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来源:预约新闻    发布时间:2019年05月20日 07:38:32    编辑:admin         

PRINCETON, N.J. — By the fall of 1915, Albert Einstein was a bit grumpy.新泽西普林斯顿——1915年秋天,阿尔伯特ㄠ因斯坦的心情不太好。And why not? Cheered on, to his disgust, by most of his Berlin colleagues, Germany had started a ruinous world war. He had split up with his wife, and she had decamped to Switzerland with his sons.当然好不了。德国发动了一场毁灭性的战争,他的柏林同事大多在欢呼雀跃,这让他感到厌恶。他的妻子与他离异,而后带着他的儿子逃到了瑞士。He was living alone. A friend, Janos Plesch, once said, “He sleeps until he is awakened; he stays awake until he is told to go to bed; he will go hungry until he is given something to eat; and then he eats until he is stopped.”他现在是孤家寡人了。他的朋友雅诺什渠雷施(Janos Plesch)曾说:“他会睡到没有人叫就不醒;醒着时,没有人叫就不去睡;没有人给他吃的他就一直饿着;没有人拦着,他就不停地吃。”Worse, he had discovered a fatal flaw in his new theory of gravity, propounded with great fanfare only a couple of years before. And now he no longer had the field to himself. The German mathematician David Hilbert was breathing down his neck.更糟的是,他在自己几年前大张旗鼓发表的引力新理论中,发现了一个致命缺陷。而如今他在这个领域已无法独领风骚,德国数学家大卫希尔伯特(David Hilbert)正对他穷追不舍。So Einstein went back to the blackboard. And on Nov. 25, 1915, he set down the equation that rules the universe. As compact and mysterious as a Viking rune, it describes space-time as a kind of sagging mattress where matter and energy, like a heavy sleeper, distort the geometry of the cosmos to produce the effect we call gravity, obliging light beams as well as marbles and falling apples to follow curved paths through space.于是,爱因斯坦回到了黑板前。1915年11月25日,他写下了那个配寰宇的方程式。它仿佛古维京文字一般的简洁与神秘,把时空描述成一张松垮的床垫,物质与能量好似沉睡的人,扭曲了宇宙的几何形态,进而创造出我们称为引力的效应,迫使光线像弹珠或掉落的苹果那样,沿着弯曲的路径穿越空间。This is the general theory of relativity. It’s a standard trope in science writing to say that some theory or experiment transformed our understanding of space and time. General relativity really did.这就是广义相对论。科学文章所用的标准修辞会说,有些理论或实验彻底改变了我们对空间与时间的理解。广义相对论真的是这样。Since the dawn of the scientific revolution and the days of Isaac Newton, the discoverer of gravity, scientists and philosophers had thought of space-time as a kind of stage on which we actors, matter and energy, strode and strutted.自科学革命的发端和艾萨克嬠署发现万有引力以来,科学家与哲学家无不以为时空就像一座舞台,物质与能量如同演员,在上面高视阔步。With general relativity, the stage itself sprang into action. Space-time could curve, fold, wrap itself up around a dead star and disappear into a black hole. It could jiggle like Santa Claus’s belly, radiating waves of gravitational compression, or whirl like dough in a Mixmaster. It could even rip or tear. It could stretch and grow, or it could collapse into a speck of infinite density at the end or beginning of time.有了广义相对论之后,舞台本身一跃而起,参与了表演。时空可以弯曲、折叠、在死去的恒星周围把自己包覆起来,消失成一个黑洞。它可以像圣诞老人的肚皮一样抖动,放射出一波波的引力压缩,或是像食物搅拌器里的面团一样旋转。它甚至可以四分五裂。可以延伸扩大,或是在时间的起点或尽头,坍缩成一个有无限密度的小点。Scientists have been lighting birthday candles for general relativity all year, including here at the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein spent the last 22 years of his life, and where they gathered in November to review a century of gravity and to attend performances by Brian Greene, the Columbia University physicist and World Science Festival impresario, and the violinist Joshua Bell. Even nature, it seems, has been doing its bit. Last spring, astronomers said they had discovered an “Einstein cross,” in which the gravity of a distant cluster of galaxies had split the light from a supernova beyond them into separate beams in which telescopes could watch the star exploding again and again, in a cosmic version of the movie “Groundhog Day.”科学家已为广义相对论点了一整年的生日蜡烛,在普林斯顿高等研究院(Institute for Advanced Study)这里也不例外。爱因斯坦就在这座研究院里度过了他人生最后的22载光阴。11月,科学家聚在这里回顾了引力理论百年来的发展,还观赏了哥伦比亚大学物理学家、世界科学节主持人布赖恩·格林(Brian Greene)和小提琴家约书亚贝尔(Joshua Bell)的表演。就连自然界都好像出了一份力。今年春天,天文学家称他们发现了一个“爱因斯坦十字”,也就是某个遥远星簇的引力将一个超新星发出的光分成了几束,透过望远镜看来,那颗星星就像在不断反复地爆炸,仿若在上演一部宇宙版的《偷天情缘》(Groundhog Day)。Hardly anybody would be more surprised by all this than Einstein himself. The space-time he conjured turned out to be far more frisky than he had bargained for back in 1907.对于这一切,几乎没人会比爱因斯坦本人更惊讶。他所描述的时空,远比他自己1907年时所预料的更调皮。It was then — perhaps tilting too far back in his chair at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland — that he had the revelation that a falling body would feel weightless. That insight led him to try to extend his new relativity theory from slip-siding trains to the universe.就是在那年,他领悟到,下落的物体或许会感到失重——可能他当时在瑞士伯尔尼专利局的椅子上,向后仰得太多了。这个发现促使他尝试把新提出的相对论,从发生侧偏的火车,推广到整个宇宙。According to that foundational theory, now known as special relativity, the laws of physics don’t care how fast you are going — the laws of physics and the speed of light are the same. Einstein figured that the laws of physics should look the same no matter how you were moving — falling, spinning, tumbling or being pressed into the seat of an accelerating car.根据现在被称作狭义相对论的基础理论,物体运动的速度不影响物理定律的适用,光速和物理定律都是一样的。爱因斯坦认为,不管人如何移动——坠落、旋转、打滚或是被摁到一辆正在加速的汽车的座位上,物理定律应该是一样的。One consequence, Einstein quickly realized, was that even light beams would bend downward and time would slow in a gravitational field. Gravity was not a force transmitted across space-time like magnetism; it was the geometry of that space-time itself that kept the planets in their orbits and apples falling.爱因斯坦很快便意识到,其中一个后果是,在引力场里,即便是光束也会向下弯曲,时间也会变慢。引力不是一种可以像磁力那样跨时空传输的力。正是时空本身的几何结构,让行星停留在各自的轨道上,让苹果落到地上。It would take him another eight difficult years to figure out just how this elastic space-time would work, during which he went from Bern to Prague to Zurich and then to a prestigious post in Berlin.他又花了艰苦卓绝的八年时间,才弄明白这个弹性时空的运行原理。在此期间,他先是从伯尔尼搬到布拉格,后来又去了苏黎世,最后在柏林得到了一个颇具声望的职位。In 1913, he and his old classmate Jerome Grossmann published with great fanfare an outline of a gravity theory that was less relative than they had hoped. But it did predict light bending, and Erwin Freundlich, an astronomer at the Berlin Observatory, set off to measure the deflection of starlight during a solar eclipse in the Crimea.1913年,他和老同学耶罗默·格罗斯曼(Jerome Grossmann)发表了一篇备受关注的引力理论的概要,但该理论的相对论特性不及他们的预期。但这个理论的确预言了光的弯曲。柏林天文台(Berlin Observatory)的天文学家埃尔温·弗罗因德利希(Erwin Freundlich)动身前往克里米亚,去观测日食期间星光的折射幅度。When World War I started, Freundlich and others on his expedition were arrested as spies. Then Einstein discovered a flaw in his calculations.一战开始时,弗罗因德利希和团队里的其他人,被当做间谍抓了起来。后来,爱因斯坦在自己的计算中发现了一个缺陷。“There are two ways that a theoretician goes astray,” he wrote to the physicist Hendrik Lorentz. “1) The devil leads him around by the nose with a false hypothesis (for this he deserves pity) 2) His arguments are erroneous and ridiculous (for this he deserves a beating).”“理论家出错有两种情况,”他给物理学家昂德里克·洛伦茨(Hendrik Lorentz)写信说。“1) 魔鬼用一个错误的假说牵着他的鼻子走(这种情况值得同情);2) 他的论是错误、荒谬的(这种情况该打)。”And so the stage was set for a series of lectures to the Prussian Academy that would constitute the final countdown on his quest to grasp gravity.于是,在普鲁士科学院做一系列讲座的条件已经出现了。这些讲座是他为攻克引力奥秘而进行的探索中最后的倒计时。A Breakthrough Moment突破的时刻Midway through the month, he used the emerging theory to calculate a puzzling anomaly in the motion of Mercury; its egg-shaped orbit changes by 43 seconds of arc per century. The answer was spot on, and Einstein had heart palpitations.当月中旬,他用新理论计算了水星在运动中出现的一个令人费解的反常现象。水星的椭圆形轨道角度,每过一个世纪就会改变43秒。完全正确,爱因斯坦心跳加速。The equation that Einstein wrote out a week later was identical to one that he had written in his notebook two years before but had abandoned.一周后,爱因斯坦写下了一个等式。它和他两年前写在笔记本里,但后来又放弃了的那个等式一模一样。On one side of the equal sign was the distribution of matter and energy in space. On the other side was the geometry of the space, the so-called metric, which was a prescription for how to compute the distance between two points.等号的一边是物质和能量在空间中的分布。另一边是空间的几何结构,即所谓的度规。度规是指计算两点之间距离的方式。As the Princeton physicist John Wheeler later described it, “Space-time tells matter how to move; matter tells space-time how to curve.” Easy to say, but hard to compute. The stars might be actors on a stage set, but every time they moved, the whole stage rearranged itself.正如普林斯顿大学物理学家约翰·惠勒(John Wheeler)后来所说,“时空告诉物质如何移动;物质告诉时空如何弯曲。”说起来容易,计算起来难。各个恒星可能是舞台背景上的演员,但随着它们的每次运动,整个舞台都会发生变化。It wasn’t long before Einstein received his first comeuppance.不久后,爱因斯坦遭遇了第一个打击。In December 1915, he received a telegram from Karl Schwarzschild, a German astrophysicist serving at the front in the war, who had solved Einstein’s equation to describe the gravitational field around a solitary star.1915年12月,他收到了在战场前线役的德国天体物理学家卡尔·施瓦茨希尔德(Karl Schwarzschild)发来的电报。施瓦茨希尔德解开了爱因斯坦用来描述一个孤星周围的引力场的方程。One strange feature of his work was that at a certain distance from the star — to be known forever as the Schwarzschild radius — the equations would go kerblooey.他的解有个奇怪的特性:当与恒星达到一定距离时——被称为史瓦西半径——这个方程就会坍塌。“If this result were real, it would be a true disaster,” Einstein said. This was the beginning of black holes.“如果结果是真的,这将是一场真正的灾难,”爱因斯坦说。这就是黑洞的开始。That Einstein’s equations could be solved at all for a single star baffled him. One of his guiding lights had been the Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, who taught that everything in the universe was relative. Einstein took Mach’s Principle, as he called it, to mean that it should be impossible to solve his equations for the case of a solitary object.让他感到困惑的是,爱因斯坦的方程式针对一个单一的恒星能否得解。奥地利物理学家、哲学家恩斯特·马赫(Ernst Mach)是爱因斯坦的指路明灯之一,马赫教导称,宇宙里的一切都是相对的。爱因斯坦称之为马赫原理,他认为这个原理意味着对于单独的物体而言,他的方程式不可能得到解答。“One can express it as a joke,” he told Schwarzschild. “If all things were to disappear from the world, then according to Newton Galilean inertial space remains. According to my conception, however, nothing is left.”“大家可以说这是个笑话,”他告诉史瓦西。“如果所有东西都将从这个世界消失,根据牛顿和伽利略的理论,惯性空间仍然存在。然而,按照我的想法,什么也留不下。”And yet here was a star, according to his equations, bending space all by itself, a little universe in a nutshell.可是,根据他的方程式,有一颗恒星在完全凭借自己的力量扭曲空间,简单地说就是一个小宇宙。 /201511/412454。

It was a gorgeous fall day in Dumbo, Brooklyn, and Keira Cannon was holding one of the weekend photo shoots she does with her favorite subject: her son, Princeton.在布鲁克林丹波(Dumbo)一个美丽的秋日,凯拉·坎农(Keira Cannon)正在进行周末摄影,拍摄她最喜欢的对象:儿子普林斯顿(Princeton)。Princeton wore leather pants, black-and-white checked sneakers and a black sweatshirt with an open-mouthed vampire graphic. But that wasn’t quite enough flair for his mother. So Ms. Cannon whipped out a purple faux-fur jacket — except that Princeton was, in teenager-speak, “done.”普林斯顿穿着皮裤、黑白格运动鞋和黑色运动衫,运动衫上的图案是张着大嘴的吸血鬼。不过,在坎农看来,这还不够显示她的才华。于是她拿出一件紫色人造毛皮夹克,只不过普林斯顿“已经完事了”(done,现在的青少年喜欢用这个词)。But Princeton is not a teenager. He is 5 years old. A happy-seeming little boy, he played with his scooter, balanced on the curb, twirled in endless circles but only had so much tolerance for the professional photographer whom Ms. Cannon, 38 and a pastry chef, had hired to populate his Instagram feed, Prince and the Baker, which has more than 5,600 followers.不过,普林斯顿还算不上青少年,他才5岁。他看起来兴致很高,骑着踏板车,一会儿在马路沿上保持平衡,一会儿不停地原地打转,不过他对妈妈请来的专业摄影师的容忍度只有这么大。他的妈妈坎农38岁,是个糕点大厨。她请摄影师拍照是为了让他们的Instagram账户Prince and the Baker更受欢迎,目前这个账户有5600多名粉丝。When the photographer attempted to coax him to pose for one more shot with the Brooklyn Bridge behind him, he gave her a polite, “No thanks.” It didn’t help that children were riding past him on scooters of their own, or bicycles.当摄影师试图哄他以身后的布鲁克林桥为背景再摆个姿势拍照时,他礼貌地说:“不,谢谢。”这时有几个孩子骑着踏板车或自行车从他身边经过,他更是按捺不住了。Once the half-hour shoot was over, Ms. Cannon posted multiple photos of Princeton in the outfit on the Instagram feed, tagging the Canadian online shop, the Mini Life, that had provided it, and the brands included. In return, she would get a shopping discount and keep the clothing, worth about 0.半小时的拍摄一结束,坎农就在Instagram上发布了几张普林斯顿穿那套衣的照片,并加上了提供这套装的加拿大网店Mini Life以及装品牌的标签。作为回报,她能得到店铺折扣,并保留这些原价约为350美元的衣。During busy seasons, she receives such packages weekly. Depending on the brand, Ms. Cannon will sometimes earn a payment of to 0 per post, she said, adding that L’Officiel Enfant, a showroom in Midtown, once paid her 0 for a look-book shoot.在旺季,她每周都能接到这样的活儿。坎农说,根据品牌不同,一个帖子的报酬约为50至100美元不等。她补充说,中城的装推广公司L’Officiel Enfant有一次为一幅时尚画册照片付给她250美元。Typically, Princeton is happy to be in the spotlight. “He kind of loves it,” Ms. Cannon said. “A lot of followers will actually recognize him in the street. And he’ll say, ‘How do people know me?’ or ‘People think that I’m adorable?’ I’m like, ‘Yeah, you’re totally adorable.’ He’s a sweet little guy, and it opens him up in ways because people want to talk to him about what he’s wearing and how he’s doing.”总的来说,普林斯顿很高兴站在聚光灯下。坎农说:“他挺喜欢的。很多粉丝真的能在大街上认出他来。他会问:‘他们怎么认识我呀?’或者‘他们是不是觉得我很可爱?’我会说:‘是啊,你非常可爱。’他是个可爱的小男孩,这让他更开朗,因为人们想跟他谈论他的衣和他的情况。”The entertainment industry has long been populated with (some may say built by) stage mothers like Rose Hovick, Jaid Barrymore, Teri Shields, Dina Lohan, and reigning “momager” Kris Jenner. But Instagram, which Pew Research says is the fastest growing major social network among adults in the ed States, has become an express track for parents interested in sharing and sometimes capitalizing on the visual story line of their children’s lives.业从来都不缺培养明星的妈妈(有人甚至说,业是这些妈妈们发展起来的),比如罗丝·霍维克(Rose Hovick)、雅伊德·巴里莫尔(Jaid Barrymore)、特丽·希尔兹(Teri Shields)、迪娜·洛汉(Dina Lohan),以及首屈一指的“妈咪经纪人”克里斯·詹纳(Kris Jenner)。不过,对那些喜欢分享孩子生活照片、有时从中赚钱的父母们来说,Instagram已经成为一个便利的渠道。据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)称,在美国成年人中,Instagram是发展最快的主要社交网站。Other than a few recommendations about proper tagging, endorsement deals resulting from such activity largely lie outside the protective scope of the Federal Trade Commission, said Susan Scafidi, the academic director of the Fashion Law Institute at Fordham University.福德姆大学(Fordham University)时尚法律学院(Fashion Law Institute)的学术主管苏珊·斯卡菲迪(Susan Scafidi)说,除了几项关于恰当加标签的建议之外,这些交易大多不在联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)的保护范围之内。“While the modeling industry isn’t perfect by any means, it is at least, at the level of children, regulated to some extent,” she said, referring to limitations on work hours and the creation of a trust fund for wages.她说:“虽然模特业本来就不完美,但是至少在儿童这个层面,还是有一些规定的。”她指的是限制工作时长,要求设立信托基金来管理报酬。Regardless of how their time and money is being handled, the amateur child models of Instagram are aly more famous on the Internet than most of your co-workers. There’s 4-year-old London Scout, with 105,000 followers; 2-year-old Millie-Belle Diamond, with 143,000; 4-year-old Michelle (154,000); Gavin (200,000); and the Mini Style Hacker (260,000). Then there’s the prince of Instagram: Alonso Mateo, with more than 600,000 followers. He recently attended the Dior show at Paris Fashion Week.不管他们的工作时间有多长,收入是怎么处理的,Instagram上的这些业余儿童模特在网上的名气比你的大部分同事还要大。比如4岁的伦敦·斯科特(London Scout)有10.5万粉丝;2岁的Millie-Belle Diamond有14.3万粉丝;4岁的米歇尔(Michelle,15.4万);加文(Gavin,20万);Mini Style Hacker(26万)。还有Instagram王子:阿隆索·马特奥(Alonso Mateo),他有60多万粉丝。前不久,他在巴黎时装周上参加了迪奥(Dior)的时装秀。Princeton’s dad, Sai Roberts, 40, a graphic designer, has more modest aspirations. “His mom and I have reviewed some of the other Instagram kids who have a lot of followers, and so there are some concerns in the sense that if it was to get out of hand, but so far it’s really been a positive experience,” he said. “I’m very proud that he’s getting exposure, and I hope he’s able to use that for his own creative flair and voice as he grows older.”普林斯顿的爸爸赛·罗伯茨(Sai Roberts)今年40岁,是一位平面设计师,他的愿望更朴实。他说:“我和他妈妈看了Instagram上有很多粉丝的小孩,担心情况会失控,不过到目前为止,我们获得的都是正面体验。有更多人认识他,我为此感到很骄傲,我希望他长大后能用他的名气发挥自己的创造性天分,表达自己的想法。”Sometimes adults are drawn to the feed: people who post comments on their own Instagram pages like “Can I be her?” or “She’s become my style inspo” or “I love the hair!!!!”有时,成人们也会被那些照片吸引,他们在自己的Instagram主页上发布这样的:“我能变成她那样吗?”“她成了我的造型灵感来源。”“我超喜欢这种发型!!!”And marketers are also taking an interest. Athena Rotolo, who owns the Mini Life website, said she was pleased with the transactions she has struck with Ms. Cannon. “She requests certain items that fit in for the style of the shoot and then I send them off to her,” Ms. Rotolo said. “So instead of me having to hire someone and pay all those fees, it’s a mutual relationship.”市场推广人员也产生了兴趣。Mini Life网站的所有者雅典娜·罗托洛(Athena Rotolo)说:她对自己和坎农之间的交易很满意,“她会要一些符合她的拍摄风格的衣,我就发给她。这样我就不用雇人,也不用花那些钱,这是一种互惠关系。”Parents have also negotiated deals with Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop and other higher-profile companies.家长们还和格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)的Goop等高级装公司协商交易。On the higher end, there’s London Scout (her first and middle names) walking down a street in a couture party dress for the Instagram account Scout Fashion. Or London Scout at New York Fashion Week in a pink and navy faux fur coat, waving to a crowd of photographers.高端的一些例子包括伦敦·斯科特(London Scout,这是她的第一个名字和中名)为Instagram账户Scout Fashion拍摄的身穿高级定制派对裙走在街头的照片。或者她在纽约时装周上身穿粉色海军蓝人造毛皮外衣向摄影师们挥手的照片。“It was like she had her own little paparazzi,” said her mother, Sai De Silva, who runs the feed. London Scout is living #scoutstyle and schooling followers on how to #gettheLondonlook. And because London’s mother, 34 and a self-described social-media strategist, is as photogenic as her daughter, there are also the hashtags #mommydaughtermoments and #ScoutMomstyle.伦敦·斯科特的妈妈赛·德席尔瓦(Sai De Silva)负责发布照片。德席尔瓦说:“就好像她有自己的仔队。”伦敦·斯科特引领斯科特风尚(#scoutstyle),指导粉丝们如何打造伦敦造型(#gettheLondonlook)。德席尔瓦今年34岁,自称社交媒体策略师,她和女儿一样上镜,所以也发布关于母女时光(#mommydaughtermoments)和斯科特妈妈风尚(#ScoutMomstyle)的照片。Ms. De Silva, who lives in New York, has created a weekly calendar to manage the account. “It’s the same thing you would do with a magazine,” she said. One day she takes the photos of London, and on another she hires a professional photographer. Two to three wardrobe changes are scheduled for each outing: London going to the park or the supermarket, dressed to the nines.德席尔瓦住在纽约,每周都制订管理那个账户的日程。她说:“这跟做杂志是一样的。”有时她自己给伦敦拍照,有时请专业摄影师拍。伦敦每次出门(去公园或超市)都计划好换两到三套衣,打扮得十分完美。“That way, I have content for the week,” Ms. De Silva said. “Or if she’s in the mood to shoot a photo on my iPhone, then I’ll take a capture. But we don’t make it an issue where it’s 24-7 because it would be obnoxious and ridiculous for a 4-year-old. If my daughter isn’t happy, then there are no photos.”德席尔瓦说:“那样我就准备好了一周要发布的内容。如果她愿意让我用iPhone拍,那我就拍两张。但我们不是每时每刻都拍,因为对一个四岁小孩来说,那样太讨厌太荒谬了。如果女儿不高兴,那就不拍。”Taylen, age 2, has some 112,000 followers. “Taylen has become a brand,” said her mother, Angelica Calad, 33 and the owner and designer of POMP Kids, an online clothing business in Davie, Fla. Ms. Calad’s Instagram feed, Taylen’s Mom, is a devoted chronicle of Taylen and Aleia, Ms. Calad’s infant daughter, in high-fashion outfits. In one photo, Taylen wears a retro Esther Williams-inspired dusty rose bodysuit with ribbon shoulder straps, glitter-adorned bottoms and a bow tie. In another, Aleia wears peach merino overalls and a white-feathered chieftain headdress.两岁的泰兰(Taylen)大约有11.2万粉丝。她的妈妈安杰莉卡·卡拉德(Angelica Calad)今年33岁,是佛罗里达州戴维市的网上装公司POMP Kids的所有者和设计师。她说:“泰兰已经成为一个品牌。”卡拉德的Instagram账户Taylen’s Mom专门用来记录泰兰和刚出生的女儿埃莉娅(Aleia)身穿高级装的造型。在其中一张照片里,泰兰穿着以埃丝特·威廉姆斯(Esther Williams)为灵感的复古土灰玫瑰紧身衣裤,肩带上装饰着蝴蝶结,臀部装饰着亮片,领口有个领结。在另一张照片里,埃莉娅身穿桃色美利奴羊毛连体衣,头戴白色羽毛酋长头饰。In the course of one weekend, Ms. Calad booked back-to-back shoots for Taylen and Aleia. She said she is also in talks to develop a network television show for Taylen and is branching out into home décor. But the real get is that Taylen is headlining the holiday campaign for Kardashian Kids Kollection, a relationship that began, Ms. Calad said, when she was approached by a publicist for the Kardashian line through Instagram.有一个周末,卡拉德为泰兰和埃莉娅安排了一连串拍摄。她说,她还在协商为泰兰开设一个网络电视节目,而且在考虑扩展到家居装饰方面。不过,真正的大事件是泰兰即将成为卡戴珊孩童系列(Kardashian Kids Kollection)假日广告的主要模特。卡拉德说,卡戴珊装系列的一位公关人员通过Instagram联系她,开始了合作。Ms. Calad works with at least 100 brands and said she sometimes receives money, but sometimes not. “This is not an advertising site,” she said. “That’s the difference between my Instagram and a lot of other moms’ Instagram accounts, which is that they’ll take whatever gets sent to them. I don’t. I have a particular style for my girls. It has to be handmade or eco-friendly, with simple fabric. Anything organic.”卡拉德和至少100个品牌合作,她说她有时收钱,有时不收。她说:“这不是一个广告网站。这是我和其他很多妈妈的账户的不同之处。她们是不管别人送什么都接受。我不一样。我给女儿们设计了独特的风格。必须是手工制作的或环保的,面料要简单。一切都得是有机的。”This is a favorite word of Ms. Calad’s. The clothing her children wear is organic. The photo shoots are organic. The way her Instagram feed began is organic. But there’s no spilled ice cream and there are never ever any tears in the pictures.“有机”是卡拉德最喜欢的一个词。孩子们穿的衣是有机的。照片拍摄是有机的。Instagram账户的开设是有机的。但是在这些照片中,我们从来看不到冰激凌污点或泪水。Still, Ms. Calad insists nothing is forced. “At 2 years old, you would think the tantrums would start with photo shoots and things like that, but Taylen truly enjoys it,” she said. “A lot of the brands we work with, they see it right away: her charisma and her love for the camera.”不过,卡拉德坚称,一切都不是强迫的。她说:“你本来以为两岁的孩子一拍照就会哭闹什么的,但是泰兰真的很喜欢拍照。很多跟我们合作的品牌一下子就看出了她的魅力以及对镜头的喜爱。”Ginger Clark, a psychologist and professor of clinical education at the University of Southern California, compared parent-run Instagram feeds to the pageant world.加利福尼亚南部大学(University of Southern California)的心理学家和临床教育教授金杰·克拉克(Ginger Clark)把父母经营的Instagram账户与演艺界相提并论。“Not every kid is going to have this experience, but it runs the risk of giving the child the sense that they are a commodity in your eyes,” she said. “You have to be extra careful to make sure the messages you’re giving your child are ‘This is for fun, this is dress-up.’ But when you’re hiring your own photographer, then it becomes more commercialized.”她说:“不是所有的孩子都会有这种体验,不过它会有一种风险,孩子可能会觉得,在你眼里,他们是商品。你必须格外小心,确保给孩子传递的信息是:‘这就是为了好玩,为了把你打扮漂亮’。不过,在你雇用摄影师之后,会变得更商业化。”Patricia Greenfield is a psychology professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, director of the campus’s Children’s Digital Media Center and a co-author of an oft-cited study that found that fame was the No. 1 goal for children ages 10 to 12. “It really boils down to someone’s values and whether or not you want your child to grow up thinking of himself or herself in terms of how famous he or she is, versus having more pro-social values,” Dr. Greenfield said of cultivating Instagram stars.帕特丽夏·格林菲尔德(Patricia Greenfield)是加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California at Los Angeles)的心理学教授,也是该校儿童数字媒体中心的主管。她是一项经常被引用的研究的联合作者。那项研究发现,对10至12岁的儿童来说,名气是头等目标。格林菲尔德提起培养Instagram明星时说:“最根本的问题是价值观,以及你是否想让孩子在成长过程从出名程度来评判自己,而不是拥有更亲社会的价值观。”Her co-author on the study, Yalda T. Uhls, a child psychologist, said children whose parents seek fame for them may grow up to be introverts or have higher-than-usual social anxiety. “The other extreme is, your child will get so used to this attention that they’ll start to crave it and they may crave it in unhealthy ways,” Dr. Uhls said.那项研究的另一位作者娅尔达·T·尤尔斯(Yalda T. Uhls)是一名儿童心理学家。她说,如果父母为孩子追求名气,孩子长大后可能会形成内向型人格或者具有高于常人的社会焦虑感,“另一种极端的可能性是,你的孩子会习惯这种关注,并渴望得到它,甚至可能通过不健康的方式追求它”。Regardless of the potential psychological effects, the mothers interviewed for this article said they feared online predators. “You never know who’s behind a profile,” said Mia St. Clair, 29, a professional photographer in Spokane, Wash. Her son Grey, 3, is at the epicenter of Grey’s Little Closet. They have over 28,000 followers.尽管存在这些潜在的心理影响,但是为本文接受采访的母亲们更担心的是网上的猎手。29岁的米娅·圣克莱尔(Mia St. Clair)是华盛顿州斯波坎市的专业摄影师。她三岁的儿子格雷(Grey)是Grey’s Little Closet的中心,这个Instagram账户有超过2.8万名粉丝。她说:“你永远不知道网上那些人是谁。”“Now that it’s so large and it’s growing, we just felt like we should just kind of shift it and not be so focused on Grey,” Ms. St. Clair said. “We don’t love the idea of him growing up and one day feeling like he has this huge following or fan base.”圣克莱尔说:“现在粉丝人数很多,而且在不断增长,我们感觉应该做些改变,不再把重点放在格雷身上。我们不想让他长大以后感觉自己拥有庞大的粉丝群。”Her husband, James St. Clair, 33, a director of media and communications at Calvary Spokane, a church, also voiced caution. “I never thought it would be this big,” he said. “I had hesitation at first, mostly because I just didn’t understand it. As I’ve learned more and seen the effects, both positive and not-so-positive, I now have the mind-set that we need to be responsible with the platform that we have.”她的丈夫詹姆斯·圣克莱尔(James St. Clair)今年33岁,是Calvary Spokane教堂的媒体和通讯主管。他也表示担心:“我从没想过会有这么多粉丝。一开始我有点疑虑,主要是因为我不能理解这种情况。后来我了解得更多,看到了正面和不太正面的影响,现在我的态度是,我们需要对自己拥有的平台负责。”Ms. Cannon, the pastry chef from Brooklyn, recently dealt with an incident in which a Facebook user posted photos of Princeton and other children without permission. A group of mothers, including Ms. Cannon, demanded that they be taken down.前不久,布鲁克林的糕点师坎农处理了一个意外事件,一名Facebook用户未经授权发布了普林斯顿等孩子的照片。这些孩子的妈妈,包括坎农,要求撤掉这些照片。But such fears have not stopped her from proceeding full steam ahead with Prince and the Baker.不过,这些恐惧没有阻止她继续全力开发Prince and the Baker这个Instagram账户。“I’m not trying to thrust him in it right away, and I’m going at his pace,” Ms. Cannon said. “But, yes, ultimately, we’re on that track of maybe television work or commercials. I think Princeton and I are on the cusp of blowing up.”坎农说:“我不想让他马上投入其中,我会跟随他的节奏。不过,是的,最终,我们将上电视或拍广告。我觉得我和普林斯顿即将绽放。” /201511/412024。

Race May Affect Risk for Dementia种族或许会影响患痴呆的风险Dementia rates can vary significantly among Americans of different racial and ethnic groups, even if they#39;re in the same region of the country, a new study finds.一项新研究发现,即使居住在美国同一地区的人,也会由于种族不同患痴呆症的几率差别很大。Researchers analyzed data on more than 274,000 people from six racial and ethnic groups in Northern California who were members of Kaiser Permanente, a large private health care system.研究者分析了北加利福尼亚州六个种族超过274000人的数据,这些人都来自一个私人医疗保健系统。Using records of patient visits, the researchers found that the average annual rate of dementia was 26.6 cases per 1,000 for blacks; 22.2 per 1,000 for American Indians/Alaskan Natives; 19.6 per 1,000 for Hispanics and Pacific Islanders; 19.3 per 1,000 for whites; and 15.2 cases per 1,000 for Asian-Americans.根据患者的来访记录,研究者发现每年平均患痴呆的比率是,黑人每1000人中26.6例;美国印第安人/阿拉斯加州的本地人每1000人中22.2例;西班牙和太平洋岛上居民每1000人中19.6例;白人每1000人中19.3例;亚裔美国人每1000人中15.2例。The researchers calculated that among people who reach age 65 without dementia, 38 percent of blacks, 35 percent of American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 32 percent of Hispanics, 30 percent of whites, 28 percent of Asian-Americans and 25 percent of Pacific Islanders would develop dementia in the next 25 years.研究者计算得出,65岁以上未患痴呆的人中,38%的黑人,35%的美国印第安人/阿拉斯加州本地人,32%的西班牙人,30%的白人,28%的亚裔美国人,25%的太平洋岛上居民,会在未来25年内患痴呆。Even in the groups found to be at lowest risk, the lifetime risk of developing dementia is high, said principal investigator Rachel Whitmer, a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research. ;In every racial and ethnic group, over one in four people who survive to age 65 can expect to be diagnosed with dementia in their lifetime.;即使是风险最低的群体,一生当中患痴呆的风险也很高,凯撒医疗集团研究部门的一名科学研究员,也是这项研究的主要调查者Rachel Whitmer说。“无论哪一个种族的人群,一旦过了65岁都有超过四分之一的人可能患痴呆症。”;These findings underscore the need to better understand risk factors for dementia throughout life to identify strategies to eliminate these inequalities,; Whitmer said in the news release. The next step is to learn what#39;s behind the racial and ethnic differences in dementia rates. “这些发现强调,为了找到消除这些不平衡的策略,需要更好地理解患痴呆症原因,”Whitmer在新闻发布会上说。下一步就是研究患痴呆症种族差异背后的原因。;Based on the present study, we cannot determine the extent to which genetic or social and behavioral factors contribute to the observed patterns,; Whitmer said. ;But if social and behavioral factors are the primary pathways, these findings suggest substantial reductions in dementia incidence are possible.;“基于目前的研究,我们无法确定基因或社会和行为因素究竟对目前观察到的模式对换痴呆症起到多大的作用,”Whitmer说。“但是如果社会和行为因素是重要的影响因素,那么相关研究对于降低痴呆发生率将产生实质性作用。”译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201603/430242。

Wang Wei (701~761), sometimes titled the Poet Buddha, was a Tang Dynasty Chinese poet, musician, painter and statesman.王维(701~761),人称“诗佛”,唐代诗人、音乐家、画家、政治家。From a high family, he passed the civil service entrance examination in 721 and had a successful civil service career, rising to become Chancellor in 758.王维出身于官僚地主家庭,721年通过科举考试,仕途得意,758年官至尚书右丞。During the An Lushan Rebellion he avoided actively serving the insurgents during the capital#39;s occupation by pretending to be deaf. 安史之乱长安被占期间,王维为了不给叛军当差而装聋。He spent ten years studying with the Chan master Daoguang.王维师从道光禅师学习10年。After his wife#39;s death in 730, he did not remarry and established a monastery on part of his estate.730年妻子去世后,王维未再婚娶,将他的辋川庄地建为佛寺(清源寺)。He is best known for his quatrains depicting quiet scenes of water and mist, with few details and little human presence.王维最为著名的是刻画宁静的水雾景色的绝句。在这些绝句里,王维极少提到人的存在。The Indiana Companion comments that he affirms the world#39;s beauty, while questioning its ultimate reality.《印第安纳中国传统文学指南》评价说,王维确认世界的美丽,但是质疑它的最终真实性。It also draws a comparison between the deceptive simplicity of his works and the Chan path to enlightenment, which is built on careful preparation but is achieved without conscious effort.《指南》也比较了王维作品表面上的质朴与禅学通向开悟境界的途径。禅学的开悟建基于精心的准备,但是要想达到开悟的境界并不需要有意识的努力。None of his original paintings survive, but copies of works attributed to him are also landscapes with similar qualities.王维的亲笔画作没有流传下来,但是归到他名下的摹本也是具有同样特质的风景画。He influenced what became known as the Southern school of Chinese landscape art, which was characterised by strong brushstrokes contrasted with light ink washes.王维对后来以落笔着力、水墨渲淡为特征的南方山水画派有很大的影响。Wang Wei#39;s most famous poetry, such as the poem “Deer Park”, form a group titled Wang River Collection.王维最著名的诗歌《鹿柴》被收人《辋川集》。They record a poet#39;s journey, ostensibly that of Wang Wei and his close friend, Pei Di. They are far more universal than a simple journey and have inspired generations of poets since, including recent adaptations such as Pain Not B#39;s Introduction to Wang Wei, Barry Gifford#39;s Replies to Wang Wei, and Gary Blankenship#39;s A River Transformed. Eliot Weinberger and Octavio Paz#39;s 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei is a brilliant essay concerning more than 19 translations of Wang Wei#39;s ;Deer Park;.这些诗记录了一个诗人(很显然是王维和他的朋友袭迪)的旅程,但是它们远比简单的一次旅程要深远的多,并且影响了后代诗人的创作。近来受其影响的有:帕因·诺特·布莱德的《王维导论人门》,巴里·吉福德的《答王维》以及加里·布兰肯西普的《变形的河流》。艾略特·温伯格和奥科塔维奥·帕斯的《19种解读王维的方法》,这篇精的论文考察的是王维《鹿柴》的19个以上版本的译文。One of Wang Wei#39;s poems, called Weicheng Qu Or Song of the City of Wei has been adapted to the famous music melody, Yangguan Sandie or Three Refrains on the Yang Pass.王维的《渭城曲》后来被改编成名曲《阳关三叠》。The most famous version of this melody is that of the guqin, whichWang Wei probably played.该曲最著名的版本是古琴版,很可能王维亲自用古琴演奏过该曲。 /201512/418157。