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2020年01月18日 20:22:48

Have you ever been shopping and found a great jacket with a perfect fit? Then you look at the price tag and pause. Should you buy that perfect item now or wait to see if it’s still available during the inevitable end-of-season sale? What if the store told you that it only had a limited number left, or only had two on the rack in your size?你是否曾在购物的时候,看到一件非常适合自己的夹克?然后看了一眼价签,却变得有些犹豫。你应该现在买下这件完美的衣,还是等到必将来临的换季促销时,再看看能否买到这件衣?如果店铺告诉你,这件衣数量有限,或者适合你的尺码只有两件了,你会怎么办?In a recent study I conducted with Prof. Karen Zheng, we found that as consumers have become more strategic about purchases, behavioral motives like regret and availability misperception are significant factors and should play a key role in pricing strategy.笔者近期与凯伦o张教授合作进行的一项研究发现,随着消费者对购物的战略性考虑越来越多,后悔和可获得性错觉等行为动机成为至关重要的因素,应该在定价策略中发挥关键作用。Regret happens when consumers compare the outcome of a chosen action with that of the unchosen one and realize they would have been better off with the latter. In other words, they may regret buying the jacket now at the higher price if it turns out to be available during the sale for 30% off. Similarly, they may regret not buying it now if their size is gone by the time of the sale.如果消费者将自己的选择行为结果,与未选择行为结果进行对比后,发现后者对他们更加有利,这时就会产生后悔情绪。换言之,如果上面提到的夹克在未来促销时可以获得7折的优惠,他们就会后悔现在以更高的价格买下了这件衣。同样,如果在未来促销时,适合他们的尺寸已经售完,他们则会后悔现在没有出手购买。The availability misperception occurs due to lack of ability to process all relevant information. The consumer needs to consider how popular that jacket is now to anticipate its availability later. It also occurs simply because consumers perceive an uncertain outcome to be more likely than its actual probability. Consumers often behave as if they have mentally perceived the probabilities even when those probabilities are not explicitly known.消费者由于缺乏处理所有相关信息的能力,进而会产生可获得性错觉。消费者需要考虑那件夹克现在的受欢迎程度,来预测它未来的可获得性。如果消费者认为出现不确定结果的概率要高于实际概率,此时也会出现可获得性错觉。即便实际概率并不明确,消费者也往往会表现得好像他们在内心已经感知到这种可能性。Interestingly, retailers can prime that sense of regret by triggering the availability misperception. They can do this by emphasizing limited inventory either with signage or just putting out less of that item. If you only found two jackets in your size on the rack, you’d likely assume it’s in limited supply. Many e-commerce retailers like Amazon do this by explicitly noting how much of each item is left in stock.有趣的是,零售商可以通过引发可获得性错觉,来刺激消费者的后悔情绪。他们可以通过标识牌强调库存有限,或者发布较少数量的商品,来达到这个目的。如果你发现在货架上仅有两件适合自己尺寸的衣,你会想当然地认为这件商品供应量有限。许多电子商务零售商,比如亚马逊(Amazon)等,都会明确标注每件商品的剩余库存。This is a smart strategy, as availability misperception has a greater impact on consumers’ purchase decisions than regret. As a result, marketing campaigns that act on this misperception are more effective than ones that only emphasize regret.这是一种聪明的策略,因为可获得性错觉对消费者购买决定的影响要大于后悔。因此,根据这种错觉开展的营销活动往往会比只强调后悔的营销活动产生更好的效果。Of course not all purchases are affected by these behavioral motives. What if, instead of a jacket, you were looking at basic undershirts? Those tend to be ily available at many retailers. You aren’t likely going to experience regret whether you buy today or later. With that type of product, an everyday-low-price strategy is optimal. In contrast, products that will induce regret are better off using a markdown strategy. Large data sets available for sales transactions and the retailer’s experience help us determine consumers’ behavioral motives in purchasing various product lines. Once they determine whether it’s a regret-inducing product or not, retailers can use our algorithm to determine what the optimal everyday-low-price or mark downs should be.当然,并不是所有的购买行为都会受到这些行为动机的影响。如果你看中的是普通的贴身内衣而不是夹克,会怎么样?这种内衣在许多零售商店里都能买到。不论今天买还是以后买,消费者都不太可能后悔。对于这类商品,天天低价策略才是最佳选择。相反,那些会引起后悔情绪的商品,则更适合降价促销策略。凭借庞大的销售交易数据集,以及零售商的经验,我们可以确定消费者在购买不同商品时的行为动机。零售商在确定一件商品是否会导致后悔之后,就可以利用我们的算法,决定到底应该采取天天低价策略,还是降价促销策略。Ignoring these behavioral motives is dangerous for retailers. We found that it could lead the seller to under-stock too much and unnecessarily forgo up to 14% of potential demand. Given that retailers operate with relatively slim profit margins, 14% is very significant. It could result in 10% of profits.忽视这些行为动机,对于零售商来说非常危险。我们发现,零售商忽视这些行为可能导致库存过低,同时失去14%的潜在需求。鉴于零售商的利润空间相对较小,14%的数字非同小可,因为它可能意味着10%的利润。Companies are starting to pay a lot more attention to pricing strategy, realizing that it is one of the most important levers in the decision process. There has been a lot of attention to other aspects of the business like operations and supply chains. Pricing is the next frontier.各公司越来越重视定价策略,因为他们意识到这是决策过程中最重要的手段之一。商业的其他方面,如运营与供应链等,之前一直很受关注。而定价将是下一个重点。 /201407/309505上饶韩美整形医院激光祛痘多少钱If anyone proves you should never judge a book by its cover, it#39;s Philani Dladla.永远不要以封皮外表评判一本书——如果有人向你明这一真理,那么这个人一定是流浪汉Philani Dladla。Spoting a flat-bill baseball hat, a colorful, striped dress shirt and beads dangling from his neck, Dladla may not look the part of a stereotypical bookworm -- especially as he lives on the streets.头戴鸭舌棒球帽、身穿色条纹衬衫、脖挂串珠,这就是Philani Dladla的形象——和人们印象中的书虫截然不同吧!尤其是他还是个流浪汉。Termed the ;pavement bookworm; by South African filmmaker Tebogo Malope, Dladla has attracted attention near and far because of his unconventional methods of making money while homeless. Instead of panhandling, Dladla reviews books and discusses authors with passers-by -- impromptu book club sessions, essentially -- to earn an income, according to SA People News.Dladla虽身为流浪汉,但却不以乞讨为生,南非电影摄影师Tebogo Malope把他的故事拍成了视频“路边书虫”,吸引了世界各地人们的目光。据媒体SA People News报道,Dladla不以乞讨为生,而是通过做书评并和路人谈论作家赚取生活来源,从本质上来讲他所做的是图书俱乐部中的即兴演讲。Malope discovered the homeless 24-year-old late last year in Johannesburg, when he posted a sidewalk interview with Dladla (seen above) chatting about books and the positive influence they have on ers. Ever since, the pavement bookworm has gained international popularity and attracted far more pedestrians interested in some literary chats.Malope去年年底在南非的约翰尼斯堡发现了24岁的流浪汉Dladla,当时他正在和Dladla做路边访谈(如上图所示),讨论图书及图书带给读者的正能量。自从那时起,“路边书虫”就在全世界越来越流行起来,吸引了越来越多的路人对图书话题的兴趣。While Dladla earns money from selling the books he has on hand to adults, he gives away books for free to kids.虽然Dladla通过把手头的书籍卖给成人赚取利润,但他会向孩子免费赠送图书。;They can still take this ing thing and turn it into their habit,; Dladla said in the interview. ;Their lifelong habit.;“他们还可以培养阅读习惯,并坚持下去,”Dladla在视频采访中说道,“让阅读成为他们一生的习惯。”To Dladla, his love of books goes far beyond enjoying a good -- diving into storytelling, he said, saved him from drug addiction. Now, he hopes his passion for books rubs off on the people he engages everyday.对于Dladla来说,他对图书的热爱已经远远超出了仅仅享受阅读的过程——他已深入到讲述图书故事的更深一层次。据他所说讲述图书故事帮他戒掉了毒瘾。现在,他希望自己对图书的能对人们的日常生活产生正能量。;Reading is not harmful. There’s no such thing as harmful knowledge,; Dladla said in the interview. ;[Reading] is only going to make you a better person.;“读书没有害处,开卷有益。”Dladla在视频采访中说道,“阅读只会让你成为更好的自己。”;You don#39;t have to be rich to change the world,; he wrote on Facebook. ;Start with the little that you have. If you inspire one person you#39;ve aly changed the world.;“你不必富到改变世界,”他在Facebook上写道,“从你已经拥有的开始吧。如果你可以鼓舞人心,那么你已经改变了世界。” /201406/308583上饶横峰县小腿减肥多少钱广丰区去除眼袋多少钱

上饶整形医院哪个好上饶整容医院哪家好Four people have died and 300 workers have been evacuated after a serious fire broke out on a Pemex platform in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mexican state-owned oil company said on Wednesday.墨西哥国家石油公司(Pemex)周三表示,其位于墨西哥湾的一个油井平台突发大火,4人在火灾中丧生,300名工人被迫疏散。A fire broke out at dawn at its Abkatun Permanente platform off the coast at Campeche Bay in Mexico, and Pemex confirmed in a tweet that four people had been killed.大火发生在当日清晨,起火的Abkatun Permanente平台位于墨西哥坎佩切湾附近。该公司在一则Twitter消息中确认,4人在大火中丧生。It said in a separate statement that 16 workers have been injured, two of which are in serious conditions.在另外一份声明中,该公司表示有16名工人受伤,其中两人伤势严重。The company added that 8 firefighting boats have been deployed to fight the blaze.它补充说,8艘消防船已被派往当地灭火。According to the US Energy Information Administration, the Bay of Campeche is an important source of oil production for Mexico.美国能源情报署(US Energy Information Administration)的数据显示,坎佩切湾是墨西哥重要的石油产地。The Abkatun-Pol-Chuc offshore oilfields, where the platform that has erupted in fire is located, produced under 300,000 barrels per day in 2013, a decrease of more than half from a peak in the mid-1990s of 700,000 barrels.失火平台所在的Abkatun-Pol-Chuc海上油田2013年的日产量是30万桶以下,比上世纪90年代中期顶峰时期的70万桶低了一半以上。The fire is likely to renew questions over Pemex#39;s safety record.这次火灾可能会再次引发对墨西哥国家石油公司安全状况的质疑。Two years ago, a gas leak led to a blast that killed at least 37 people at Pemex#39;s headquarters in Mexico City.两年前,这家公司位于墨西哥城的总部曾因气体泄漏导致爆炸,令至少37人丧生。News of the fire also comes as Pemex looks to court foreign investments to develop its oil fields as part of a major overhaul of its energy sector.发生火灾之际,墨西哥国家石油公司正试图吸引外国投资者开发其旗下油田。这是墨西哥能源产业大规模整改措施的一部分。 /201504/368017上饶市人民医院割双眼皮多少钱上饶割双眼皮最好的医院

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