sometimes features “people rolling garbage cans,” Ms. Porpora said. “It doesn’t bother me, but I can see how that would be a huge deterrent for a lot of people.”因此,她们可以把客厅分成休息区和进餐区。她俩还在一扇窗户前面放了一台电视机,挡住了窗外小巷里的部分景观。有时候那里总能看见“有人在滚垃圾桶,”波尔波拉说,“我倒不太在意,不过因此我就明白了,为什么许多人都对这套公寓望而却步。” /201504/372190福州福马路博爱医院检查不孕收费标准贵吗

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