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Books and Arts; Book Review;The future of Italy:Long life文艺;书评;意大利:路漫漫其修远兮,还需上下而求索Good Italy, Bad Italy: Why Italy Must Conquer Its Demons to Face the Future. By Bill Emmott.比尔·艾默特的新作,《意大利的明与暗:为何意大利必须先涅磐后重生?》Even after the latest euro rescue in Brussels, Italy remains a time bomb. Its public debt of close to 2 trillion (.5 trillion) is the worlds third biggest, making it too big to bail out. It has lost competitiveness. And its economy is stagnant: between 2001 and 2012 GDP shrank, a worse performance than any other rich country. Fortunately, as Bill Emmott notes in this book, Italy has since last November had a technocratic cabinet led by Mario Monti that is the countrys first reforming government in years.欧元区最新一轮的救助措施,并没能改变意大利危机重重的局面。它的国家债务高达2万亿欧元(2.5万亿美元),位列世界第三,这使得其摆脱困境的可能性微乎其微。意大利已经无竞争力可言,国家经济呈一片衰败之势。2001年至今十年来,意大利是GDP增长最缓慢的发达国家。幸运的是——艾默特在书中指出——自从去年11月,新任总理马里奥·蒙蒂组建了新型技术官僚内阁,这是意大利多年来首次政府改革。Mr Emmott, who was editor-in-chief of this newspaper from 1993 to 2006, has made Italy one of his specialist subjects, inspired partly by libel battles with Mr Montis predecessor, Silvio Berlusconi. His excellent book is an updated English version of one published in Italian in 2010 under the title “Forza, Italia” (a pun on Mr Berlusconis party and a football slogan, meaning “Go! Italy”). His thesis is better described by the new title: there are in reality two Italys.艾默特,原《经济学人》杂志主编(1993~2006年)。意大利前总理布卢斯科尼对自己继任者的诽谤,一定程度上激发了艾默尔的兴趣。意大利已经成为他的一项独特研究课题。艾默特的精书作,原版为意大利文,出版于2010年,题目为“加油,意大利”。此次发行的是英文更新版本。其实艾默特的观点用下面这个标题会更精确些:事实上,存在着两个意大利。This is often said of the north and south. Last years 150th anniversary of Italian unification saw acid remarks about its having divided Africa, not united Italy. But Mr Emmotts division is not this one. Rather, he finds good and bad all over the country. On the good side he cites cases such as Mr Monti, young entrepreneurs, strong manufacturing (Italy is second only to Germany in Europe), a revitalised Fiat and Turin. On the bad, he offers Mr Berlusconi, organised crime and corruption, the public sector, red tape and Naples.意大利的南北之分,由来已久。在去年的意大利统一150周年纪念日,即有一种尖刻的言论称:意大利不该统一,而该分裂。然而艾默特并未从传统意义上进行划分,而是从国家整体层面上发现了意大利的光明与黑暗面。光明面,他拿蒙蒂、年轻的企业家们、强大的制造业(欧洲国家中仅次于德国),复兴的菲亚特和都灵为例。黑暗面,他则主要列举了布卢斯科尼、黑社会组织、腐败、崩溃的政治系统、繁文缛节和那不勒斯的困境。His story is supported by lively anecdotes of the people and firms he meets on his travels, many of them in the course of making a documentary film. It is refreshing to so much that is positive about Italy amid the pervasive gloom: the fight against organised crime in the south, the exporting power of family firms in the north, the impact of Mr Montis reforms. The author finds plenty of reasons for hope.艾默特的讲述,辅以了他在旅途中见闻的生动轶事,其中许多逸闻趣事还制成了纪录片。在意大利深陷阴暗迷雾之时,能够读到意大利的光明面,实在让人耳目一新:南方对于黑社会的反击,北方家族企业出口贸易的实力,蒙蒂改革的功效等。作者的分析,让人们有理由对未来充满希望。Yet overall his book seems a touch too optimistic. Mr Monti is being as bold as he can, but he has lost popularity, some of his reforms have been watered down and his ability to do things is waning as next springs election approaches. The anti-mafia movement in Sicily is heartening, but organised crime has sp to the north as well. Many young Italians are talented and hard-working, but too many deploy their talents abroad rather than at home.但是,总体来说,艾默特稍微有点乐观了。尽管蒙蒂已经竭尽全力去拯救糟糕的局势,但是当初的高持率已然不再。新政府所进行的部分改革措施被打折扣。同时,在明年大选即将到来之际,蒙蒂正在逐渐丧失他的影响力。一方面,是西西里的“打黑”运动不断升温,一方面,是黑社会已经悄悄往意大利北部蔓延。大批的年轻人们富有才干,工作勤奋,但都在往国外谋求发展,而非报效祖国。Above all, the deep structural failings of Italy—an inefficient public sector, a poor demographic outlook, lousy universities, a calamitously slow judicial system—will take years to put right. The euro crisis has shown the urgent need for reforms, but by stunting growth it has also made them harder. And Italy has few liberals who genuinely believe in reform.总之,意大利结构上的深层次症结——失效的政治系统,老化的社会人口,没落的公立大学,效率奇低的法院系统——所有这些,都需要很长的时间去一一解决。欧元危机已经昭示了改革的迫在眉睫,然而滞缓的国内发展困境又让改革举步维艰。如今在意大利,原本拥护改革的人,现已所剩无几了。Early on Mr Emmott notes the spooky parallels between now and the early 1990s, when Italys economic problems first became apparent. A promising start then turned into 20 wasted years, largely because of Mr Berlusconis entry on to the political stage. The media moguls era may be over (even that is not certain). But new populists are rising up, and the next election could be messy. Italy has yet to find its next saviour.在书的开头,艾默特即点明了目前的状况和上个世纪90年代初之间存在的不可思议的相似之处。原本是充满希望的开始,却因为布卢斯科尼在政治舞台的出现,转入了几乎停滞的20年。这位传媒大亨的时代也许是该结束了(尽管还不能确定)。新的平民之星正在冉冉升起。即将到来的选举定不会平静。意大利仍要继续前行,寻找下一个救星。 /201211/210537Fans of classic movies will remember the famous dueling banjos scene in Deliverance, the story of four city friends who take an ill-fated boating trip down a backwoods Georgia river. As the friends set out, one of the friends challenges a local boy with a banjo to see who can play faster. At the end of the song, the camera zooms in to reveal the boy’s diseased, inbred features.经典影片《激流四勇士》的粉丝可能还记得出名的五弦琴决斗场面吧!《激流四勇士》讲述的是四个都市朋友乘着独木舟沿着未开垦的乔治亚河冒险,一路上状况不断。在旅程之初,一个朋友挑战一个当地男孩,比赛谁弹五弦琴更快。曲终,镜头推向男孩,揭示男孩因近亲交配,身体不健全的事实。Such images have contributed to the taboo against marriage between first cousins. Geneticists explain that since closely related persons are more likely to harbor identical genetic mutations, their children have a greater chance of being born with defects.表亲结婚这样的禁忌导致了这样的后果。遗传学者解释近亲更可能携带相同基因突变信息,他们的孩子先天缺陷的风险更大。But such risks might be overstated. According to one study, children from first cousin marriages are only 1.7 to 2.8 percent more likely to be born with serious birth defects than children of conventional marriages. Although the risk is still significant, it is lower than previously thought.但是,这一风险似乎被夸大了。据一项研究显示,表亲婚后的孩子比非近亲婚后孩子先天有严重缺陷的几率仅高出1.7%至2.8%。尽管风险依然存在,但是没之前预想的严重。Prolonged interbreeding in any species can eventually lead to serious birth defects. Harmful genetic mutations are less likely to appear in large populations where individuals reproduce with random partners due to the wider variety of genetic mutations. But in small, isolated populations where inbreeding is common, there’s a greater chance that related partners carry the same mutations.长期来看,任何物种间的异血缘繁殖终会导致严重的先天缺陷。人口多的地方,个体间随机繁衍,恶性基因突变几率降低很多。反之,在人口小且封闭的地方,近亲交配很普遍,有血缘的夫妻携带相同基因突变的几率更大。However, harmful effects are more common in groups with a history of interbreeding over several generations. First cousins that are not from such groups run only a slightly greater risk of producing children with birth defects than non-related couples. Although such risks should not be ignored, first cousin marriage is not necessarily a recipe for genetic disaster.但是,恶性先天缺陷常见于家族多代异血缘交配。表亲生的孩子患先天缺陷的风险略高于无血缘夫妻生的孩子。虽然这样的风险不容忽视,但是表亲结婚并非注定基因灾难。 /201304/233147

For many scientists, a species’ success is measured by sheer numbers. In that case, the most successful species known to man is a type of bacterium known as S-A-R-11, or SAR-11 for short. Scientists estimate that there are two-hundred and forty times a billion billion billion SAR11 cells floating around in the oceans. Now that makes six-billion humans sound like a mere handful.对很多科学家来说,一个物种的成功完全取决于数量。如果是那样是话,为人类所知的最成功的物种就是一种简称“SAR-11”的细菌。科学家们估计海洋中的SAR11细胞的数量超过2 x 10的28次方个。那让60亿人类听起来屈指可数。SAR11 bacteria are known for their ability to transform one substance into another, which is why they are such an important part of the Earth’s chemical cycles. Although scientists are still uncertain about SAR11′s specific role, it appears to produce carbon dioxide using the oxygen and carbon from organic matter that’s derived from photosynthesis. Scientists speculate that SAR11 plays a major role in the way the ocean’s surface acts as a giant carbon pump that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.SAR11细菌以其转换物质的能力为人所知。而这也使得它们成为地球化学循环中重要的部分。尽管科学家不能确定SAR11的具体作用。但它似乎可以使来自于光合作用的氧气和有机物种的碳发生作用,产生二氧化碳。科学家推测SAR11在海洋表面扮演着重要的作用,作为一个巨大的碳泵移除空气中的二氧化碳。The catch is that SAR11 is what is known as an uncultured organism, which means that scientists haven’t been able to cultivate it under laboratory conditions. This requires scientists to develop pretty indirect genetic methods just to be able to study SAR11 cultures. Now that this technology is available, scientists are sequencing the SAR11 genome in order to figure out exactly what kinds of carbon it uses, and why it’s so successful at ocean living.但目前SAR11是为培养生物,也就是说科学家不能在实验室里培养出这种细菌。因此需要科学家们研制出间接遗传方法,来研究SAR11。既然这项技术可用,科学家为了弄清楚究竟SAR11用的是哪种碳以及为什么它会如此的成功在海洋中生活,正在排序它的基因组。 /201304/233496

Books and Arts; Book Review;Algeria and France;War by any other name;文艺;书评;阿尔及利亚与法国;冠以他名的战争;Algeria: Frances Undeclared War. By Martin Evans.《阿尔及利亚:法国未承认的战争》。作者马丁·伊凡斯。In 2006 Francois Hollande, now the Socialist Partys candidate in Frances forthcoming presidential election, declared “in the name of the Socialist Party” that the Section Francaise de lInternationale Ouvrière, the forerunner of his party, “lost its soul in the Algerian War. It had its justifications but we still owe an apology to the Algerian people.”2006年,弗朗瓦索·奥朗德,当前法国即将到来的总统大选的社会党候选人,宣称“工人国际法国分部”,他的党派的前身,“在阿尔及利亚战争中丧失了灵魂。这场战争有正当的理由但我们依旧欠着阿尔及利亚人民一个道歉。”Indeed so. It was a Socialist prime minister, Guy Mollet, who in 1956 ordered a campaign of “pacification” against Algerias nationalists. Opposed to colonialism, Mollet may well have acted out of good intentions, but “pacification” amounted to repression and countless acts of brutality and torture by the French army.的确如此。正是社会党的总理盖伊·莫勒在1956年下令对阿尔及利亚的民主主义者采取“和谐”运动。反对殖民主义的莫勒很可能出于好心,但法军执行的“和谐”只相当于镇压和数不清的暴行和折磨。But Martin Evans, a British academic, is too good an historian to present a one-sided story of Algerias quest for independence. The insurgent Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) was ruthless in its determination to be the sole representative of Algerian nationalism, willing to kill and maim not just French settlers but also the rival nationalists of Messali Hadjs Mouvement National Algérien. The cruelty was exercised even within the FLNs own ranks, witness the cold-blooded strangling of Abane Ramdane or the assassination of Mohamed Khider, another of its leading figures.但马丁·伊凡斯,一位英国学者,作为一位优秀的历史学家不会只单方面描写阿尔及利亚追求独立的故事。叛乱的“民族解放阵线”(FLN)为实现其成为阿尔及利亚民族运动的唯一代表的野心可谓冷酷无情,不只是愿意杀害和重伤法国移民,就连对民族主义阵营的竞争对手,梅萨丽·哈吉的“阿尔及利亚民族运动组织”也是如此。这种残忍甚至也在FLN的内部等级中践行,参见其对刺杀了FLN领袖人物穆罕默德·海德尔的阿班·拉姆丹实行的冷血绞刑。Mr Evanss title reminds the er that the Algerian conflict was officially only a “police operation”. Recognition that it was a full-scale war, Frances worst conflict since the second world war, came only with a vote by the National Assembly in 1999, some 37 years after Algerias independence. But the thoroughness of this book is that it traces the origins of the war all the way back to the French invasion of 1830. What followed were dismal decades of discrimination, poverty and famine.伊凡斯的头衔提醒读者,阿尔及利亚的争端官方来说只是一次“警务行动”。一直到阿尔及利亚独立37年之后,才随着1999年国民大会的投票承认“这是一场彻底的战争、法国自从二战以来最严重的一次冲突”。但这本书的透彻之处在于,它将战争的根源一路追溯到了1830年的法国入侵。随之而来的是充斥着种族歧视、贫穷和饥荒的黑暗的数十年。In retrospect, it is hard to see how metropolitan France could ever have imagined a secure and peaceful hold on “French Algeria”. Once the war erupted, there was never much hope that Frances politicians, from Mollet through to Charles de Gaulle, could win Muslim Algerian “hearts and minds”. Nor could they win the trust and support of the European settlers, the pieds noirs (literally “black feet”, see picture above) whose sense of betrayal led them to side with the futile rebellion against de Gaulle by the dissident French soldiers of the OAS (Organisation de lArmée Secrète).回顾过去,很难明白大国法兰西何以幻想能安全和平地掌控“法属阿尔及利亚”。自从战争爆发,法国政治家从莫勒到查尔斯·德·高尔,从来就没有什么希望能赢得阿尔及利亚穆斯林的“衷心和理解”。他们也不可能赢得欧洲移民的信任和持,法国侨民(字面为“黑脚”,见上图)的背叛意图让他们与异见的OAS(Organisation de lArmée Secrète)法国士兵一同站在了对抗德·高尔的无望的反叛军一方。As Mr Evans describes, it was not just Algerias history that militated against it being an inseparable part of the French nation, but also the context of contemporary geopolitics. The tide of anti-colonialism after the second world war was forcing Europes imperial powers to grant independence almost everywhere. France had aly been defeated in Vietnam; Britains prime minister Harold Macmillan talked of the “wind of change” sweeping across Africa; and Americas President Eisenhower swiftly compelled France (which accused Egypts Gamal Abdel Nasser of aiding the FLN), Britain and Israel to pull back from their 1956 seizure of the Suez Canal. The implications were recognised by de Gaulle: if France were to be a power to be reckoned with in a world now defined by the cold war, it had to rid itself of the Algerian millstone—whatever the objections of the settlers who would then have to seek refuge in France.正如伊凡斯描述的,不仅是阿尔及利亚的历史阻止其成为法国不可分割的一部分,同样也有当前的地缘政治环境的影响。二战之后的反殖民主义浪潮迫使欧洲的帝国主义势力承认几乎所有殖民地的独立。法国已经在越南被打败;英国首相哈罗德·麦克米兰谈到席卷非洲的“变幻之风”;美国总统艾森豪威尔迅速强迫法国(该国指控埃及的贾麦尔·阿卜杜勒·纳赛尔资助FLN)、英国和以色列从他们1956年控制的苏伊士运河撤回。德·高尔读出了这些暗示:如果法国要在我们今天称为冷战时期的世界作为一个大国得到认同,就必须放下阿尔及利亚的包袱·不管移民如何抱怨,都不得不到法国寻求庇护。But what of today? Mr Evanss excellent book is marred only by the occasional editing error (ORAF, the Organisation of the French Algerian Resistance, exists only as an acronym, and Mr Evans, when talking of the founding members of the European Economic Community, omits the Netherlands). It ends with a somewhat depressing postscript chapter.但今日何如?除了偶尔出现的笔误(ORAF,法属阿尔及利亚抵抗组织,在书中只以缩写出现,并且伊凡斯在说到欧洲共同市场的创立成员国的时候省略了荷兰),以及这本书以一个稍微令人沮丧的后记章节收尾。伊凡斯优秀的著作可谓瑕不掩瑜。In France, citizens of Algerian and other north African descent are disproportionately poor and discriminated against; at times their young, caught between two different cultures, react with violence, as in the urban upheavals of 2005. As Mr Evans says: “The riots of 2005 were just one example of how the legacy of the Algerian war is still being played out.” Meanwhile, in Algeria itself, the country struggles with the aftermath of another undeclared war: the brutal repression by the army of the Islamist forces who two decades ago were about to be voted into office.在法国,阿尔及利亚以及其他北非族裔的公民不成比例地贫穷和受到歧视;有时他们的年轻一代,夹在两种不同的文化之间,会以暴力的方式应对,正如2005年的城市暴动那样。正如伊凡斯所说:“2005年的骚乱只是阿尔及利亚战争的遗留的延续。”同时,在阿尔及利亚本土,该国也挣扎于另一场未承认的战争:军队对二十年前即将通过投票进入政府的伊斯兰势力的残酷镇压。 /201302/226584

  

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  The Biggest Magnet最大的磁体A: Whats the biggest magnet ever?究竟什么是最大的磁体?B: Well, thats a great question. Well, for starters youd have to mention whoppers like the hybrid magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Lab in Tallahassee, Florida.This magnet weighs thirty-four tons and stands twenty-two feet tall.Giant magnets in hospitals, physics labs, and other facilities help in cutting edge research. However, even a magnet the size of a building cant compete with a magnet the size of a planet.嗯,问得好。对于初学者来说,不得不提一下那些庞然大物,比如佛罗里达塔拉哈西的国家高磁场实验室的混合磁体。这块磁铁重34吨,立起来有22英尺高。医院,物理实验室和其他设备里的巨型磁体对尖端研究有帮助。然而,即使是一块建筑物大小的磁体也不能和一块行星大小的磁体相匹敌。A: A magnet the size of a planet?一块行星大小的磁体?B: The Earth itself is a magnet! Researchers think its the effect of convection currents in our planets molten interior that causes the entire Earth to behave as one gigantic magnet, with a North and South Pole.Whenever you look at a compass, what youre doing is ing the magnetic field of the planet on which you are standing.地球本身就是一块磁体。研究者们认为,是地球内部熔岩里对流流的作用使得整个地球像个拥有南北磁极的巨型磁体一样运转。每当你看着指南针的时候,你所做的就是读取你所在行星的磁场。A: So that must be the biggest magnet than anywhere.所以那就是最大的磁体咯。B: Yet, even a magnet the size of a planet cant compete with a magnet the size of a star.但是,即使是行星大小的磁体也不能和恒星大小的磁体相匹敌。A: A star?恒星?B: what about the sun? The sun is a magnet. In this case, the magnetic field is probably generated by swirling plasma. Magnetic storms on the sun are powerful enough to have an effect on satellites and communication systems all the way here on Earth.比如说太阳?太阳是一块磁体。假若这样,磁场可能是由旋动的等离子产生的。太阳上的磁暴威力足够强大,可以对人造卫星和地球上通信系统的各个方面产生影响。A: So is that?那就是最大的了?B: Not even close. There are things in space that put all of these magnets to shame.还差得远呢。宇宙中还有更多让这些磁体相形见绌的事物呢。A: Super magnet in space? What are they?宇宙中的超强磁体?是些什么呢?B: Next time.下次再说吧。 /201210/205485Don: Time now for another episode of a Moment of Science. Did you know? So Yael, did you know that therersquo;ve been 23 mass extinctions since life begun on earth.唐:又到了我们的科学时刻了。耶尔,你知道吗?自从地球出现以来,她已经历了23次大规模的物种灭绝。Yale: I know therersquo;ve been a few extinctions, Don, but not that many.耶尔:唐,我知道地球确实经历了几次物种灭绝,但没你说的那么多。Don: Yep, many were prehistoric bacteria and other single-cell microorganisms, but in the past 540 million years or so, therersquo;ve been about 5 mass extinctions. Many are marine plants and animals but also off-land organisms. 唐:是的。远古时候,地球上存在着大量的细菌和其它单细胞的微生物,但在过去的5亿4000万年内,地球经历了5次大灭绝,灭绝的大多是海洋植物和海洋动物,但也有一些陆地生物。Yale: I know that the dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago possibly due to a large meteor crushing into earth and block out the sun. But what cause all those other extinctions?耶尔:嗯,我听说恐龙是在大约6千500万年前灭绝的,可能是流星撞击地球之后太阳光被遮挡造成的。其它几次灭绝是什么原因?Don: Thatrsquo;s been a mystery for a long time. But now some scientists think that most mass extinctions have been driven by the rise and fall of sea level. That may sound strange. But consider that millions and millions years ago, a shallow sea covered the entire middle section of North America. That sea grew and shrank back several times. Each time it drained, it caused entire species of sea plants and creatures to die off. The last time it drained was around 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs disappeared.唐:那是一个埋藏许久的谜团。但是,现在的一些科学家认为,是海平面的上升或下降造成了这些大灭绝。这听起来可能有点奇怪。但是,考虑到亿万年前覆盖整个北美大陆中部的只是一层浅海,这片海域几经上升和回落。每次干涸,它都会造成整个海洋植物和动物的消亡。它的最后一次干涸出现在6千500万年前,正是在那个时候,恐龙彻底灭亡了。Yale: OK, I understand that was sea vanishing would kill of the marine life. But did the searsquo;s disappearing also have something to do with the dinosaurs going extinct?耶尔:好吧,我知道了海洋消失的确会使海洋生物灭绝,但是也能使恐龙灭绝吗?Don: Maybe. When the sea disappears, it has big effect on climate. All that water provides heat and moisture. And when the sea drains, the climate becomes drier and colder. So the changing climate may have combine with meteor impact to kill off the dinosaurs.唐:也许是这样的。当海洋消失时,会对气候产生巨大影响。海水可以提供热量和湿气。但是当海洋干涸时,气候会变得干燥和寒冷。因此,气候变化和流星撞击地球可能是恐龙灭绝的元凶。201202/172043

  Yael:Whats the matter, Don? You look worried.雅艾尔:发生什么事了,唐?你看起来很担忧。Don:Well, Yael, you know how people are always predicting that one day women will be able to have babies without men? It turns out that some species of the Whiptail lizard have figured out how to do this and completely eliminated the male sex.唐:嗯,雅艾尔,人们通常预测,如果有一天没有男人,女人也可以自己生孩子,你知道是怎么回事吗?事实明鞭尾蜥蜴已经做到这一点,并将雄性蜥蜴完全消灭掉了。Yael:You mean that the species is all female?雅艾尔:你是说所有的鞭尾蜥蜴都是雌性?Don:Exactly. The females have the ability to lay eggs that hatch and grow into healthy lizards without needing to be fertilized by a male. The offspring are exact and complete genetic duplicates of the mothers.唐:正是这样。雌性鞭尾蜥蜴能不通过受精就产卵并孵化出健康的小蜥蜴。而其后代的基因与母亲的基因完全一致。Yael:So the females are cloning themselves.雅艾尔:那么说雌性蜥蜴是在克隆自己。Don:Thats right. And if that werent enough, the female lizards take turns role-playing. They perform a mating ritual in which one lizard acts like the male, and the second lizard acts like the female. The ritual causes the lizard acting as the female to ovulate and lay her eggs. Then, a few weeks later, the two lizards switch roles and repeat this process so that the second female will be able to ovulate and lay her eggs.唐:说得对。如果那样还不够的话,雌性蜥蜴会轮流进行角色扮演。她们进行一个交配仪式,其中一个扮演雄性,另一个扮演雌性。这种仪式会引起扮演雌性角色的蜥蜴排卵并产卵。然后过几个星期,两只蜥蜴再交换角色,重复这种交配仪式,这样另一只雌蜥蜴就可以排卵,产卵了。Yael:That is strange.雅艾尔:太奇怪了。Don:And it raises a lot of interesting questions. For example, its not clear how well an all-female species can evolve and adapt to environmental changes. A species survival depends in part on variation among its members. If all the members of a species are identical, chances are greater that something like a change in the climate or a disease will wipe them all out.唐:这也引发了许多有趣的问题。例如,对于这种全雌物种如何更好地进化以适应环境变化目前还不清楚。一个物种的生存要部分依靠成员的变异。如果所有的成员基因都一模一样,那么一遇到气候变化或者灾害,她们全军覆没的机会就很大。Yael:So it might be a little early to do away with males.雅艾尔:所以排除雄性还为之过早。Don:Well, you know what they say. You cant live with them.唐:嗯,你知道她们是怎么说的。你没办法和他们一起生活。Yael:You cant live without them.雅艾尔:但你的生活不能没有他们。原文译文属!201207/189587

  Abroad the country image was defined by Bosonova and as international hit, girl from Panama with its promise of an exotic and romantic land populated by beautiful women. 国外的国家形象是由巴萨诺瓦作为国际冲击定义,从巴拿马来的女孩带着异域风情和居住着漂亮女人的浪漫土地的承诺。In Brazil itself, the mood was very very different. 而巴西本身心情则截然不同。On March 31,1964,the military seized power. 1964年3月31日,军队掌权。The man who overthrew president had polarized country by legalizing the communist party and visited Cubas new revolutionary figure, Fidel Castro. 推翻总统的人经由合法化已经将国家极端化并且访问了古巴的新革命人物菲德尔·卡斯特罗。Goodluck delighted the Brazilian left but horrified many middle class Brazilians and the Americans who feared the Brazil might follow the same path as Cuba. 好运离开巴西但是吓坏了许多中产阶级巴西人及美国人,他们担心巴西可能走古巴同样老路。So there was relief in Washington when the soldiers took over arguing they were saving Brazil from Communism. 所以在华盛顿士兵们的救济接管了争论,他们认为正从从这一主义中拯救巴西。Brazil would remain under military rule for the next 21 years. 在接下来的21年巴西仍然将在军事统治之下。注:听力文本来源于普特201301/222969

  Huge swarms of stinging jellyfish and similar slimy animals are ruining beaches in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean, Australia and elsewhere, U.S. researchers reported on Dec.12.研究人员12月12日报告,大群带刺的水母,以及同样黏滑的水生动物正在破坏夏威夷,墨西哥海湾,地中海、澳大利亚和美国沿岸的海滩。The report says 150 million people are exposed to jellyfish globally every year, with 500,000 people stung in the Chesapeake Bay, off the U.S. Atlantic Coast, alone.报告显示全球每年有1.5亿人会接触到水母,其中仅在美国大西洋沿岸的切萨皮克湾就有50万人被水母刺伤。The report says the Black Seas fishing and tourism industries have lost 0 million because of a proliferation of comb jelly fish.报告上还显示:由于冠状水母的大量繁殖,导致黑海的渔业和旅游业每年损失三亿五千万美金。The report says more than 1,000 fist-sized comb jellies can be found in a cubic yard (meter) of Black Sea water during a bloom.报道还涉及到在繁殖旺期,黑海每一立方米的水域中就有一千多拳头大小的栉水母。They eat the eggs of fish and compete with them for food, wiping out the livelihoods of fishermen, according to the report.此外水母吞食鱼卵,和鱼类抢夺食物,彻底断了渔民的生计。Human activities that could be making things nice for jellyfish include pollution, climate change, introductions of non-native species, overfishing and building artificial structures such as oil and gas rigs.人类的某些行为会让水母的生存条件更好,这些行为包括污染,气候变化、引进外来物种、过度以及搭建人工构造物,比如石油和天然气钻井。原文译文属!201206/188667。

  

  The BM says that the stele entered its collection in 1927, nine years after the collapse of the Ottoman empire, and it had been acquired in Syria, not in Turkey. The Turks were unimpressed. “The British Museum has no sense of joint venture,” says Ilber Ortayli, head of the Topkapi. “They were completely unco-operative.”大英物馆声称这方石碑1927年被该馆收藏,那时候奥斯曼帝国已经覆灭九年了,得到这个文物的地方是叙利亚,不是土耳其。土耳其人却对此无动于衷。“大英物馆没有合作的观念”托普卡匹物馆馆长特伯·奥特里说,“他们根本不愿意合作。”Shock, not awe惊而不恐Turkey has many other museums in its sights. A list of artworks being sought abroad indicates the culture ministry has made similar demands of the Louvre, the Pergamon, London’s Victoria and Albert Museum (Vamp;A), the Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon, the Davids Samling Museum in Denmark, the Dumbarton Oaks Museum in Washington, DC, the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Getty. It has also claimed stolen antiquities that have been seized by police in Frankfurt, Florence, Bulgaria, Switzerland and Scotland.土耳其已将很多国外物馆纳入视野。文化部长发出了寻找流失海外艺术品的清单,对卢浮宫、佩加蒙、伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特物馆、里斯本古本提安物馆、丹麦哥本哈根市大卫收藏馆、华盛顿特区敦巴顿橡树收藏馆、克利夫兰艺术物馆也有类似的要求。土耳其也要求归还遭警察查封的被盗古董,它们现存于法兰克福、佛罗伦萨、保加利亚、瑞士和苏格兰。Museum directors have reacted with varying degrees of shock. Some have instructed lawyers; others, such as the Vamp;A, are hoping that a “long-term” loan of the contested object will satisfy the demands from Ankara. (Mr Gunay says only an “indefinite” loan will suffice.) Still more are prevaricating, hoping that the authorities will lose interest. This is unlikely.那些物馆馆长有不同程度的吃惊,有的已经咨询过律师,其他的,如伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特物馆馆长希望长期出借有争议的藏品会满足安卡拉的要求。(居纳伊说“无限期的出借”就足够了。)还有更多的馆长在搪塞,希望土耳其当局会失去兴趣。然而这是不可能的。Turkey is convinced of the justice of its quest. Moreover the culture ministry lumps together objects that were smuggled out of the country illegally with those that were removed—perhaps legally to a place of greater safety, but not provably so—in an era when ownership was judged in a looser way. For Turkey, all of these objects were stolen. It is determined to get them back.土耳其深信自己的追求是正义的。而且文化部把从该国非法走私的文物和那些合法转移到更安全地方的文物混为一谈——但是没有办法明这是合法的,因为以前判定所有权的方法不严谨。对于土耳其来说,所有西方物馆收藏的文物都是从他那里偷走的。土耳其已经铁下心来让这些文物回家。Mr Gunay’s ministry is beefing up its anti-smuggling and intelligence bureau, and will soon add criminal and legal units to its task force. Easy foreign travel, communication and technology have all helped the restitution campaign. Turkish émigrés and Turks travelling abroad have helped to identify objects in foreign museums. Online museum inventories, with details of acquisition and provenance, are another rich source of information. The ministry is also working with the American group behind WikiLoot, a not-yet-launched effort to use crowd-sourcing to combat the illicit antiquities trade.居纳伊的维护部正在加强反走私和情报局的力量,该局的特别小组不久会配备刑事和法务部队。境外旅游部门、通讯部门和技术部门也从容不迫地投入到这场归还文物的战斗。土耳其的旅外侨民(还有在国外旅游的土耳其人)在西方物馆帮助辨认文物。另外一个资源是信息丰富的网上物馆,上面的文物清单详细地说明了文物的来源。文化部和美国的WikiLoot合作,把这股尚未使用的力量投入到打击非法古董交易的群众运动中。Turkish self-justification is as romantic as it is defiant. Asked about the return of the sphinx of Hattusa, which he personally oversaw, Mr Gunay explained that it went to a museum in Corum, “the very homeland of the sphinx”. He added, “I wholeheartedly believe that each and every antiquity in any part of the world should eventually go back to its homeland. Even if these objects are made of stone, just as people have souls, so do animals, plants and monuments. Taking a monument away destabilises the world and is disrespectful to history.”土耳其的自我辩白浪漫而大胆。被问到他亲自监督的哈图沙狮身人面像的归还时,居纳伊解释说,它去了乔鲁姆的一家物馆,那里才是它真正的家。他又补充道:“我虔诚地认为世界上的每个古物都应该回到它的故乡。即使这些文物是石头做的,它们和人一样有灵魂,动物、植物、历史遗迹也是如此,转移历史遗迹破坏了世界的稳定,是对历史的亵渎。”These arguments are selective. Turkish officials refuse to concede that Turkey itself, over centuries of domination, forcibly removed hundreds of objects from their homelands. Asked whether Alexander’s sarcophagus would be returned to Lebanon, Mr Gunay and his interpreter simply ignore the question. The Turks are too determined to depict themselves as victims of cultural oppression to accept that foreign museums and archaeologists have also played a part in saving their treasures.他们的辩解是有选择性的。面对同样的问题,土耳其官员拒绝让步。在奥斯曼帝国统治的几个世纪里,数百件文物被从故乡强制迁走。当被问到土耳其是否会把亚力山大的大理石棺交还黎巴嫩,居纳伊和他的译员选择了回避土耳其人的态度过分坚决,并没能把自己描绘成文化压迫的受害者,他们也不认同国外物馆和考古学家拯救了他们的文物。The result is an impasse. Foreign museum directors wish to keep ties with Turkish museums, but if all objects from antiquity were to be repatriated to their land of origin, as Mr Gunay suggests, what justification is there for institutions such as the Met, the Louvre and the BM· Why, for example, should the BM retain the Parthenon marbles in London? The carvings were acquired by Lord Elgin when Greece was part of the Ottoman empire. Lord Elgin had obtained a firman, or Ottoman permission from the local authorities, but only after the payment of significant bribes. Does that make acquisitions illegal?结论陷入了僵局。外国物馆馆长期望和土耳其物馆保持联系,但是如果将所有文物按照居纳伊的建议归还到原产地,大都会艺术物馆、卢浮宫和大英物馆能给出什么理由呢?比如伦敦的大英物馆能保留帕台农神庙的大理石雕像吗?这是额尔金勋爵从希腊搞到的,那时候希腊还属于奥斯曼帝国。额尔金勋爵通过当地政府巨额贿赂弄到了敕令(奥斯曼帝国的许可)。这会使获取的文物非法吗?Turkey’s campaign has strong support at home. But counting any object acquired without a distinct contract as stolen should alarm museums everywhere.土耳其的这场斗争在国内获得了强烈持。那些没有签署明确合同的馆藏文物被看做是偷来的,这给每个物馆都敲响了警钟。201206/185389

  Business Corporate crime Give a little whistle商业 公司犯罪 揭发The SEC offers a huge carrot to encourage whistle-blowers美国券交易委员会高额悬赏鼓励举报人;TOO many people remain silent in the face of fraud,; says Mary Schapiro, the chairman of Americas Securities amp; Exchange Commission (SEC). On May 25th she announced new rules to encourage corporate whistle-blowing. Inducements will include cash: 10-30% of fines of over m that result from tip-offs. The US Chamber of Commerce, a business lobby, calls it a ;bounty programme; that will reward ;amateur sleuths in search of a big payday;. It is threatening legal action to block it.;太多人在面对欺诈行为时选择了沉默。;美国券交易委员会(SEC)主席Mary Schapiro感叹道。5月25日,她公布了鼓励举报公司犯罪的新规定。举报的奖励将会包含现金:如果举报产生了100万美元以上的罚款,那么举报人可获得罚款金额的10-30%。企业游说组织美国商会将其称作;赏金计划;,奖励那些盼着一夜暴富的业余侦探。其威胁性会导致有人采取法律行动来阻止这一计划。The new rules were required by the Dodd-Frank act, Congresss response to the financial crisis, which was passed last year. They follow an earlier effort to encourage employees to speak up. After Enron, an energy firm, collapsed in a flurry of fraud, Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley act in 2002 which, among other things, protected whistle-blowers from retaliation.国会为应对金融危机在去年通过了多德佛兰克金融改革法案(Dodd-Frank act),这些新规定是应该法案的要求制定的。同时也延续了早就开始的鼓励公司员工站出来举报的做法。在能源公司安然(Enron)在连串的欺诈案件中轰然倒下之后,国会采取的善后措施中就包括通过了萨班-奥克利法案(Sarbanes-Oxley act)保护举报人免遭报复。Employees have never found it easy to squeal on employers. Perhaps the most celebrated of corporate whistle-blowers, Sherron Watkins, a former executive at Enron, never went public with her prediction that the company might be brought down by fraud. She reported her concerns internally, and was ignored.员工举报老板从来就不是件容易事。最著名的举报人,安然公司前高官Sherron Watkins,可能从没有将她对于公司会因诈骗倒闭的预测公布于众。她只是在公司内部提出了她的担忧,但是没有人理睬。When the SEC released draft rules in November, businesses fretted that the financial rewards would prompt insiders to go straight to the commission, bypassing their firms internal procedures—especially since that would reduce the risk of being victimised by the boss or branded a ;disgruntled employee;. The new rules try to correct this, for example by allowing a reward to be paid in some circumstances to whistle-blowers who only grumble internally.当券交易委员会在去年11月公布规定的草案时,公司担心金钱奖励会促使内部知情人越过内部程序直接向委员会举报,因为这样会降低被老板陷害或者被贴上;不满员工;标签的风险。新出台的规定试图改变这一状况,比如规定在一些情况下可以奖励只在内部举报没有外传的员工。The chance of making a fortune may encourage speculative whistle-blowing in the hope of winning the lottery. Ms Schapiros new Office of the Whistleblower may be deluged with useless tips. But even that might be better than the status quo.靠举报发财的机会也许会刺激一心想发财的投机式举报。Schapiro女士的新举报官可能会被无效的线索淹没。但是即使是这样也好过现状。 /201301/223705

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