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楼主:医苑大夫 时间:2018年10月15日 19:47:55 点击:0 回复:0
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In the movie Self/Less,which hits theaters July 10th,Sir Ben Kingsley transfers his consciousness to Ryan Reynolds body in an effort to stay alive forever,and effectively become immortal in a process calledshedding.7月10日上映的电影《非我》 (又名换命法则)中,本.金斯利为了延续生命,将自己的意识转移到了瑞恩.雷诺兹的身体中,这个帮他延长寿命的过程叫“换命”。Which sounds pretty awesome,I mean who wouldnt want more time to accomplish their dreams and goals in a younger body of your choice?Try being a professional athlete or solve the worlds greatest problems.But is shedding actually plausible?Could you really be immortal in this way?听起来好像很厉害的样子,谁不希望有机会借用一具自己选择的年轻肉体,获得更多时间来完成梦想和目标?例如成为一个职业运动员或解决世界上最牛逼的难题。但这种“换命”有可能成真吗?我们是否真的可以借这种方法获得永生?First,we need to understand how memories are stored.Your brain is a three-pound lump of fatty tissue that contains about 86 billion brain cells called neurons.By passing electricity or chemicals between them,neurons can send signals to each other.Most neuroscientists believe memory is stored as a network of neurons that form links with each other and all fire at the same time.首先,我们得知道记忆的存储方式。大脑是一块重3磅的脂肪组织,其中含有约860亿名为神经元的脑细胞。通过传递电流和化学物质,神经元之间可以互相发送信号。神经系统学家大多认为记忆是以神经元网络的形式存储的,当神经元彼此连接并且同时活动时就形成了记忆。Each time a memory is recalled,the same network of neurons fires together.In fact,scientists have shown that if you stimulate certain parts of the brain with electricity,you can cause an individual to recall certain memories-for example,the smell of burnt toast.So to download a memory,we could simply track which neurons are activated when youre thinking about it.每次回忆时,同一个神经元网络就会同时发送信号,事实上,科学家已经明了,如果用电刺激大脑的特定部位,就能让该个体回忆起特定的记忆,例如,面包烤焦的味道。因此,要下载记忆,我们只要在回忆时追踪正在活动的神经元即可。And,as we explained in a previous ,scientists have aly done this.By using computers to match these patterns of firing neurons with real images or scenes,we can aly peoples minds to a limited degree.Many scientists believe it should one day be possible to create a kind of map of all the neurons in the brain and the connections between them:this map would be called a ;connectome.;正如之前其他视频所介绍的,科学家们已经着手进行这项工作了。通过电脑模拟这些神经元活动的方式,生成真实的图像或感觉,我们已经能在一定程度上读出人的思想了。许多科学家都相信有朝一日我们可以,组建出大脑中所有神经元的地图,并能随意将它们连接在一起:这地图可以命名为“连接体”。Both the ed States and the European Union have launched major research programs with this goal specifically in mind,much like the organizations in Self/Less.This task will likely take decades,but once its done,scientists should be able to build a computer model of the connectome,a kind of virtual brain that would be able to send signals between neurons through artificial synapses.美国和欧联都已启动,有关这个目标的重要研究项目,就像《非我》里的研究组织一样。这个任务可能需要耗时数十年,一旦完成,科学家们就能建出连接体的电脑模型,一个能够通过人造突触,在神经元之间传递信号的虚拟大脑。So if downloading memories is possible,what about uploading? That too is becoming a reality thanks to a technique called optogenetics.This involves injecting specific neurons with DNA from algae that causes them to produce a light-sensitive protein on their cell surface.When light is shone into the brain,it stimulates the protein and activates only those neurons that express it.如果下载记忆是可能的,那么上传呢?由于一种名为光遗传学的技术,上传也可能实现。向特殊的神经元中注入,藻类的DNA 让它们可以,在细胞表面生成一种光敏蛋白质。当光照进大脑时,会刺激该蛋白质并且激活与之有关的那些神经元。In this way,scientists can artificially activate groups of neurons associated with particular memories.All this may sound pretty scary,and may make you think that a scenario like that found in Self/Less cant be far off.But there a few reasons to relax.Our brains are unbelievably complex,perhaps too complex to copy.The number of synapse connections is a thousand times bigger than the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy.通过这种方式,科学家们可以人为激活,与特殊记忆有关的神经元。这听起来很可怕,甚至可能会让你认为《非我》中的那种情景很快就会成真。不过事情并没那么简单。我们的大脑超级复杂,复杂到很可能根本无法复制。突触间的连接方式,可能是系中星星数量的100多倍。On top of that,your brain is constantly remodeling itself,creating new connections and letting old ones expire.Its a reflection of who you are at this specific moment in time,and it took your entire lifetime to create.A copy of your mind would be just an imitation.And the second it started integreating new thoughts,memories and experiences,it would become someone else.此外,大脑还在不停地自我重塑,建立新的关联并且消亡旧的关联。它是某个时间对你个人的一种即时映射,需要你用整个人生去塑造。思维复制得到的可能只是一件副本。从这个副本开始形成新的思想.记忆和经历的那一刻起,它就成了其他人。Which in a way helps us appreciate how unique we truly are.But with increasingly sophisticated technology.who knows what the future may hold!Perhaps a world like Self/Less isnt too far away.某种程度而言,这增加了我们的独特性。随着尖端科技的不断发展,谁知道未来会变成什么样!没准不久后我们就会迎来《非我》的世界。201508/395136The entire city of London,整个伦敦the most advanced metropolitan area in the world,was really an open sewer.是全世界最发达的大都市 也是一个巨大的排污沟Number 40 Broad Street the first victim.四十号宽街 首当其冲 Sarah Lewis five-month-old daughter,Dying of cholera.莎拉·刘易斯五个月大的小女儿 死于霍乱Vibrio cholerae,a strain of bacteria that doubles in number霍乱弧菌 每隔十三分钟 细菌繁殖every 13 minutes,attacking the stomach and intestines,killing a healthy adult in hours.数量就翻倍 它们攻击人的肠胃 几小时内就能致一个健康的成年人于死地In just 3 days, 127 dead in London.短短三天 伦敦就有127人死于此No one knows whats causing the disease,And there is no cure.没有人知道病源病因 更遑论治疗方法了But one man is determined to stop it:Physician John Snow.然而 有一个人出现拯救了人们 他就是医学家约翰·斯诺The son of a coal worker,He is no stranger to urban poverty.他是一位矿工的儿子 对于城市的贫穷 他并不陌生A man of science with the deductive powers of a detective.他具有侦探般演绎推理的能力He will enter the heart of the outbreak,risking his life to find its source.他深入疾病爆发之地 冒生命之险来探寻病发源头Good day, maam. Dr. John Snow Most doctors believe cholera is carried by foul air.你好 女士 我是约翰·斯诺医生 许多医生认为霍乱是由污染的空气引起的Snow has studied previous outbreaks.而斯诺深入研究了先前的病例Hes convinced the cholera is in the water.他确信霍乱是由水源引起的A revolutionary insight That will turn the industrial city这是一个革命性的观点 正是这个观点将这座工业城市from a death trap into the engine of our world由死牢变成了世界的引擎201604/436733China is the great prize.中国就像一个丰厚的大奖If you can conquer China,you conquer the land of infinite supplies...of grain, of silk, of tea.如果你能征中国 就征了无尽资源之宝地 谷物 丝绸 茶叶触手可得China is the richest prize the Mongols can possibly take.中国是蒙古人可以攫取的最富饶的土地Approaching Chung Tu, Genghis Khan issues an ultimatum...接近中都 成吉思汗发出了最后通牒Surrender or die.Mongol cruelty is legend.要么投降 要么死亡 蒙古人的残暴广为流传Prisoners decapitated,Towers of human skulls,Children slaughtered.战俘被斩首 尸骨堆积成山 戕杀孩童I imagine for someone sitting in a city looking out over the wall,我想象着有人在城里 从围墙上向外看and seeing the massive Mongol horde is coming in your direction,看到浩瀚雄壮的蒙古部落 朝你这边而来you have to immediately question yourself as to why I am still in this city.你肯定会立马问自己 为什么我还在这座城里I need to leave or I am dead.Genghis Khan rapes so many women我得离开这 不然我就会死 成吉思汗强奸的妇女不计其数That as many as 1 in 200 people alive today carry his genes.以至于如今每两百人中 就有一人拥有他的基因;The greatest happiness is to gather into your bosom;;Your enemys wives and daughters.;最大的乐趣就是把敌人的妻子女儿 揽入自己的怀中;60,000 women, it is said, prefer suicide To being raped by the mongols.据说 六万名妇女宁愿选择自杀 而不愿被蒙古人所奸淫201512/413109Sand,whether you use it for building sand castles,telling time with an hourglass,Or hydraulic fracturing,is pretty much the same just about anywhere you go an uncountable number of tiny grains mixed together to from the same dunes and beaches.But why does sand almost always look the same?And how does so much of it end up at the beach?沙子嘛,无论是搭沙堡,用沙漏计时,还是做水力破碎时,无论你在哪,沙子在哪,沙子差不多都一个样,无数沙粒聚在一起,形成同样的沙丘和海滩,不过,为什么哪里的沙子看上去都一样。Well,much of the worlds sand is made out of the same stuff tiny crystals of the mineral quartz,which is made out of silicon and oxygen,the two most common elements in Earths crust.And as youll know if youve ever bitten through the crust-of a sandwich that had sand in it-quartz grains are small,and really tough.另外为何这么多最后都留在了海滩上,世界上大多数沙子都由同一种物质构成,即矿物石英的细小晶体,它由地壳中最常见的两种元素,硅和氧构成,如果曾经吃到过沙子你就知道,就比如有沙子的沙明治,石英颗粒很小但很硬。Heres why:Quartz crystals form within a cooling blob of molten granite rock,or magma,deep under Earths surface.As the magma cools,different minerals crystallize into solid rock at different temperatures,and quartz is one of the last minerals to form.Its forced to crystallize in the tiny spaces left in the now cooling rock,pretty much ensuring that it ends up in a specific size range.原因在此石英结晶是在花岗岩岩浆,或者地底深处,岩浆冷却时形成的,当熔岩冷却时,不同的矿物在不同的温度结晶成为坚石,石英是最后成型的矿物之一,它被迫在冷岩的狭缝中结晶,这也使其颗粒大小被限制在一个特定的范围。But being last has lasting advantages.Minerals that do form in the earlier,hotter conditions have weaker chemical structures and weather away more easily than quartz,kind of like how a relationship forged in the heat of passion might not be as stable as a deep bond developed over time.So as the weak,flash-in-the-pan minerals wear away,the unfaltering quartz grains are left to pop out of the rock as sand!但最后结晶有最后的好处,在更早更热环境下成型的岩石,化学结构更不牢固比石英更易风化,这也正像秀恩爱分得快,当昙花一现的脆弱岩石消逝时,坚硬的石英砂从岩石中跑出来,成为沙子。And then its only a matter of time-sometimes a very long time before the quartz sand gets whisked away by streams and rivers and carried to the sea,There,at the mouth of a river,the fast-flowing water slows abruptly,and the well-rounded sand drops out.Larger rocks and pebbles were aly left behind upstream,while smaller sediments like silt and clay continue to be swept along by the weakened current and are deposited further from shore.140剩下的就是时间问题,石英砂顺江河而下来到大海需要很长一段时间,在河口处湍急的河水流速突然减缓,沙子便沉积下来,较大的岩石和鹅卵石留在了上游,较小的沉积物,如粉砂的黏土继续被缓流带到远方,并沉积在离海岸更远的地方。Over thousands and thousands of years,the paths of rivers sweep up and down the coast,dropping off piles of sand to be sp by waves and currents into smooth sandy beaches.数千年来,河流的路,径扫过海岸各处,将成堆的沙子送到海岸,成为沙滩,任凭波涛浪打。Of course,not all beaches are purely quartz sand,and not all quartz ends up on beaches-but the fact that so many beaches and so many sands are the same is a testament to the chemistry of the most common components of earths crust as they cool and crystallize,and to the physics of sediments slowly shifting and surging towards the sea.They are,quite literally,the sands of time.当然,并非所有的海滩上都只有石英砂,也不是说所有的石英砂最后都留在海滩上,但是多数海滩和沙子都相同的事实也是地壳中最常见元素经过冷却和化学结晶的化学过程的据以及沉积物逐渐流回大海的据。文字上说,它们就是时光的流沙。201507/383522By the late nineteenth century it looked like19世纪后期some of the great mysteries of the universe would be all wrapped up宇宙的一些重大奥秘似乎都已一一解开thanks to the groundbreaking discoveries of Newton and Maxwell.都因牛顿和麦克斯韦的重大发现而解开But then two American physicists stumbled into a completely unexpected discovery.但后来有两名美国物理学家 又在无意间有了意外发现Albert Michelson and Edward Morley were investigating艾伯特·迈克尔逊和爱德华·莫利研究the implications of Maxwells revelation that light is a form of wave麦克斯韦的发现所代表的含义 也就是光以波的形式行进traveling at 186,000 miles per second.速度为每秒30万公里They figured that just as water waves,a wave of energy traveling in water他们推想就像水波 是能量在水中行进所产生的波and sound waves,a wave of energy traveling through air而声波是能量在空气中行进所产生的波so light waves must also travel through... Something.因此光波一定也透过某个东西行进They called this ;something;: the luminiferous ether.他们把这东西称为;光以太;Michelson and Morley proposed that space迈克尔逊和莫利提出宇宙including the space between the sun and the earth.包含太阳和地球间的宇宙Was filled with this mysterious ether.全都充满这种神奇的以太They believed that sunlight must travel through the ether to reach earth.他们相信阳光一定是经由以太来 到地球的Since the earth also move around the sun.而由于地球同样绕着太阳运转They must be traveling through this ether,too.因此地球也一定在以太中运行If so,this movement would cause what they called an ether wind.若真如此,这种移动就会造成所谓的;以太风;to blow over the surface of our planet.以太风吹过地球的表面201601/421307

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201504/368488

Dress rehearsal for Victory Day parade in Russia俄罗斯胜利日阅兵排Russias cutting-edge military hardware has hit the ground in Moscow to rehearse for the upcoming Victory Day celebrations.在即将到来的胜利日庆典排中,俄罗斯的最尖端军事装备亮相莫斯科。Footage of Wednesdays exercises carried on Russian media showed various army vehicles and missile systems, including glimpses of the much anticipated T-14 Armata battle tanks, part of a costly revamping of the Russian military.俄罗斯媒体镜头下,周三排中出现了各式军事车辆及导弹系统,包括备受关注的俄罗斯军事重金打造的改进型新T-14主战坦克。201504/372569

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