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2019年08月18日 11:44:20 | 作者:快乐分类 | 来源:新华社
The rise of mobile phones has been blamed for a number of social ills, but your smart phone may also be making you physically sick as well.移动电话的广泛使用被指引发了诸多社会弊端,不仅如此,手中的智能机也会让你觉得身体不适。Scientists have identified a condition called #39;cybersickness#39;, which they say is the digital version of motion sickness.科学家们把这种状态称为“晕屏”,是晕车的电子版。The phenomenon, which affects up to 80 per cent of the population who own smartphones or tablets, leads to feelings of nausea and unsteadiness.80%的手机和平板用户会晕屏,他们会有恶心、眩晕的感觉。It is caused by seeing fast motion on a screen and covers anything from a car chase in a film to scrolling through web pages on your phone.造成晕屏的原因是浏览了含移动内容的屏幕,可能是看了有追车镜头的电影,也可能是浏览了手机上滚动的内容页。The more realistic the visual content is, the higher your chances of getting cybersickness.视觉内容越真实,晕屏的发生率就越高。The condition was identified in a piece in the New York Times in which British and US experts said that it needed addressing.《纽约时报》的一篇文章报道了这种症状。英美专家在文章中称,这个问题需要着手解决。Cyriel Diels, a cognitive psychologist and human factors researcher at Coventry University#39;s centre for Mobility and Transport, said: #39;It#39;s a fundamental problem that#39;s kind of been swept under the carpet in the tech industry.认知心理学家、考文垂大学移动运输中心的人为因素研究员西里尔·蒂尔斯表示:“对弊端置之不理算得上是科技产业一个最根本的问题了。”#39;It#39;s a natural response to an unnatural environment.#39;“这是对非自然环境作出的自然反应。”Motion sickness leaves sufferers feeling ill because they feel movement in your muscles and your inner ear but do not see it.晕动症会令患者感到肌肉和内耳在移动,但实际上并没有看到它们在移动。The mismatch in digital sickness is the opposite - you see movement on the screen but do not feel it.而晕屏症恰恰相反——你看到屏幕在移动,实际上却感受不到。The effect is the same and the symptoms include a headache, wanting to throw up, confusion and the need to sit down.二者的影响却是相同的,其症状为头疼、想吐、思绪混乱,需要静坐下来。Often cybersickness manifests itself in a subtle way and sufferers put it down to stress or eyestrain.晕屏症状通常不易察觉,患者会以为是因为压力大或者视觉疲劳引起的。Steven Rauch, a professor of otolaryngology at Harvard Medical School, said: #39;Your sense of balance is different than other senses in that it has lots of inputs.哈佛医学院耳鼻喉科教授史蒂芬·劳奇表示:“与其他感官不同,当有大量信息输入时,人的平衡感会发生改变。”#39;When those inputs don#39;t agree, that#39;s when you feel dizziness and nausea.#39;“当这些信息输入没有被感官接受,你就会觉得头晕、恶心。”Some studies that have been carried out into cybersickness found that women are more susceptible than men, the New York Times reported.《纽约时报》称,一些有关晕屏的研究发现,女性比男性更容易晕屏。Those who have#39;Type A#39; personalities - meaning they are confident and assertive - are more likely to suffer from cybersickness as well.“A型”人格,即果断自信的人,也更容易晕屏。Among those who have reported experiencing the condition have been gamers who spend hours playing fast paced games.有晕屏症状的通常是连续几小时玩快节奏视频游戏的玩家。Cinema-goers have struggled with some scenes in action movies which have quick cuts and fast editing - and virtual reality has made the problem even worse.看动作片的观众在看到快速剪辑和切换的镜头时会不舒,这是因为虚拟实境会加重晕屏。Jonathan Weinstein, a professor at the Kanbar Institute for Film and Television at New York University#39;s Tisch School of the Arts, said: #39;The idea is to get audiences to feel like participants in the action rather than outside observers of the action.纽约大学提斯克艺术学院康贝尔影视研究所的教授乔纳森·温斯坦说:“动作片就是想让观众身临其境,而不是当一个局外人。”Engineers at Oculus VR, the virtual headset manufacturer, have admitted that digital motion sickness is one of their biggest problems.虚拟实境游戏头盔制造商“欧酷拉”公司的工程师们坦言,晕屏也是他们面临的最大问题之一。 /201511/411206Coming to San Francisco for the first time in a few years brings home how much it has been transformed. Whatever you call what is happening — a boom, a bubble or a flood of money into what was known as new technology before the “new” became redundant — has augmented the city’s reality.有些年没来过旧金山,这次来到这里,我意识到这座城市发生了巨大的变化。不管你怎么形容这里正在发生的事情——繁荣、泡沫或者大量资金流入技术(以前曾被称为“新”技术,现在“新”字可以省略了),这座城市的现实状况因此而提升。Once, there was a gaping divide between southern and northern California — between Hollywood and Silicon Valley. To the south was the dream factory of fantasy and imagination; in the north was science, hardware such as the transistor and chino-clad venture capitalists who worked in business parks on Sand Hill Road and lived in sprawling suburbia. San Francisco was a pretty, but unexciting tourist town.过去,加利福尼亚州的南部和北部——好莱坞和硅谷——之间存在巨大的鸿沟。南部是制造幻想和想象的梦想工厂;北部则属于科学,属于晶体管等硬件,以及那些在沙山路(Sand Hill Road)商业园工作、在不断扩张的广大郊区居住、衣着休闲的风险资本家。旧金山那时是一个美丽,但也平淡乏味的旅游城市。It feels more like Hollywood now, full of people writing scripts and honing pitches. “Brave new world companies create something that was not there before. They do not just save somebody money,” a middle-aged man told a young entrepreneur at a nearby table in a diner on Monday morning. The ingénu should portray his venture as more than “faster, better, cheaper”.现在这里给人感觉更像好莱坞了,满是写“脚本”和打磨推介词的人。那个周一的早上,餐馆邻桌的一名中年男子对一名年轻创业者说:“这些建造‘美丽新世界’的企业创造过去不存在的事物。它们不仅仅是帮某些人省了钱。”这个生涩的小伙子应该将他的项目描述为不只是“更快、更好、更便宜”。Later that day one venture capitalist described his own firm’s decision to turn down Uber when it was first raising money as “a lamentable failure of imagination”. The partners should have realised that the pitch for a smartphone limousine service in San Francisco implied a platform to revolutionise global transport. Instead of thinking of the legal obstacles, they ought to have suspended their disbelief.当天晚些时候,一名风险资本家讲述了他自己的企业在优步(Uber)首次募集资金时拒绝了它的事情,称那个决定是“一次令人惋惜的想象力失灵”。他的合伙人们当时应该意识到,那场关于一款旧金山智能手机叫车软件的推介活动,预示着一个将为全球交通出行带来变革的平台。他们本不应考虑法律方面的障碍,而应暂时放下自己的怀疑。The old things are shrunken — the San Francisco Chronicle is thin and full of wire stories — and others are exploding. An entire district has sprung up around China Basin on the edge of the city; Apple, which used to carve its stores into old buildings, has levelled a building by Union Square to build a Foster + Partners retail temple; the city’s bars are sleek and vibrant.陈旧的东西正在萎缩——旧金山的编年史不长,充满了新鲜事物——其他的东西则在爆炸。在这座城市的边缘,围着China Basin,一整片城区拔地而起;过去曾将门店挤进老旧建筑中的苹果(Apple),拆除了联合广场(Union Square)上的一栋大楼,建造了一座由Foster + Partners建筑事务所设计的标志性零售门店;这座城市的酒吧既时髦又充满活力。Silicon Valley is at one of those historic moments when a set of technologies start to work — and to work together — in unexpected ways. In this case, the interaction of mobile, robotic and artificial intelligence is producing a wave of applications and devices, from voice-activated software to self-driving cars. The machine knows what you want and where you are, and is steadily learning how to serve you.硅谷正处在这样一个历史性时刻:一系列技术开始以一种意想不到的方式发挥作用——并且协同并进。在这种情况下,移动智能、机器智能和人工智能的互动产生了大批应用和设备,从语音激活软件到自动驾驶汽车。机器知道你想要什么,身处何地,并且不断地学习如何为你务。Andrew McAfee, co-author of The Second Machine Age, describes the experience of being transported in one of Google’s self-driving cars as going “from terrifying to thrilling to boring in 15 minutes”. The machine not only drives competently but with tedious predictability, always observing the speed limit and slowing at every obstacle, as if constantly trying to pass a driving test.《第二次机器革命》(The Second MachineAge)的合著者安德鲁#8226;麦卡菲(Andrew McAfee)称自己乘坐谷歌(Google)自动驾驶汽车的心路历程是“15分钟内从害怕到兴奋到索然无味”。机器不仅能胜任驾驶,还开得极为标准,其驾驶表现毫无悬念到令人厌烦的地步——总能观察到限速标志,在每一个障碍物前都会减速,就像总在参加路考一样。Behind innovations that have suddenly come to feel routine, such as facial and voice recognition, lie rapid ad#173;vances in pattern recognition and emerging forms of artificial intelligence. The capacity of computers to sift through databases and comprehend what people are saying, what they mean and what they desire is evolving faster than many researchers had anticipated.在面部和语音识别等人们骤然感觉习以为常的创新背后,模式识别迅速发展,各种新型人工智能纷纷涌现。计算机筛查数据库并理解人们在说什么、意思是什么、以及想要什么的能力,发展得比许多研究者预想得更快。As a result, plenty of investors are eager to throw money at start-ups that look as if they possess a piece of technology and a business idea that will form at least part of the brave new world. The fear of missing out is overwhelming the fear of losing money, as Bill Gurley of Benchmark Capital warned recently.结果是,许多投资者急切地向这样一些初创企业大举投资——它们看上去拥有一样技术或一个商业点子,能至少部分构成这美丽新世界。Benchmark Capital的比尔#8226;格利(Bill Gurley)最近警告称,错过的恐惧压倒了赔钱的恐惧。History’s famous investment bubbles often formed around such combinations of easy money and fantastical inventions, and some of today’s venture capitalists suffered through the dotcom bust of 2000. Prod them about that and the optimists respond that the bn invested by US venture capital funds last year is only half the amount sloshing around at the last peak 15 years ago.历史上著名的投资泡沫往往萌生于这种轻易可得的金钱和美妙非凡的发明的结合。如今的风险资本家中,有一些曾经历过2000年互联网泡沫的破灭。我故意问起关于那次泡沫的事情,一些乐观的人回应说,美国风投基金去年投资了480亿美元,这仅是15年前上一次高峰时期总额的一半。This ignores the fact that a lot of the new money is coming not from venture funds but from other investors, including mutual funds such as T Rowe Price and Fidelity. Three-quarters of recent fundraising rounds by “unicorns” — start-ups valued at bn or more — were led by “non-traditional” investors, according to a recent study by Fenwick amp; West, a Silicon Valley law firm.这种说法忽略了一点,很多新投资并非来自于风投基金,而是来自其他投资者,包括普信集团(T Rowe Price)和富达(Fidelity)等共同基金。硅谷律师事务所Fenwick amp; West的最新研究表明,“独角兽”公司(指价值10亿美元或者以上的初创企业)最近几轮融资中,有四分之三是由“非传统”投资者牵头。One is Carl Icahn, the activist investor, who this week put 0m into Lyft, a rival to Uber. Mr Icahn often makes life difficult for his investment targets but is as enamoured as everyone else with his Silicon Valley picks. “We’ll be the first to admit that you are more knowledgeable in these areas than we are,” he wrote fulsomely to Apple this week.维权投资者卡尔#8226;伊坎(Carl Icahn)就是其中之一。不久前伊坎给优步的竞争对手Lyft投资了1亿美元。伊坎经常让他的投资目标公司日子不好过,但他还是像其他所有人一样迷恋于他挑选的硅谷公司。不久前他写给苹果的信极尽恭维:“我们将头一个承认你们更懂这些领域。” /201505/377707China is seeking to make its own secure smartphones, in an attempt to insulate its handsets from US surveillance.中国正寻求自主研制安全智能手机,以防中国手机被美国监控。The effort involves both State-owned companies and some of the country#39;s savvier technology firms and marks the latest step in Beijing#39;s quest to build a homegrown tech industry that cuts out US suppliers.国企和一些相对顶尖的科技公司都在为此努力,这是中国寻求发展一个美国供应商无缘的本土科技行业的最新举措。Now, a number of Chinese technology companies are making progress toward cutting the cords to Western technology.目前,一些中国科技公司在摆脱西方技术依赖方面正在取得进展。ZTE Corp is working on a secure smartphone for government agencies using an operating system developed in-house, and a processor chip from a Chinese supplier, a spokesman said.中兴通讯一名发言人表示,公司正在为政府部门研发一款安全智能手机,这款手机采用了自主研发的操作系统和中国供应商的处理器芯片。The country#39;s largest chip-design company, Sptrum Communications Inc, separately said it would begin mass producing a set of chips that run a Chinese operating system by year-end.中国最大的芯片设计公司展讯通信有限公司另称,公司将于年底前开始批量生产一系列运行国产操作系统的芯片。Alibaba Group has joined with China#39;s Ministry of Public Security to develop a mobile operating system for police officers.阿里巴巴集团已与公安部联合开发警员专用的移动操作系统。 /201511/412388

Chinese internet companies are battling it out to create credit ratings based not just on citizens’ finances but also their social networks, raising fears that Big Brother could take up residence in consumers’ wallets.中国互联网企业正在展开激烈竞争,都力图建立一个不仅依据个人财务状况、也依据他们的社交网络使用记录来打分的信用评估系统,这引起了“老大哥”可能将主宰消费者钱包的担忧。Sesame Credit and other credit rating systems are responding to a glaring need for a credit rating database in a country that has seen rapid growth in personal credit cards, mortgages and online payments systems. About a third of Chinese own credit cards, up from 15 per cent five years ago.中国的个人信用卡、按揭贷款和在线付系统迅猛增长,为此迫切需要建立一个信用评估数据库,芝麻信用(Sesame Credit)等个人征信系统应运而生。目前大约三分之一的中国人拥有信用卡,5年前这个比例是15%。Pilot programmes have drawn on users’ social networks, purchasing behaviour and even time spent on the phone as proxies for creditworthiness, spurring American Civil Liberties Union policy analyst Jay Stanley to call the programme “nightmarish” and warn against its adoption in the US.一些试运行系统把用户的社交网络、购买行为,甚至使用手机的时间长短作为信用评估指标。美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)的政策分析师杰伊斯坦利(Jay Stanley)称这些项目“像噩梦一般”,并警告美国国内不要采用这种做法。However, in China, where civil rights lawyers are jailed, online postings censored and popular social networking apps such as WeChat monitored for politically sensitive content, citizens seem to have no such concerns. Rather they have turned to the internet in droves to brag about their high scores.但在中国,一个民权律师被投入监狱、网络言论遭到审查、微信(WeChat)等热门社交媒体应用受到监控以过滤政治敏感内容的国家,人们似乎没有这种担忧。相反,他们竞相在网上炫耀自己的信用分。“No one on earth can stop me now!” exulted Rongrong, an e-commerce seller from Hangzhou who regularly posts her credit scores online. Sesame Credit rated her 813 out of a possible score of 950, or “credit extremely good”.“现在地球上没人能阻止我了!”杭州一个电商卖家Rongrong兴高采烈地说。她定期在网上公布自己的信用分。她的芝麻信用分是813分(最高分为950分),属于“信用极好”。Early this year China’s central bank authorised eight companies to pilot credit ratings systems, setting the goal of creating a national system by 2020.中国央行今年初授权8家机构试运行信用评估系统,目标是到2020年建成一个全国性评估系统。The rival commercial ratings systems starting up now could set a precedent for how the national system functions.现在开始运行的各个商业性评估系统,或许会为今后全国性系统的运行树立一个模板。“It’s clear from the text that Chinese authorities don’t want a credit system that’s completely focused on finances; rather they paint the new system as a way of rewarding “sincerity” (and punishing insincerity) throughout society,” wrote Charlie Custer on tech blog Tech in Asia.“显而易见,中国当局并不想要一个完全基于财务状况的信用评估系统;相反,他们把新系统描述为一种奖励‘诚信’(和惩罚虚假)的方式,”查理愠斯特(Charlie Custer)在科技客Tech in Asia中写道。Nonetheless, he said he had found no evidence for the ACLU’s assertion that a person’s political posts, or their friends’ political activity, was used in assessing credit scores.根据美国公民自由联盟的说法,在中国,一个人在网上发表的政治言论、他的朋友从事的政治活动都会被用于评估信用分。卡斯特表示他没有发现持这种说法的据。Some western companies are reportedly trying to develop a credit scoring model based on consumers’ social networks.据报道,有些西方企业正试图开发基于消费者社交网络的信用评分模型。Among the rival Chinese systems are Sesame Credit, which rates users partly on their purchases through Alibaba’s online payment system Alipay, and China Rapid Finance, which draws on big data scraped from Tencent, the Chinese internet and gaming company.芝麻信用和信而富(China Rapid Finance)是中国个人信用评估公司中的两家,芝麻信用的一个评分依据是用户通过阿里巴巴(Alibaba)在线付平台付宝(Alipay)进行付的购物行为,信而富则利用从中国互联网及游戏公司腾讯(Tencent)得来的大数据。One credit rating system trialled by smartphone maker Xiaomi’s financial services arm gives Chinese teenagers a new excuse to be on the phone all the time. It assesses credit based on guidelines including the users’ finance record, use of Xiaomi apps and community forums, and “frequent use of Xiaomi phones”.智能手机厂商小米(Xiaomi)旗下金融务机构正在试验的一个信用评估系统,给了中国年轻人一个长时间使用手机的新借口。该系统评分所使用的参考标准,包括用户的财务纪录,对小米应用和社区论坛的使用情况,以及“使用小米手机的频率”。 /201510/403297

As NASA prepares for the debut test flight of the first spaceship in more than 40 years to carry astronauts beyond Earth, a fleet of privately owned vehicles is in development to take over transportation services to and from orbits closer to home.40多年来美国宇航局准备首次试飞第一艘宇宙飞船将携带宇航员到地球之外,一家私人公司正在开发接管从地球到轨道的运输务。Whether heading to the International Space Station, which flies about 260 miles above the planet, or other destinations, the journeys begin with rocket rides that have enough muscle to counteract Earth#39;s gravity and get their cargo traveling at speeds of at least 17,500 mph to achieve orbit.不管前往国际空间站然后在距地球大约260英里处旋转,或是转到他目的地,旅行从火箭发射起,必须有足够的力量来抵消地球引力发送他们的货物以至少17500英里每小时的速度进入轨道。NASA, for example, is using the biggest booster in the U.S. fleet, a Delta 4 Heavy, to shoot its Orion deep-space capsule as far as 3,600 miles from Earth during a test flight scheduled for Thursday. The key point of the test is to get Orion moving at about 20,000 mph before it slams into Earth#39;s atmosphere to test its heat shield.美国国家航空航天局(NASA),在周四即将使用美国私营公司最大的助推器(德而它斯重型火箭发动机),将把“猎户号深空探测器”太空舱发送距离地球3600英里处。测试的重点是测试它的隔热板,就是让猎户座以20000英里每小时的速度猛烈撞击地球大气层。Even suborbital spaceships, such as Virgin Galactic#39;s SpaceShipTwo and XCOR Aerospace#39;s Lynx space place, rely on rocket power to leave the atmosphere, though gravity quickly pulls them back to Earth. They don#39;t necessarily have to launch from land, however.甚至亚轨道太空飞船,如维珍二号宇宙飞船和XCOR公司航空航天的山猫亚轨道飞船,仍然依靠火箭离开大气层,不过重力很快把他们拉回地球。他们不一定要从地面发射。SpaceShipTwo, for example, is carried by airplane and released mid-air to fire its rocket, a design also used by the experimental X-15 space plane in the 1960s. Air-launching uses smaller rockets than those needed for similar ground-based flights, eliminates the need for expensive launch pads and opens options for launch sites, since the planes can take off from commercial runways.例如,太空飞船二号是由飞机携载和火箭空中发射,使用的设计也在1960年代发布的一个实验性的前身航天飞机原形。空中发射火箭使用小型火箭而不用类似有地面发射台的,不需要启动昂贵的发射台发射站点,因为飞机可以从商业跑道起飞。More diverse are the spacecraft designs the companies have chosen, reflecting not only different technical solutions to the challenges of flying people beyond Earth, but also their alternative visions of the future.更加多样化航天器设计公司精心选择结果,这反映了不同的技术解决方案来面对地球之外的挑战,而且这也改变着未来。FORM DICTATES FUNCTION结构影响功能NASA preceded its so-called Commercial Crew development effort with a program to buy flights for space station cargo. Two U.S. supply lines are now running, though one operator, Orbital Sciences Corp, is regrouping after a launch accident last month. The other company flying cargo for NASA is California-based Space Exploration Technologies, owned and run by technology entrepreneur Elon Musk.NASA为空间站货物购买航班的商业模式,是由两个美国供应链运行,不过一个运营商因为上个月发射事故而重组。另一家是加州太空探索技术基地,拥有和经营的这家科技企业的是伊隆马斯克(Tesla的创始人)。From the start, SpaceX designed its Dragon capsule to not only fly cargo, but also crew. ;Cargo doesn#39;t need windows,; Musk quipped before the capsule#39;s first flight to the space station in 2012. Upgrades are underway to add life support equipment, seating and an escape system for crew, but SpaceX has even grander ambitions for its gumdrop-shaped Dragon. It isdesigned to fly people to Mars.从一开始,SpaceX公司设计了“龙”太空舱不仅飞货物,而且能飞船员。马斯克在太空舱2012年第一次飞往国际空间站时打趣道:“货物不需要windows。升级正在进行中,以添加生命持设备、座椅和一个宇航员逃生系统,但SpaceX 对于具有三层保护装置的太空舱有更大的保护。它的目的是带人们飞往火星。;The long-term ambition of SpaceX is to develop the technologies to establish a self-sustaining civilization on Mars … Wings and runways don#39;t really work if you#39;re going somewhere other than Earth,; Musk said at a Massachusetts Institute of Technology symposium in September.“从的长期来看SpaceX是要利用技术在火星上建立自己的文明…没有了地球你可以在其他地方生活,”马斯克9月在麻省理工学院的研讨会上说。Boeing, too, chose a capsule design for its planned space taxi, known as the Crew Space Transportation (CST)-100. ;The conical shape is inherently stable as we re-enter the atmosphere,; Chris Ferguson, Boeing director of Crew and Mission Systems, said in an interview with Reuters.波音公司也为自己的太空出租车计划选择了一个太空舱设计,称为船员舱运输(CST)-100。“圆锥形状利于我们进入大气层,”克里斯-弗格森,波音公司主管人员在接受路透采访时表示。The capsule, which parachutes to a splashdown in the ocean or a touchdown on land, is intended to improve astronaut safety, added Ferguson, a former NASA space shuttle pilot and commander.带着降落伞的太空舱没入大海之中或降落在陆地上,旨在改善宇航员安全,弗格森补充道,前美国国家航空航天局航天飞机飞行员兼指挥官。Boeing plans to modify the CST-100 if it wins a second NASA solicitation, currently underway, to fly cargo to the station. Cargo and crew would fly separately.如果赢得下一个NASA订单波音公司不得不暂停cst - 100计划,因为货物和船员分别要开飞。;I lived through the (space shuttle) Columbia accident in 2003 and one of the conclusions … was that that including the payload with the people was not the wisest choice. We carried 50,000 pounds of payload (on the shuttle), which was incredible, and up to seven people. But to make the systems safe to carry passengers, you have to make a fairly large vehicle. We think it is a much better approach to have the people and the cargo travel in different vehicles,; he said.“我经历过2003年哥伦比亚号(航天飞机)事故…,负荷太多不是最明智的选择。我们放置50000磅重量在航天飞机上,这是难以置信的一共个7人。所以要使系统安全运送乘客,你必须做出相当大的火箭。我们认为这是一个更好的方法,人们在客船火箭中旅行而不是货船,”他说。THINGS WITH WINGS展翅飞翔Capsules may be simpler to fly and cheaper to build, but they do have limitations. Sierra Nevada#39;s winged Dream Chaser, for example, resembles a miniature space shuttle, with an aerodynamically shaped body and wings so it can fly back from space, rather than make a ballistic plunge through the atmosphere like capsules.太空舱可能是简单和便宜的飞行器,但它们确实有局限性。例如内华达山脉股份公司Sierra Nevada Corporation,简称SNC的有翼的追梦者号,就像一个拥有翅膀和无阻力设计主体的迷你航天飞机,这样就可以从太空飞回来而不是靠穿越大气层的火箭。;We come back with a significantly lower g-force during re-entry,; said Sierra Nevada Vice President Mark Sirangelo, referring to ;gravity force; or a measure of acceleration.;We#39;re about 2 gs and most capsules are 4- to 6. That protects returning experiments and crew,; Sirangelo said in an interview.“返回过程是一个显著下降的低重力过程,“内华达副总裁Mark Sirangelo说,他指的是“地心引力”或加速度的测量。“我们的约是2 gs但是大多数太空舱是4 - 6(这是加速度单位,1Gs就是一倍的地球表面重力加速度)。它更有效保护船员“Sirangelo在接受采访时表示。Like the space shuttle, Dream Chaser is designed for runway, not water, landings, though its small size means it can touch down on most commercial runways anywhere in the world.“The idea of being able to come home to Ellington Field in Houston with an experiment from the space station for Texas Medical Center and have them take if off the vehicle and get it in their labs in a half-hour is very useful,” Sirangelo said.像这种航天飞机,追梦者号是专用跑道,不需要水和降落伞,它的小尺寸意味着它可以在大多数商业跑道降落在世界任何地方。“这样的话得克萨斯州医学中心的空间站能够回到休斯顿的爱玲董菲儿的机场或者用半小时时间就把他们送到实验室是非常有用的,”Sirangelo说。Sierra Nevada currently is protesting NASA#39;s decision to proceed with a final round of development funds and flight services contracts to SpaceX and Boeing. A decision by the U.S. Government Accountability Office is due by Jan. 5. NASA also has an unfunded agreement to work with Jeff Bezos#39; rocket company, Blue Origin.内华达目前抗议美国宇航局决定进行最后一轮发展基金并且与飞行器SpaceX公司和波音公司签订的务合同。由联邦政府会计总署决定(Government Accountability Office)截止日期是1月5日。NASA也有短期协议与杰夫·贝佐斯的火箭公司(蓝源公司(BlueOrigin)是由亚马逊创始人杰夫·贝索斯(JeffBezos)创建的私人太空飞行初创公司,已经在2018无人任务开始前,成功地测试了现有的氢燃料火箭)。In the meantime, Sierra Nevada is pursuing other contracts, including additional station resupply work for NASA that also is drawing bids from SpaceX, Orbital Sciences, Boeing and possibly other contenders.同时,内华达公司正在寻求其他的合同,包括为美国国家航空航天局额外的空间站补给工作,包括为SpaceX公司波音及其轨道科学公司画画图纸,当然可能有其他的竞争者。;We call Dream Chaser a #39;space utility vehicle#39; for a reason. It can accomplish multiple purposes from the same core design, like an AC-130 aircraft. We can do repair missions, change altitudes. Capsules can#39;t do that very easily. We can do construction, like the space shuttle did to build the space station. We can be an independent or co-dependent lab and stay in orbit for one year or longer conducting experiments. From the same basic design, we can contemplate all these missions,; Sirangelo said.“我们叫追梦者“空间多功能飞行器”是有原因的。它可以同时完成多个工作,像ac - 130飞机。我们可以自动完成修复任务甚至改变高度。太空舱就不能那么做。我们可以做建筑,像航天飞机一样建造空间站。我们可以成为一个独立或相互依赖的实验室并且在轨道上停留一年或更长时间进行实验。从设计上看,我们可以完成所有这些任务,”Sirangelo说。Sierra Nevada aly may have landed one customer. Paul Allen#39;s Strato launch Systems, which is building a massive airplane to serve as an airborne rocket-launching platform, announced last month it is considering buying a smaller version of Dream Chaser for commercial passenger spaceflights. The space plane would be attached to the Strato launch mothership for a ride into the atmosphere and then released to fire its own rocket engines and catapult it into space. The system could be used to fly people to and from orbit, as well as for sub-orbital hops, including taking off and landing in different locations, so called ;point-to-point; travel. That#39;s a service that Virgin Galactic, another space tourism startup owned by Richard Branson#39;s Virgin Group, would like to offer as well.内华达公司可能已经有一个客户了。保罗·艾伦的平流层发射系统公司,构建一个庞大的飞机作为机载火箭发射平台,上月宣布它正在考虑购买一个追梦者号较小的版本。航天飞机将附加到平流层发射系统母舰上然后点燃火箭引擎进入太空。系统可以用来发射和接受,以及亚轨道飞行,包括起飞和降落在不同的位置,就是所谓的“点对点”旅行。理查德·布兰森表示维珍集团愿意提供务持。For now, Virgin Galactic#39;s six-passenger, two-pilot space plane, called SpaceShipTwo, will be limited to sub-orbital flights that originate from and return to the same location. The company#39;s first vehicle was destroyed during a fatal test flight inMojave, Calif., on Oct. 31. The second vehicle is under construction. Point-to-point suborbital travel would require a different design, such as a blunter shape to better handle the higher speeds and heat of atmospheric re-entry, and a more powerful rocket engine.目前,维珍的客载六人的双驾驶航天飞机,被称为“宇宙飞船二号”将是有限次轨道飞行。公司的第一架被毁在莫哈韦试飞期间,加州10月31日。第二个正在建设中。点对点的亚轨道旅游需要一个不同的设计,如顿的形状更好的掌握速度但是进入大气温度却很高需要一个更强大的火箭发动机。RISK AND REWARD风险和回报Until the accident, SpaceShipTwo was on track to begin the world#39;s first commercial passenger spaceflight service in 2015 – 11 years after the prototype SpaceShipOne won the million Ansari X Prize for demonstrating private manned spaceflight.Coincidentally, it was 11 years after Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world#39;s first powered airplane in 1903 that a paying passenger sat in the open cockpit of a boat-shaped Benoist XIV biplane for a ride across Florida#39;s Tampa Bay, the debut flight of the country#39;s first commercial airliner.发生事故到现在,太空飞船二号有望成为世界上第一个商业客运航天役(原型“2015 - 11年后赢得了1000万美元的安萨里X奖(2004年10月4日,由鲁坦(Burt Rutan)设计制造,微软合伙人保罗·艾伦(Paul Allen)投资的价值2500万美元的私人飞船“太空船一号”(SpaceShipOne),赢得了这项奖额1000万美元的安萨里X大奖))。巧合的是,在威尔伯和奥维尔·赖特在1903年发明世界上第一个动力飞机11年以后,敞开式座舱双翼飞机搭载着乘客穿越佛罗里达的坦帕湾实现商业首飞。;If you could have had a conversation with that person who bought the first ride and said, #39;In your lifetime, you#39;re going to be riding in air-conditioned comfort at 35,000 feet, traveling .8 Mach, watching a movie and talking to friends on the ground,#39; that guy would have said, #39;What#39;s a movie?#39; The telephone, the jet … none of that had been invented, but all ofit came into being very, very quickly after the airplane,; said Stu Witt, the chief executive and general manager of the Mojave Air and Space Port.“如果给你一个和第一个坐飞机乘客交谈机会,你会说“在你的一生中,可以在35000英尺高度享受电影空调视频聊天吗,“那个家伙会说,什么是电影?什么是电话,什么是飞机…因为那时这些没有被发明,但是自从有了飞机之后一切都发展的好快“莫哈维太空站负责人斯图威特说So is commercial spaceflight similarly primed?那么,商业航天时刻会来吗?;You put enough humans with brains and eyes and ears and senses in new environments and somebody is going to think of something we haven#39;t thought of. The fashion industry will change. The entertainment industry will change. Something will come out of it that you and I shouldn#39;t even be silly enough to try and forecast,” he said.“新环境之中,时尚界将会改变。界将会改变。世界的发展毋庸置疑,一切东西就会发明出来。”他说。 /201412/348144

The Compass指南针The compass is considered to be one of the four great inventions of anaent China.指南针是中国古代“四大发明”之一。Before the compass was invented, people depended upon the position of the sun and stars to tell them the direction when at sea, which only worked when it wasn’t cloudy. The invention of compass solved the problem.在指南针发明以前,人们在茫茫大海上航行,只能靠太阳和星星的位置辨认方向,如果遇上阴雨天,就会迷失方向。而中国人发明的指南针则帮助人们解决了这个难题。Over 2,000 years ago, inthe Warring States Period, Chi-nese ancestors invented the earli-est compass-Si Nan, also known as the South Pointer. Si Nan was composed of two parts:a spoon and a tray. The spoon was cut from an intact piece of natural loadstone, with its handle as the South Pole and s round,smooth bottom as the center ofgravity. The tray, on the other hand, was made of bronze, and at the center, there was a round, smooth groove, carvedwith checks and words indicating the 24 directions. When the spoon was put into the groove, it would rotate flexibly. When the spoon stopped, its handle would point to the south.This instrument was the predecessor of the magnetic compass.早在2000多年前的战国时期,我们祖先就发明了最早的指南针——司南。司南由一把“勺子”和一个“地盘”两部分组成。司南勺由整块磁石制成。它的磁南极那一头琢成长柄,圆圆的底部是它的重心,琢得非常光滑。地盘是个铜质的方盘,中央有个光滑的圆槽,四周刻着格线和表示24个方位的文字。司南勺放迸了地盘就能灵活地转动,在它静止下来的时候,磁石的指极性使长柄总是指向南方。这种仪器就是指南针的前身。However, since was easy for natural loadstone ( magnetic iron oxide) tolose its magnetism, Si Nan could not be widely used. During the Northern Song Dy-nashjt, artificial magnetization was discovered, gMng rise to the Pointing-to-the-South Fish, which was made from a piece of thin iron sheet cut into the shape of a fish, magnetized in a geomagnetic field, and put into water, floating and lying norlh-to-south.However, due to its weak magnetic field, Pointing-to-the-South Fish was not of much pradical value. On the basis of the Pointing-to-the-South Fish,people replaced the thin iron sheet with a magnetized steel needle, gMng rise to the earliest artifiaally magnetic compass.由于天然磁石因打击受热容易失磁,磁性较弱,因而司南不能广泛流传。到宋朝时,有人发现了人造磁铁,进而发明了指南鱼。人们把经过磁化的薄片做成鱼的形状,将其放入水中即能浮在水面并指示正南北方向。后来,人们将指南鱼再加以改进,把带磁的薄片改成带磁的钢针,创造了人造磁体指南针。The compass was soon employed in navigation. The earliest record on using the compass in navigation was in Zhu Yu’s Pin,g Zhou, Ke Tan ( written belween 1119~ 1125 ) ,which recorded Zhu Yu’s experiences in Guangzhou ( South China’s Guangdong Province) , where navigation was highly developed.Zhu also wrote a-bout some of the experienced sailors, The sailors know how to pinpoint the ship’s position; they watch the stars a night and the sun in the day, and when is cloudy, they use the compass.This might be the earliest record on the use of the compass in the world’s navigational his.ory.Initiated by the Chinese people, this newigational instrument was a grand innovation in ncrvigation technology.指南针发明后很快就应用于航海。世界上最早记载指南针应用于航海导航的文献是北宋宣和年间(1119~1125)朱或所著《萍洲可谈》。该书记录了他在广州时的见闻,还记载了申国海船上很有经验的水手:“舟师识地理,夜则观星,昼则观日,阴晦则观指南针。”这是全世界航海史上使用指南针的最早记载。我国人民首创的这种仪器导航方法,是航海技术的重大革新。Soon after, Arabian sea boats also employed the navigation device, and went on to introduce it to the European countries. As Friedrich Engels, pointed out in his book Natural Dialectics,“The magnetic needle arrived in Europe via the Arabs in around 1180.”The stcrtemenf shows the Europeans applied the compass in ncrviga-tion 80 years after the Chinese.中国使用指南针导航不久,就被阿拉伯海船采用,并经阿拉伯人把这一伟大发明传到欧洲。恩格斯在《自然辩法》中指出,“磁针从阿拉伯人传至欧洲人手中在1180年左右”。中国人首先将指南针应用于航海比欧洲人至少早80年。The famous saentist Shen Kuo (the author of Dream Creek Notes ) of the Northern Song Dynasty discovered the existence of magnetic declination( the angu-lar devicrtion of a compass needle from true north) , after performing many saentffic expenments.He pointed out correctly that the magnetic poles of the earth were not in uniformity with the geographic poles. The use of marine compass and the theory of magnetic declincrtion combined played a most important role in the tong-distance sea voyages. For the first time in history, humans were able to navigate freely un-der any kind of weather conditions.Hence many new sea routes were opened to traffic, promoting the exchange of culture and trade among the people of the world.Words fail to describe the compass importance to navigcrtion.北宋著名科学家沈括(《梦溪笔谈》著者),在制作和应用指南针的科学实践中发现了磁偏角的存在。他精辟地指出,这是因为地球上的磁极不正好在南北两极的缘故。指南针及磁偏角理论在远洋航行中发挥了巨大的作用,人类第一次得到了在茫茫大海中航行的自由,从此开辟了许多新的航线,促进了各国人民之间的文化交流与贸易往来。指南针对航海事业的重要意义怎么说也不为过。Joseph Needham, a famous historian, once said to Chinese students:“In the realm of navigation, your ancestors were much more advanced than our ances-tors. Far before Europe, the Chinese aly harnessed the wind power, with the coordination of fore (front)and aft ( rear) sails to navigate in any direction of the wind they encountered.Perhaps for this reason, in the history of navigation, China never used the galleys, which were rowed along by slaves as in anaent Greece or Rome.”西方著名历史学家李约瑟曾对其中国学生说:“你们的祖先在航海方面远比我们的祖先来得先进。中国远在欧洲之前懂得用前、后帆的系统御风而行,或许就是这个原因,在中国航海史上从未用过多桨奴隶船。”The invention of the compass had epochal influence on navigation, opening up a new chapter in the history of world navigation. With its help, Admiral Zheng He made seven voyages across seas to Southeast Asia and around Indian Ocean in the early Ming Dynasty (1368 ~ 1644) , Christopher Columbus discovered the New Word, and Ferdinand Magellan sailed round the world.指南针的发明,给航海事业带来了划时代的影响,世界航运史也由此翻开了新的一页。明朝初期郑和率领船队七下西洋,15世纪哥伦布发现新大陆和麦哲伦环绕地球航行等壮举,都是指南针用于航海事业的结果。 /201512/410738

Pesticides offer bees a risky allure农药居然是蜜蜂危险的诱惑Bees flit from flower to flower dining on nectar. Sometimes that nectar may contain traces of widely used pesticides. Yet the bees are unlikely to know which nectar is tainted. Indeed, they can#39;t taste these pesticides, a new study finds. However, the pesticides are similar to nicotine. This can encourage the bees to come back for more. And especially troubling: A second new study suggests the pesticides can harm some wild bees.蜜蜂轻盈的从一朵花飞到另一朵花上采集花蜜,有时这些花蜜上可能会残留常用的农药,但是蜜蜂似乎察觉不到哪个花蜜已被其污染。一项新研究发现他们的确尝不出农药的味道。它的作用类似于尼古丁,致使蜜蜂对其上瘾,引诱着它们返回来食用更多。此外尤为让人头疼的是一项新研究表明农药会伤害到很多野蜜蜂。The pesticides are known as neonicotinoids (Nee-oh-NICK-uh-tin-oydz). Farmers use them to protect their crops from certain insects. The two new bee studies add to the controversy surrounding the use of these chemicals on corn and other crops.农药也称为新烟碱类农药,农民利用它来保护庄稼免受一些昆虫的破坏。两项关于蜜蜂的新研究使得农药在玉米及其他庄稼上的使用更加备受争议。In the lab, scientists tested how nerves in the mouthparts of honeybees and bumblebees respond to three widely used neonicotinoids. And they found no reaction to any of them. What this means: ;I don#39;t think they can taste it at all,; says Geraldine Wright. She works at Newcastle University in England. There, she studies nerve signaling in bees.实验室里,针对蜜蜂和大黄蜂口腔内的神经对三种经常使用的新烟碱农药的反映,科学家进行了一场测试。最终结果是他们发现两种蜜蜂对其没有任何反应。就职于英格兰纽卡斯尔大学专门从事蜜蜂神经信号研究的Geraldine Wrightbiaoshi 指出这意味着蜜蜂尝不出农药的任何味道。Her team#39;s new findings suggest that bees in nature can#39;t taste or avoid nectar laced with the chemicals. They published their new data online April 22 in Nature.她的团队的新发现表明大自然中的蜜蜂尝不出或者说不能避免沾有化学物质的花蜜。4月22号他们在自然杂志上在线发表了这一新实验数据。Especially troubling: The chemistry of the pesticides may keep bees coming back for more, Wright says. Offered a choice in the lab, both honeybees and bumblebees preferred sugar water dosed with a neonicotinoid pesticide. The insects sipped more of it than plain sugar water. The bees might not have tasted a difference between the two feeders. Wright表示尤其令人烦恼的是,农药这种化学物质可能会阻止蜜蜂飞回来采集更多花蜜。实验室,他们发现蜜蜂和大黄蜂更加喜欢掺有烟碱类农药的糖水并且与普通糖水比起来,他们会喝更多。可能蜜蜂并不能尝出二者之间有什么区别。译文属 /201506/380969

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