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2019年11月21日 12:19:31 | 作者:快问门户 | 来源:新华社
Last Thursday, there were huge headlines that Dan Gilbert, the billionaire who has bought much of Detroit, wants to invest a billion dollars to build a major league soccer stadium and complex in the citys downtown.This was largely greeted with sort of the breathless excitement youd expect when your team finally wins the World Series. There was a little mention of the fact that the land on which Gilbert wants to build his 25,000 seat stadium not only doesnt belong to him, but in fact is part of Wayne Countys criminal justice complex.Whats there now is the county courthouse, the Frank Murphy Hall of Justice, a modern juvenile detention facility, and the famous unfinished jail, which sits open to the elements. Construction was halted three years ago because of cost overruns during the famously incompetent Ficano regime.Wayne County Executive Warren Evans, who beat Bob Ficano and others in a landslide less than two years ago, has determined that the most sensible, economical and practical solution was to just finish the jail, and the county intends to seek bids this fall.However, now the Quicken Loans and Rock Financial czar wants the land. Theres a sort of assumption in Detroit these days that, as one woman I know put it, ;whatever Dan Gilbert wants, Dan Gilbert gets.; That seemed to color much of the media coverage.But Evans doesnt feel that way—and after talking with him for an hour, I came to see why. Evans has earned credibility. When he took office in January 2015, the county had huge budget deficits and health care liabilities.There was talk of bankruptcy and emergency management. But Evans, a savvy lawyer in his own right, instead worked out a consent agreement with the state, and went to work on the financials. Evans learned his way around budgets as both Detroit police chief and Wayne County sheriff, and he knew the experts he should be consulting.Today, the deficits are entirely gone, and health care is on a better footing. But criminal justice and finances are still important. When it comes to where to put the stadium and the jail, Warren Evans says, ;I dont have a dog in this fight; as far as location is concerned.But he notes that the area has been a criminal justice site for a century, and that it makes sense to have criminal justice facilities centrally located and easily accessible.And he does have one bias. He told me ;(Gilberts) project cant cost Wayne County taxpayers any more than continuing,; as they are now, and there can be no further delays.Indications are that the county commissioners are with Evans on this. The only way he said hed consider selling to Gilbert is if somehow the mortgage tycoon could pay for them to build a new jail, courthouse and state of the art juvenile facility elsewhere, and have it y first. ;Clearly that has got to cost more than us finishing this project. So whatever the difference is, thats what they have to guarantee.;You never know how negotiations may go. But Detroit is a city with vast vacant spaces, and destroying a criminal justice complex that works where it is may not make a lot of sense.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios political analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201605/440779Ornithological trends英国鸟类迁徙趋势This bird has flown有所改变Why some species are thriving outside southern England为什么英格兰南部有些物种开始兴盛?WHEN people talk about a “north-south divide” in Britain they are usually referring to house prices, employment and the ratio of private-sector to public-sector jobs. The south scores higher on all such measures. But new data from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), a research charity, hints at the growth of another north-south divide—this time to the norths benefit.在英国,当人们提到“南北分歧”的时候,他们通常指的是房价、就业和私企与国企就业率之比。在所有类似的测量标准中,英国南部地区的数据较高。但慈善研究机构英国鸟类研究信托公司提供的新数据表明,在另一种形式增大的南北分歧中,北部地区获益较大。Every 20 years the BTO produces a superbly detailed atlas of bird life in Britain and Ireland. The 2007 to 2011 edition is cheery: more species are tallied than in previous atlases, and many birds are increasing in number. Compared with two decades ago, 45% of regular native species are ranging more widely while 32% are living in smaller areas; the rest have stayed put. But the most striking news comes from the north.每隔20年,英国鸟类研究信托公司都会公布一组有关英国和爱尔兰的鸟类生活详细地图分布册。2007-2011年的地图分布册显示的数据令人振奋:与前几年相比,记载了更多的物种;许多鸟类数量也有所增加。与20年前相比,45%的常规本地物种活动范围扩大,32%生活范围缩小;剩余的物种保持稳定。此外,最令人惊喜的消息从北部地区传来。The overall populations of woodland, farmland and migrant perching birds are up in northern England and Scotland but down in the south. The same is true of individual species such as the garden warbler, bullfinch and swallow. The number of cuckoos, a closely-watched species, declined by 63% in England between 1995 and 2010 but by only 5% in Scotland. Raptors are faring especially well in the south, but their numbers are rising in most parts of Britain.林地、农田和中途停留的迁徙鸟类数量在英格兰北部和苏格兰有所上升,但是在南部地区却有所下降。相同的情况也适用于个别物种,如园林莺、红腹灰雀、燕子。常见的物种之一杜鹃的数量,从1995年到2010年下降了65%,但在苏格兰地区仅下降了5%。南部地区的猛禽在南方生活的尤其滋润,其数量在英国大部分地区都有所上升。Partly this reflects climate change, suggests Simon Gillings of the BTO. Some birds are drawn to warmer winters in Scotland and northern England; visiting migrants may stick around for longer. Hard though it may be to believe during a week of torrential rain, the south is becoming drier, pushing snipe northward. More efficient farming has squeezed some farmland species.英国鸟类研究信托公司的西蒙·格林斯认为这部分反映了气候变化。有些鸟类迁往苏格兰和英格兰北部等冬天较为温暖的地方;旅鸟停留的时间可能会更长。我们很难相信在一周的强降雨之后,南部地区变得更加干燥,使得物种向北部迁移。高效率的农耕方式也使得一些农田物种的数量降低。Some birds find it harder to make homes in the south, too. Pressure on housing means dilapidated buildings and barns, handy for nesting, have been converted into human dwellings. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of vacant dwellings fell by 17% in London and by 12% in Kent. Over the same period the number of empty houses increased by 16% in Derbyshire and by 10% in Lancashire. Northern mining villages once full of workers are now sparsely populated, points out Ian Bartlett, a birdwatcher in Hartlepool, in north-east England. They have become hot spots for birds and the people who watch them.有些鸟类也发觉在南部地区繁衍更为艰难。以往适宜筑巢的荒废建筑物、谷仓都被人们的住房所占领。2006年至2012年,伦敦的房屋空置率下降了17%,肯特郡的下降12%。同一时期,德比郡的房屋空置率上升16%,而兰开郡的上升10%。哈特尔普尔的鸟类观察员兰·巴特勒称,位于英格兰东北部的北部采矿型乡村曾一度人满为患,现在人烟稀少。Cultural difference also plays a part, thinks Mark Cocker, an expert on birds. The “obsession with tidiness” is stronger in the south, he says. Fewer people cultivate gardens; they prefer to cover them in decking and remove weeds from between concrete slabs. Village greens are mowed short. In contrast, Scotland and northern England have more trees, grassland and wind-swept moors. Less popular with humans, rugged parts of the countryside are filling up with a winged population instead.鸟类专家马克·科克尔认为,文化差异也起了一定的作用。他表示,南部地区的人们“痴迷于整洁”的表现更为强烈。很少有人整理花园,他们更喜欢在花园装饰木甲板,在坚硬的石板中间除草。村庄草地也经常修剪得整整齐齐。相反,苏格兰和英格兰北部地区拥有更多的树林、草地和荒凉的沼泽地。很多崎岖的乡村人烟稀少,而鸟类却在此扎根,欣欣向荣。译者:毛慧 校对:王化起 译文属译生译世 /201511/407806Lets start by reviewing the ways in which the surface of ourlips is different from the surface of the skin on the rest of ourbodies.首先,我们需要知道嘴唇的表皮有别于身体其他部位的。Basically, our lips are made of the same mucusmembrane that coats the inside of our mouths.基本而言,嘴唇有相同的粘液膜组成,保护我们的嘴巴。This means two things.这就说明了两件事。First, our lips dont have the same protective outer layer as theskin elsewhere on our bodies.第一,我们身体其他部位的肌肤有一层“保护层”,这是嘴唇所没有的。This layer is part of the barrier to evaporation, and its absencemeans our lip skin retains less fluid.“保护层”能有效保湿,嘴唇因为没有而不易保湿。Second, our lips dont have the same glands and pigmentsas ordinary skin.第二,嘴唇不像其他肌肤有腺体和色素。For example, lips dont have oil glands, which also help keep moisture from evaporating, and they contain less melanin, the pigment that helps protect our skin from sunburn.比如,嘴唇不能分泌油脂,不易保湿。此外,嘴唇缺少黑色素等色素保护皮肤免受太阳灼伤。Whats more, unlike much of the rest of our body, our lips are almost always on display, and rarely covered by clothing.别于身体其他部位的皮肤,嘴唇经常暴露在外面。As a result,the moisture on our lips is continually evaporating.这样一来,嘴唇的水分一直在蒸发,And thats before we take into accountexposure to sun, wind, cold, and air-conditioning.这还不算阳光、大风、天冷、空调的“摧残”。Plus, if youre sick or have allergies, and your nose is congested, your lips end up drying more quickly because you tend to breathe throughyour mouth.此外,嘴唇有此外,如果你生病了或者过敏而鼻塞,不得不用嘴巴呼吸,嘴唇会干得更快! 201409/328791

This is no mindless killer, this shark is smart.没有愚笨无知的杀手,这些鲨鱼非常聪明。It pitches up at the peak of the turtle nesting season and simply waits for the tide to deliver its food.它在海龟的繁殖高峰大吃了一顿,只是等待潮水给它带来食物。Ah, look at that.看那个。So distinctive,right under the boat.非常特别,正好在船的下面。Tigers have been found with all matter of interesting things in their stomachs and, as an opportunistic predator,shes come in and had a look at the boat a little look at me.人们在虎鲨的胃里发现了几乎每样有趣的东西,作为一个投机取巧的捕食者,它游过来,看了一眼船又看了一眼我。Just a nudge of the boat. Shes using the nose,all those senses packed into the nose, to try and figure out what we are and what I am.它用它的鼻子轻推了一下船它所有的感觉都集中在鼻子上,来分辨出 我们是什么,我是谁。And now shes heading back to the carcass.现在它掉头回到了海龟尸体。I hope.我认为是这样的。Watch this bite.看看这个咬伤。Good grief! What she is doing now is sawing using the weight of her body.真悲惨!看它现在在做的,它利用它身体的锯开海龟。These are huge, bulky animals and you get a lot of torsion with that weight.这些庞大的动物,字利用体重它获得了很多的扭曲力。And with that torsion shell clamp the jaws on to the flipper or head and just rip from side to side and the mechanical action and the cutting action of the teeth will tear lumps of flesh off.用巨大的扭曲力,它会用下巴咬住海龟的鳍状肢或者头从一边撕裂到另一边,牙齿撕咬的力和切断的力能把肉撕成碎块。Vibrations from the commotion and the odour of mashed turtle flesh are carried on the currents, attracting more sharks to the feast.来自这场骚乱的震动和海龟肉块的味道被水流带走,吸引了更多鲨鱼参与这一宴会。But, this is no feeding frenzy.但是这只没有捕食热情。Sharks of this size could do each other real damage,so instead they take it in turns,with smaller sharks deferring to the larger ones.这种大小的鲨鱼互相之间能造成实质的伤害,所以它们要轮流吃东西,小鲨鱼要顺从大鲨鱼。 译文属201511/412536

The Vatican and Turkey梵蒂冈和土耳其Never forget永世铭记Forthrightness about a past atrocity provokes a strong reaction直面暴行,一石激起千层浪IN 1915 Pope Benedict XV wrote to Mehmed V, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, saying that he could hear “the echo of the groans of an entire people…subjected to unspeakable sufferings”. When the two leadersmodern-day counterparts met last November at the Turkish presidential palace outside Ankara, those echoes were still audible. According to a new book by Franca Giansoldati, the Vatican-watcher of Il Messaggero, an Italian daily, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkeys president, “begged” Pope Francis to refrain from openly characterising the Ottoman Empires slaughter of Armenians in 1915 as genocide.1915年教皇本笃十五世致函奥斯曼帝国苏丹—默罕默德五世,言及他能听到“整个民族遭受难以言状痛苦时所发出的呻吟在天际回响。” (一百年后的)今天,当年两大巨头各自的继任者去年11月在土耳其安卡拉外的总统官邸会见时,这种回响仍然久久不散。意大利报纸《信使报》梵蒂冈问题观察家Franca Giansoldati在一本新书中披露:土耳其总统雷杰普塔伊普埃尔多安“恳祈”教皇弗兰西斯不要把1915年奥斯曼帝国屠杀亚美尼亚人的事件公开定性为种族灭绝。The pope respected his hosts wishes then. But on April 12th he abandoned tact and referred to the killings as “the first genocide of the 20th century”. The Turkish government responded with outrage and recalled its ambassador to the Holy See for consultations. A vote in the European Parliament on April 15th, commending the popes statement and urging Turkey to recognise the massacres as genocide, further infuriated Mr Erdogan. “It is not possible for Turkey to accept such a crime, such a sin,” he said.虽然一开始尊重了总统的诉求,但到了4月12日,教皇却撕破脸并将此次屠杀斥之为 “20世纪首屈一指的种族灭绝事件。”土耳其政府大吃一惊,召回了驻梵蒂冈教廷的使节进行磋商。4月15日欧洲议会投票表决持教皇的声明,并敦促土耳其承认此次屠杀是种族灭绝行为,这更进一步激怒了埃尔多安总统。他说:“土耳其绝不承认这种罪行。”Francis has used the same phrase before, most recently in 2013 when he met an Armenian delegation. But that was scarcely reported, and the Turkish authorities merely expressed “disappointment” and called in the Vaticans envoy for a ticking-off. This time, he was making a much-awaited speech in front of Armenias president, Serzh Sargsyan, days before the official centenary commemorations on April 24th.教皇方济各此前也用过相同的措辞,最近一次是在 2013 年接见亚美尼亚代表团时。但这些言论几乎鲜有报道,土耳其政府也仅仅是表示了“失望”,并召会梵蒂冈特使进申斥而已。然而这一次,就在4月24日的正式百年纪念活动开始的前几天,他当着亚美尼亚总统萨尔基相的面发表了这样一个“众望所归”言论。Turkish diplomats are understood to have set themselves two aims as the centenary approached: to stop the mass at which Francis spoke being held on the day itself, and to prevent him from using the G-word. They gained their first objective. In deciding to deny them their second, the pope and his diplomatic advisers had to weigh opposing factors.百年庆典临近时,土耳其的外交官们心照不宣地为自己设定两个目标:其一是阻止纪念日当天方济各要作演讲的那个群众集会。其二是阻止他用“种族灭绝”的字眼。第一个目标落空了。而要顶住土耳其的第二个诉求,教皇和他的外交顾问不得不权衡对手的实力。The Vatican has long been the venue of a tug-of-war between proponents of careful dialogue with the Islamic world and advocates of bluntness, who feel that tact has got Christians nowhere and that plain speaking is needed, even if it causes offence. The plain-speakers had the upper hand under the previous pope, Benedict XVI. Franciss latest comment suggests they are back in the ascendancy.长期以来,梵蒂冈处在一个两难境地:一派主张和伊斯兰世界对话务求谨慎,而另一派则主张直言不讳。后者认为圆滑世故将使得基督徒一事无成,因此即使会招灾惹祸,也须仗义执言。如今,在教皇本笃十六世的领导下,主张直言不讳的人占了上风,方济各最近的言论正表明了这种压倒性优势。翻译:沈竹 校对:戴秀平译文属译生译世 /201504/372298

Supermarkets超市Learning to be different商海无涯巧行舟Some glimmers of hope for struggling supermarkets对于深陷泥淖的超市而言,前途尚有利好的曙光。RARELY have the Christmas results for Britains supermarkets been awaited with such trepidation. Most of them, especially the market leader, Tesco, struggled in 2014. The hard-discount stores, Aldi and Lidl, continued to undercut them, gobbling up market share, while falling food prices ate into their profits. Would the weeks leading up to Christmas and New Years Day, generally the strongest sales period, bring some relief?不列颠的零售业的业主们早已期待圣诞节的销售业绩,因为他们心怀恐惧。这种情形着实罕见。在2014年,大部分超市,特别是Tesco这个市场领头羊,过得很艰难。Aldi和Lidl这样的超低折扣商铺,不断挖它们的墙角,侵吞他们的市场份额。而下降的食物价格使得超市的利润率降低。接下来临近圣诞节和新年的几周通常是超市的最旺销售时期,它们能否喘一口气?Hes making a list, checking it twice他正在制作购物单,检查了两次。The answer, so far, is mixed. Waitrose, the most upmarket grocer, did well. It made £728m (1.1 billion) over the five weeks to January 3rd, excluding fuel—7% more than in the same spell a year ago. By contrast like-for-like sales at Sainsburys fell by 1.7% in the 14 weeks to January 3rd among stores that had been open at least a year. Tesco, which reported on January 8th, recorded another drop in sales, though by only 0.3% compared with the previous year. It is to close 43 stores. Analysts estimate that Asda, the second-biggest chain after Tesco, saw its market share fall by 1% in the three months to December.目前来看,并不那么简单。Waitrose这最大的高档零售商业绩不错。在过去的5周中(截止至1月3日),它的营业额为七亿两千八百万英镑(折合成美元11亿)。这其中不包括燃料—与去年相比同期增长7%强。与此相较,在营业一年以上的商店中,Sainsbury的营业额在过去的14周中(截止到1月3日),下跌1.7%。而它已经开业一年以上。Tesco的业绩报表见诸1月8日。相比前一年虽有所下跌,降幅只有0.3%。它预备关闭43家店铺。分析师估计,居Tesco之亚的Asda,在截止至12月份的三个月中,市场份额缩水1%。Asdas boss, Andrew Clarke, has warned of more challenging times ahead. Yet the lesson from these results is clear. Grocers with a clearly defined position in the market will continue to prosper, but for those without one there is more pain to come. Thus Waitrose, for instance, has remained resolutely and distinctly posh. It has refused to chase the upstart discounters by slashing prices, as mid-market rivals have done.Asda的老板Andrew Clarke,早已警惕这种更为挑战的时刻。没有白交的学费。在市场中具有清晰定位的零售商将继续繁荣下去,而那些仍旧没有明确定位的,仍将面临窘境。比如Waitrose,它仍旧旗帜鲜明地走土豪路线,拒绝通过大减价跟上高端折扣店的步伐。与此相较的是,跟它一批的中等市场的竞争对手却紧随那些高端店的步伐。Natalie Berg of Planet Retail, a research outfit, argues that the key to survival in a ferociously competitive groceries market is to offer the customer a brand that is “clear, targeted and consistent.” Waitrose, at the top end of the market, does this well, as do Lidl and Aldi at the bottom. The rest are stranded in the middle, trying to be all things to all people. This week, for instance, Asda, Sainsburys and Tesco announced further price cuts. That might fend off the discounters for a bit. It will also muddy perceptions of who their target customers really are.一家名为“行星零售”的调查组织的成员Natalie Berg认为,在竞争激烈的零售商市场中存活下来的关键,在于给顾客留下这么个品牌印象—“明晰,有定位,持久”。 Waitrose卡住了市场的顶端部分。而Lidl和Aldi则把持住了市场的草根部分。其余的卡在中间,想着变成百宝箱,面向所有消费群体。比如这个周,Asda,Sainsbury和Tesco宣布接着砍价。这或许能些许抵御零售商的攻势。它也同样能搅起一池浑水,搞不清谁是它们的目标消费人群。But it is not all gloom for the supermarkets. A more clement economic environment should help all of them. Tumbling fuel prices and—a novelty, this—rising real wages will put more money in shoppers pockets. The results also demonstrate that supermarkets are rewarded for a strong internet presence. Again, Waitrose has done well here: grocery sales through its online service grew by 26% over the Christmas period compared with a year ago. Its parent company, John Lewis, has had great success with a new click-and-collect service at its department stores, which allows customers to nominate a place to pick up their shopping. Most of the supermarkets are trying out new digital gizmos to make shopping easier. Waitrose is experimenting with a home-scanning device called Hiku. This will allow people to scan barcodes on Waitrose products at home to add them to their online shopping basket.不过对于超市来说也不全是阴云密布坏事不断。更为缓和的经济环境应能帮助他们所有人。下跌的油价—这确实是新鲜事—和上涨的工资使得顾客们荷包鼓胀起来。这个结果也表明,网路的存在使得商家获益。这点还是Waitrose做得好:跟一年前相比,零售店销售额在圣诞节期间,依靠在线务增长26%。它的母公司John Lewis,依托新近的点-收务,在百货商铺中取得巨大成功。这个新系统允许顾客点名去哪里自提货物。There are grounds for optimism even at Tesco, argues Bryan Roberts, an analyst at Kantar Retail. For a couple of years its stores in London have done better than those in the rest of the country. Store managers in the capital have enjoyed more autonomy to fill their shelves with products suited to the people who live or work in the local area. This process had become over-centralised, missing local trends; devolution seems to have helped reverse that. Simple, but effective.坎塔尔零售的分析师Bryan Roberts则认为,就算是Tesco,也有乐观的理由。经过多年经营,Tesco在伦敦的店铺,其经营情况好于全国其他地区。首都店铺的经理享有更多的自主经营权,他们能为所在区域生活或工作的居民提供适合他们的货品。此前这个过程都是收回经理的自主权,这就忽略了当地发展趋势;让权能帮住扭转颓势。大道至简,直接有效。译者:唐宇·无心 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201501/354903

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