时间:2020年02月28日 03:20:03

Gunter Grass, the German novelist, social critic and Nobel Prize winner, died of undisclosed causes on April 13 in the German town of Lubeck. He was 87 years old. Grass wrote more than 30 plays, novels, books of poems, essays and memoirs. He was the author of “The Tin Drum”, an epic treatment of the Nazi era.当地时间4月13日,诺贝尔文学奖得主、德国小说家、社会批评家君特#8226;格拉斯在德国小镇吕贝克去世,享年87岁。格拉斯一生创作的剧本、小说、诗集、散文、回忆录逾30部。讲述纳粹时代的“史诗”《铁皮鼓》也出自他的笔下。A broad-shouldered man with a drooping mustache, Grass spurned the German tradition of keeping a cool intellectual distance, insisting that a writer’s duty was to be at the frontline of moral and political debate.他肩膀宽阔,胡子微垂;他对德国知识分子与世事疏离的传统嗤之以鼻;相反,他坚持认为,作家的责任就是站在道德与政治争论的最前线。For many, he was the voice of a German generation that came of age in World War II and bore the burden of their parents’ guilt for the atrocities of the Nazis.他是德国二战后一代人的代言人, 这一代人因为其父母一代与纳粹暴行的关联而承受重负。However, Grass’ concealment until 2006 of the fact that he had served in a Nazi Waffen-SS regiment as a teenager cost him some of his moral authority. The Waffen-SS was the combat unit of the Nazi’s elite military police force.但是,2006年格拉斯却说出了隐瞒已久的秘密:他十几岁时曾加入过纳粹武装党卫团。他的道德权威因此受到质疑。纳粹武装党卫军是纳粹精英宪兵部队的一战斗部队。Not even 12 when war broke out, Grass, like many other children, joined the Hitler Youth Movement.战争爆发时,还不到12岁的格拉斯和许多小孩一样,加入了希特勒青年组织。He was then drafted into a Waffen-SS tank division in 1944. He experienced the full horrors of war when more than half his company of mostly 17-year-olds were ripped to pieces in three minutes of shelling.1944年,他应招加入武装党卫军某坦克师。在此期间,格拉斯目睹了战争的恐怖。他曾亲眼所在的连队一大半人在三分钟中的炮击中化为灰烬,而他们大都只有十七岁。But the fact that he did not reveal this part of his history until 2006 brought accusations that he had been hypocritical when attacking others for failing properly to face up to Germany’s Nazi past.格拉斯曾攻击那些不肯正确面对德国纳粹历史的人,而自己却直到2006年才公布了自己与纳粹相关的历史。于是,指责之声接踵而至,人们认为他是个伪善之人。Life after war战后生活When Germany surrendered in 1945, Grass was briefly an American prisoner of war.1945年德国投降,格拉斯短暂地成为了美军战俘。He then worked on a farm, in a mine and as an apprentice stonemason before studying sculpture in Duesseldorf and West Berlin. He began writing poems and plays in the early 1950s, worked as a journalist, played in a jazz band, and illustrated some of his own books.他在农场工作过,也去过矿井,做过石匠学徒,随后在杜塞尔多夫和西柏林学习雕塑。二十世纪五十年代早期,他开始创作诗歌与剧本,当过记者,参加过爵士乐队,还为自己的书画过插画。Grass said he regretted the years in which he did not speak the full truth about himself. “I kept silent,” Grass wrote in his memoir.格拉斯承认自己在没有说出真相的那些年里都生活在悔意之中。在自传中,他写到:“我曾保持沉默。”Why was he attracted to the SS?为何党卫军吸引了他?“It was the newsreels,” he concluded. “I was a pushover for the prettified black-and-white ‘truth’ they served up.”他总结道:“(吸引我的)是一个新闻纪录片,其中美化了的非黑即白的‘真理’打动了我。”Trying to come to terms with the past is the basis for much of his writing, says Siegfried Mews, a Gunter Grass scholar at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the US.来自美国教堂山镇北卡罗来纳大学的齐格弗里德#8226;梅夫斯是一名研究君特#8226;格拉斯的学者,他认为,努力面对过去是格拉斯很多作品的基础。“He has produced works which were not necessarily eagerly welcomed,” Mews said in an interview with the US’ NPR. “That is true, for instance, of his first big novel, The Tin Drum, but you can’t just ignore it.”在接受美国国家公共电台(NPR)采访时,梅夫斯说:“他的一些作品未必受到热捧,这是事实,他的第一部大部头小说《铁皮鼓》就是如此,但这并不意味着他无足轻重。”“The Tin Drum” tells the story of a boy, Oskar, who gets a tin drum for his third birthday, then decides to protest Nazi rule by never growing up. As an eternal child, Oskar witnesses an adult world that is chaotic and cruel, with Jews being persecuted and fierce fighting erupting between Germans and Poles. It was made into an Oscar-winning film by German director Volker Schlondorff.《铁皮鼓》讲述了一个名叫奥斯卡小男孩的故事。他在三岁生日那天得到了一个铁皮鼓,于是决定用“不长大”来反抗纳粹的统治。永远也长不大的奥斯卡目睹了成人世界的混乱与残忍,他看到了犹太人被迫害,也目睹了德国人与波兰人之间的惨烈斗争。这本书也被改编成同名电影,由德国导演沃尔克#8226;施隆多夫指导,获得了奥斯卡奖。 /201505/372904

Women are hitting back at all those who have #39;make-up shamed#39; them, or accused them of wearing make-up in order to please other people, with a powerful social media campaign which sees them posting images of themselves with just a half their face covered in cosmetics, while the other half remains completely bare.女性们正在对所有那些羞辱她们化妆或指责她们化妆是为了取悦别人的人进行反击,她们开展了一个有影响的社会媒体活动,上传自己一边脸化妆而另一边完全素颜的照片。The movement was inspired by a called The Power of Make-Up, which was created by 21-year-old YouTube make-up guru Nikkie de Jager, whose channel NikkieTutorials has over 1.2 million followers.这个活动的灵感来自一个叫“化妆的力量”的视频,是由YouTube上21岁的化妆大师Nikkie de Jager创作的,她的NikkieTutorials频道拥有超过120万粉丝。#39;I#39;ve been noticing a lot lately that girls have been almost ashamed to say that they love make-up, #39;cause nowadays, if you say that you love make-up, you either do it because you want to look good for boys, you do it because you#39;re insecure, or you do it because you don#39;t love yourself,#39; she says at the beginning of the original .她在这个原创视频开始时说:“我最近注意很多女孩几乎不好意思说她们喜欢化妆,因为现在,如果你说你喜欢化妆,那你这样做要么因为想要在男孩子面前看起来漂亮,要么因为你没有安全感,再就是因为你不喜欢自己。”Nikkie#39;s message inspired make-up-loving women all over the world to perform their own half-glam-half-natural looks and post selfies of the results to social media. Many of the women also included their reasons for wearing make-up.Nikkie的说法给了全球爱化妆的女性灵感来展现她们半迷人半自然的相貌,把半面妆的自拍照发到社交媒体上,很多女性还附上了化妆理由。#39;Yesterday I watched my favourite youtuber @NikkieTutorials on her ;Power of Makeup; ,#39; writes one fan. #39;I loved what she did and did my own version of it. I wear makeupbecause its fun, I don#39;t wear it because am insecure or so ppl would like me. #39;一个粉丝写道:“昨天我看了我最喜欢的YouTube作者NikkieTutorials的#39;化妆的力量#39;的视频,我喜欢她所做的,我自己也化了。我化妆是因为好玩,而不是因为没有安全感或为了让别人喜欢我。”#39;I don#39;t care if people judge me, thinking that I do makeup because I don#39;t love myself,#39; says another. #39;Gurl Please, I LOVE myself with and without makeup. Makeup is like art, you draw with your face as a canvas, and I love doing it because I like to transform myself into the mood I am on that day.#39;另一个粉丝说:“我不在乎人们对我的评价,以为我化妆是因为我不喜欢自己。拜托,化不化妆我都很喜欢自己,化妆就像艺术,你就把脸当作画布在上面作画,我喜欢化妆是因为我喜欢随当天的心情来化妆。” /201507/388100

Where you gain weight isn#39;t a game of chance. Turns out it#39;s all in your genes. (Photo: iStock)你容易肥胖并不是偶然,而是基因造成的。If you#39;ve ever a women#39;s magazine, you#39;re familiar with the concept of ;apple; versus ;pear; body s hapes. They#39;re the two most common presentations of the human body amp;; in the first case, fat gatl around the midsection, in the latter, fat accumulates around the hips, thighs, and rear.如果你曾经读过一本女性杂志,你就会非常熟悉苹果型或梨型身材的概念。它们是有关身材的两种最常见描述。前者,脂肪集中在上腹部,后者,脂肪集中在臀部,大腿部和屁股上。Now, researchers from Duke University have pinpointed a gene, called Plexin Dl, which determines the bod y type you#39;ll have with a great deal more certainty than any magazine quiz ever could.现在,杜克大学的研究人员们发现了一种基因,称为丛状蛋白D1 ,它能决定体型,这比杂志更可靠。Now, for those who think that your body shape is only a barometer of the style of jeans you choose, or if you should opt for the A-line vs. the empire waist wedding dress, take heed: Your body shape has everything to do with your health.那么,你以为你的身材只是在挑选牛仔裤时用来比对号码的吗?还是用来选择vs裙或高腰婚纱的呢?请注意:你的身材代表了你的健康程度。An apple shaped body, which has greater fat accumulation in the belly, carries with it the risk of heart disease. Fat concentration in the midsection is also thought to induce inflammation and trigger metabolic diseases including high blood pressure, stroke and diabetes.苹果型身材,腹部聚集了大量脂肪,会增加心脏病的风险。上腹部脂肪过多也容易诱发炎症并导致代谢病,比如高血压,中风和糖尿病。A pear body shape, on the other hand, is considered to be pretty healthy. This shape accumulates fat in the hips and thighs, which is associated with increased fertility and a decreased risk of metabolic diseases like diabetes.相反,梨型身材意味着身体健康。这种身材的脂肪集中在大腿和臀部,有助于生育,也减少代谢病——比如糖尿病的几率Now let#39;s get back to that study.现在,让我们重新回到主题。All humans have the Plexin D1 gene. But to simplify their research, the Duke researchers chose to study the gene#39;s effects in zebrafish. Since the fish are transparent, you can actually see where the fat cells are accumulating to easily determine their body shape. John F. Rawls, PhD, and an associate professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at Duke, and James E. Minchin, PhD, a post-doctoral fellow in Rawls#39; lab, engineered zebrafish without the Plexin D1 gene, and compared them with normal zebrafish who carried the gene.所有人都拥有丛状蛋白D1基因。但为了简化他们的研究,杜克大学研究人员研究这种基因在斑马鱼身上的影响。因为这种鱼是透明的,他们能清晰的看到脂肪细胞的聚集地,以更容易的确定体型。杜克大学的分子遗传学和微生物学副教授约翰·F·罗尔斯士,和罗尔斯实验室的士后伙伴詹姆斯·E·明钦,把斑马鱼的丛状蛋白D1基因剥离,并把它与正常的斑马鱼进行比较。The fish without the Plexin D1 gene had less visceral fat tissue than their ;apple-shaped; counterparts with the gene. Visceral fat is the type of fat that causes an apple-shaped body. It lies deep within the midsection, wedged between organs including the heart, liver, intestine, and lungs. From there, the tissue emits hormones and other chemicals that cause inflammation, triggering high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.没有丛状蛋白D1基因的斑马鱼比他们;苹果型身材;的同类拥有更少的内脏脂肪。内脏脂肪是造成苹果型身材的一种脂肪。它存在与上腹部,充斥在脏器们,包括心脏,肝脏,小肠和肺部之间。这些脂肪组织释放出荷尔蒙和其他化学物质,导致炎症,诱发高血压,心肌梗塞,中风,和糖尿病。Instead, these ;pear shaped; fish displayed more subcutaneous fat, which is the type of fat that sits be neath the skin of the hips, thighs, and rear of pear-shaped individuals. This type of fat tissue decrease s insulin resistance in humans 8i; which protects us from getting diabetes.相反,那些“梨型身材”的斑马鱼拥有更多的皮下脂肪,它们存在于臀部和大腿的皮下组织,与梨型身材个体的后身。这种脂肪组织能降低机体的胰岛素耐受性;从而避免我们患上糖尿病。So should we all try to get rid of our Plexin D1 gene? Not so fast. Michin tells Yahoo Health, that whil e ;to have such an extreme effect is surprising,; it#39;s important to remember that their research also inv olved an extreme amount of genetic manipulation, wholly eliminating the Plexin D1 gene in the mutant zet a fish in a way that is unlikely to ever occur in real life.那么,我们都应该抛弃我们的丛状蛋白D1基因吗?不用这么急。Michin告诉雅虎健康板块,当我们知道“极端影响是这 么可怕时”,我们也一定要想起,他们的研究也进行了极端的基因操作,完全丧失丛状蛋白D1基因的变种斑马鱼在现实中是不可能能出现的。All humans carry the Plexin D1 gene, but we express the gene in different ways. ;Body fat distribution is a complex trait that is governed by interactions between multiple genes, says Michin. ;We expect that more subtle regulation of Plexin D1 in human populations is likely to occur.;所有人都携带着丛状蛋白D1基因,但是,让我们以另一种方式描述这种基因,;身体脂肪的分配是十分复杂的,是多种基因互相影响的结果,;Michin说,;我们猜想,丛状蛋白D1基因在人体内可能存在其他效应。;Despite the clear health implications of body fat distribution, little is known about the genetics of body shape. A large international study that appeared in Nature in February began to fill in this gap by looking for genes associated with waist-to-hip ratio. The researchers found some association with Plexin D1 in their study.即使清晰知晓了身体脂肪分配对健康的意义,我们仍然对体型遗传知之甚少。一个主要研究基因与腰臀比关系的大型国际研究已经在二月份在法蒂尔开始。研究者们已经发现了一些与丛状蛋白D1基因有关的信息。In the future, this information could lead to understanding how to genetically manipulate our body types — and, more importantly, improve our health in the process.在未来,这些信息可能会让我们理解基因如何控制我们的体型——同时,更重要的是,改善我们的健康。 /201503/366838

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