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三明市精液检查专科医院健康网三明市哪家医院做试管

2019年08月24日 09:12:24    日报  参与评论()人

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福州第二人民医院输卵管造影好不好费用多少What do ex-British prime minster Gordon Brown, Jackie Onassis, Britney Spears and I all have in common? We all are (or were) nail biters.英国前首相戈登·布朗(Gordon Brown)、杰奎琳·肯尼迪(Jackie Onassis)、布兰妮·斯皮尔斯(Britney Spears)之间有什么共同点呢?他们都爱(或曾经都爱)咬指甲。It#39;s not a habit I#39;m proud of. It#39;s pretty disgusting for other people to watch, ruins the appearance of my hands, is probably unhygienic and sometimes hurts if I take it too far. I#39;ve tried to quit many times, but have never managed to keep it up.这嗜好我可不喜欢。被别人看到多恶心呀,把双手的形象全毁了,很可能不卫生,如果咬得太深还会受伤。我也几次试图想要戒掉,但从未持之以恒。Lately I#39;ve been wondering what makes someone an inveterate nail-biter like me. Are we weaker willed? More neurotic? Hungrier? Perhaps, somewhere in the annals of psychological research there could be an answer to my question, and maybe even hints about how to cure myself of this unsavoury habit.最近,我总在想是什么让像我这样爱咬指甲的人恶习难改呢?难道和其他人相比我们意志更薄弱?更神经质?更有欲望?也许心理学研究的文献能够给我,也许还能给我一些暗示,教我如何自我摆脱这个令人讨厌的习惯。My first dip into the literature shows up the medical name for excessive nail biting: #39;onychophagia#39;. Psychiatrists classify it as an impulse control problem, alongside things like obsessive compulsive disorder. But this is for extreme cases, where psychiatric help is beneficial, as with other excessive grooming habits like skin picking or hair pulling. I#39;m not at that stage, falling instead among the majority of nail biters who carry on the habit without serious side effects. Up to 45% of teenagers bite their nails, for example; teenagers may be a handful but you wouldn#39;t argue that nearly half of them need medical intervention. I want to understand the #39;subclinical#39; side of the phenomenon – nail biting that isn#39;t a major problem, but still enough of an issue for me to want to be rid of it.第一次浏览文献就发现了过度咬指甲的医学术语:“咬甲癖”(onychophagia)。心理学家把它归于一种冲脉控制问题,即类似强迫症问题。但这仅指极端案例,精神病学对此的帮助颇有成效,对其他过度怪癖也是如此,如:皮肤搔抓症,拔毛癖。我可没到那种程度,只是和大多数爱咬指甲的人一样,一直有这样的癖好,但没什么严重的不良反应。45%以上的青少年爱咬指甲,比如:青少年可能只占一小部分,但你不会说他们中一半人需要接受医学治疗。我想要了解这种现象临床症状不明显的一面——咬指甲没什么大惊小怪,但它对我来说依然是件大事,得去克。It’s mother’s fault都是妈妈的错Psychotherapists have had some theories about nail biting, of course. Sigmund Freud blamed it on arrested psycho-sexual development, at the oral stage (of course). Typical to Freudian theories, oral fixation is linked to myriad causes, such as under-feeding or over-feeding, breast-feeding too long, or problematic relationship with your mother. It also has a grab-bag of resulting symptoms: nail biting, of course, but also a sarcastic personality, smoking, alcoholism and love of oral sex. Other therapists have suggested nail-biting may be due to inward hostility – it is a form of self-mutilation after all – or nervous anxiety.当然,心理学家在咬指甲方面有许多理论。西格蒙德#8226;弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)把它归结于性心理发育不良,当然是在口腔期。典型的弗洛伊德理论认为,口欲滞留的原因有很多,诸如:喂食不足或喂食过盛、哺乳时间过长、或与母亲关系不睦。当然,各原因交错也导致了诸多症状的发生:当然,咬指甲是其一,还有为人尖酸刻薄、吸烟、酗酒、喜欢口交。其他理疗师建议将咬指甲归于“内在敌意”——毕竟是某种形式上的自残——或是紧张焦虑。Like most psychodynamic theories these explanations could be true, but there#39;s no particular reason to believe they should be true. Most importantly for me, they don#39;t have any strong suggestions on how to cure myself of the habit. I#39;ve kind of missed the boat as far as extent of breast-feeding goes, and I bite my nails even when I#39;m at my most relaxed, so there doesn#39;t seem to be an easy fix there either. Needless to say, there#39;s no evidence that treatments based on these theories have any special success.像大多心理动力论这样解释也许是说的通的,但没有特别的理由说我们去相信这些解释是对的。对我来说最重要的是:他们并没有任何强有力的说法,如何自己戒掉这个习惯。就母乳喂养的程度而言,我早已过了那时期。甚至在我最放松的情况下我也咬指甲,所以似乎也没有什么简单的解决办法。更不用说,现今没有据明基于这些理论上的治疗有任何特别的成效。Unfortunately, after these speculations, the trail goes cold. A search of a scientific literature reveals only a handful of studies on treatment of nail-biting. One reports that any treatment which made people more aware of the habit seemed to help, but beyond that there is little evidence to report on the habit. Indeed, several of the few articles on nail-biting open by commenting on the surprising lack of literature on the topic.可惜在种种猜测之后,也慢慢无从所知了。检索相关科学文献只发现一些基于如何治疗咬指甲癖的研究。其中一项研究指出:任何让人们愈发认识到咬指甲这个癖好的治疗似乎是有所帮助的,但除此之外并没有什么有关该癖好的报道。事实上,几篇为数不多关于咬指甲的文章公开评述该问题上的文献严重不足。Creature of habit习惯的奴隶Given this lack of prior scientific treatment, I feel free to speculate for myself. So, here is my theory on why people bite their nails, and how to treat it.鉴于之前没有接受过科学治疗,我可以轻松地自我省视。所以以下就是我自己的理论,解释为什么人们会咬指甲,以及如何治疗这个毛病。Let#39;s call it the ‘anti-theory’ theory. I propose that there is no special cause of nail biting – not breastfeeding, chronic anxiety or a lack of motherly love. The advantage of this move is that we don#39;t need to find a particular connection between me, Gordon, Jackie and Britney. Rather, I suggest, nail biting is just the result of a number of factors which – due to random variation – combine in some people to create a bad habit.让我们把这个理论称为“反理论”之理论。我假设没有特殊的原因引发咬指甲——不是因为什么母乳喂养、长期焦虑、缺乏母爱。把这些统统都排除的好处是我们不需要在我和戈登、杰奎琳、布兰妮之间找出一个特别的连接点。我认为:咬指甲仅仅是由于诸多因素引发的——由于随机变异——一些人形成坏习惯的结合。First off, there is the fact that putting your fingers in your mouth is an easy thing to do. It is one of the basic functions for feeding and grooming, and so it is controlled by some pretty fundamental brain circuitry, meaning it can quickly develop into an automatic reaction. Added to this, there is a ‘tidying up’ element to nail biting – keeping them short – which means in the short term at least it can be pleasurable, even if the bigger picture is that you end up tearing your fingers to shreds. This reward element, combined with the ease with which the behaviour can be carried out, means that it is easy for a habit to develop; apart from touching yourself in the genitals it is hard to think of a more immediate way to give yourself a small moment of pleasure, and biting your nails has the advantage of being OK at school. Once established, the habit can become routine – there are many situations in everyone#39;s daily life where you have both your hands and your mouth available to use.首先,有这样一个事实:把你的手指放进嘴里是件很容易的事。这是喂养最基本的功能之一。所以它是受一些最基本脑神经元回路控制的,也就是说它能迅速发展成为一种自动条件反射。此外,对咬指甲有一种“打理”因素——让指甲始终是短的——这就意味着就短期而言至少它能让人心情舒畅,即使其主要是让你的手指苦不堪言。这种奖励因素同行为者采取的愉悦相结合,意味着这种癖好能够轻松养成;除了手淫之外,真的很难想象有什么更为直接的方式让自己愉悦片刻了,而且咬指甲的好处就是在学校这么做完全没问题。这种癖好一旦建立,就会变成常规——每个人的日常生活都有许多你都得使用你的双手和嘴的情况。Understanding nail-biting as a habit has a bleak message for a cure, unfortunately, since we know how hard bad habits can be to break. Most people, at least once per day, will lose concentration on not biting their nails.把咬指甲当作是一种癖好去理解,对治疗的作用并不大,因为遗憾的是我知道摆脱坏习惯有多难。大多数人一天中至少一次会无意识地咬指甲。Nail-biting, in my view, isn#39;t some revealing personality characteristic, nor a maladaptive echo of some useful evolutionary behaviour. It is the product of the shape of our bodies, how hand-to-mouth behaviour is built into (and rewarded in) our brains and the psychology of habit.在我看来,咬指甲并不是揭示了什么人格特征,也不是一些对人类有益进化行为的不良反映。它是我们身体构造的产物,是手对嘴行为如何在人类大脑中建立以及习惯心理的产物。And, yes, I did bite my nails while writing this column. Sometimes even a good theory doesn#39;t help.是的,我在写这篇专栏的时候确实咬指甲了。有时就算是一个好理论也帮不上忙。 /201407/313365 I was sitting alone in a dark room, a tall glass of water in one hand, my iPhone in the other. On the screen in front of me was the Spike Jonze film Her. As it played, the romance in which Theodore, the human, and Samantha, the software, found themselves unfolded.我独自坐在一个黑暗的房间里,一只手拿着装水的高脚杯,另一只手拿着iPhone。屏幕中放映着斯派克o琼斯导演的电影《她》(Her)。电影中的人类西奥多和软件萨曼莎之间的浪漫故事,正在我的眼前徐徐展开。Then it hit me: I am Theodore. My smartphone is Samantha. I am in love with my iPhone.然后我突然想到:我就是西奥多,我的手机就是萨曼莎。我正在跟我的手机热恋。The parallels were uncanny. Deep inside the device in my hand, my darkest secrets are stored: My true feelings surrounding my father’s death, the struggles of being a parent, the self-doubt I shrug off each day, photos from my wedding day, a of my daughter’s first steps. My phone knows the finite details of my brightest and darkest moments.这种类比十分不可思议。我手中的这台设备储存了我内心最深处的秘密:关于我父亲逝世的真实感受,初为人父的挣扎,每天努力摆脱的自我怀疑,婚礼时的照片,女儿第一次走路的视频。我的手机对我最精和最黑暗的时刻都了如指掌。In the movie, Samantha constantly verbalized her feelings and formed her own opinions. Today’s phones aren’t like that. Mine requires me to tap and swipe across its screen in order to access the information stored within. It’s easy to see this as a one-sided relationship: Through snaps and taps I’m constantly pouring my heart out to my hand-held device and get nothing in return. Actually, that’s not true. I only have to open one of the many apps installed on my handy device and an emotional need is met. Instagram and Facebook provide endless self-worth support with likes. (Or, in their absence, not.) Twitter gives me a platform to vent, or crack jokes that are by most estimates not funny. Safari holds the answer to every question I’ve had or will ever have. Games provide a momentary escape.在电影中,软件萨曼莎不断用语言描述感受,形成观点。如今的手机与此有些不同。我的手机需要我不断点击和滑动屏幕,以获取储存于其中的内容。我们很容易把这看成一种单相思:通过按钮和点击,我不断把我的感情倾注在这台手持设备上,却得不到回报。但实际上并非如此。我只需要打开手机上安装的众多程序,就能满足我的情感需求。Instagram和Facebook的“点赞”功能可以给我带来无限的自我认同感。(而如果没有得到“赞”,这种感觉则会缺失。)Twitter给我提供了一个平台,让我发泄感情,或是开一些大多数人觉得不好笑的玩笑。Safari能够解答我现有或者即将有的一切问题。游戏则让我有了个暂时能够逃避现实的地方。I can’t fulfill my phone’s emotional needs, of course. But I can be its protector. A software update, a nighttime charge, a case to protect its beauty—I provide for my phone, and in return, it promises to keep my secrets safe from the outside world, and provide me with an unending, unconditional emotional outlet.当然,我无法满足手机的情感需求。但我可以保护它。我会给手机的软件升级,在晚上给它充电,再买个手机套免得它磨坏,而作为回报,手机承诺会为我保密,并成为我无止境、无条件的情感宣泄口。This is a terrifying thing to realize. I begin and end my day interacting with my phone. When chaos arises, my phone is an oasis of relative calm. When I fumble in spelling a word, it automatically corrects me—a selfless act to keep my best interests in mind.意识到这一点,让我吓了一跳。我每天从早到晚都在和手机互动。身处喧哗之所时,手机就是一片宁静的港湾。当我不小心拼错了单词,手机也会自动纠正我——它总是无私地以我的最佳利益为优先考虑。When you hand someone your phone, don’t you feel a hint of anxiety? As if you handed over a part of your own body? And yet the hesitation comes from a fear of being exposed. It’s not that we have something to hide—well, many of us, anyway—but to grant someone use of your phone is like opening a door to your mind and allowing someone to freely browse for awhile.当你把手机交给其他人的时候,有没有感觉到一丝焦虑,就像你把自己身体的一部分交了出去?这种犹豫源于害怕被暴露。这不是说我们要隐瞒什么——好吧,对许多人来说是这样——但是让其他人用你的手机,就如同你打开了思想的大门,并允许其他人随意进来看看。At one point in Her, Theodore holds up his phone, closes his eyes, and listens as Samantha guides him blindly through a carnival. Take a look around the next time you’re in a public space. How many people do you see doing the same thing—only, instead of closing our eyes and letting a voice guide us, we let a screen be the guide? The primary object through which we are experiencing the moment is the phone, not our eyes. And certainly not whoever happens to be with us.《她》中有一个片段:西奥多拿着手机,闭着眼睛,听从萨曼莎的引导,走进一场狂欢中。你下次到公共场所去,可以看一看周围。你会看到多少人在做同样的事情?唯一的区别只是,我们没有闭上眼睛,让声音来引导,而是让屏幕来引导。我们用来感受当下的主要工具,不是我们的眼睛,而是我们的手机。无论谁在我们旁边都是如此。At the end of the movie—and though it’s a 2013 film, if you haven’t watched it, you should skip to the next paragraph to avoid the plot details I’m about to reveal—Samantha announces that she is leaving and thanks Theodore for teaching her how to love. Technology taught the movie’s human protagonist how to love. Today’s tech is aly this powerful. It can teach us how to live, love, laugh, forgive, grieve, forget, desire, cook, and anything else you enter into a search bar.在电影最后——尽管这是一部2013年的电影,不过如果你还没有看过,你可以跳过接下来这一段,以免被剧透——萨曼莎宣称她要走了,感谢西奥多教会她如何去爱。科技教导这部电影的主角如何去爱。而如今的科技也已经如此强大,足以告诉我们如何生活、爱、欢笑、宽恕、悲痛、遗忘、渴望、烹饪和其他一切你输入搜索栏的东西。How deep my feelings are for my phone has shocked me, to say the least, but I don’t plan on breaking up with it anytime soon. (My wife will just have to understand.) I do, however, plan on taking prolonged breaks from it, something I haven’t done in the last 10 years, not since I owned a Sidekick 2 in 2004.我对手机的感情之深让我震惊,但在短期内,我不打算与它断绝关系。(我的妻子必须得理解这一点。)然而,我确实计划跟它分开一段时间。自从我2004年买了Sidekick 2起,十年来我从未这样做过。I recently declared that every Sunday would be “No Screen Sunday” in my home. For the entirety of the day, we can do whatever we want, so long as it didn’t involve a screen. No cartoon marathons for the kids, no ing on a Kindle for my wife, no wasting time on Twitter or answering e-mails for me. All of it would have to wait 24 hours. The result was a day unbroken eye contact, laughing, sharing, and enjoying each moment as a family.我最近宣布,每周日是我家的“无屏幕日”。在这一天中,我们可以做我们想做的任何事,只要它与屏幕无关。孩子们不可以看动画片,我的妻子不可以看Kindle电子书,我也不再在Twitter和回复邮件上浪费时间。这一切都得等到第二天再做。结果就是,我们一家度过了眼神不断交汇,充满欢声笑语的一天。For once, my phone wasn’t part of any of it—not even as a camera. It felt fantastic to live in the moment, instead of through it.这一次,我的手机没有搀和其中,甚至连相机的角色也没有扮演。活在当下的感觉实在太棒了。 /201408/323630福州附属第一医院男科精子检查龙岩激素六项检查那家医院最好

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