2019年12月12日 16:32:58|来源:国际在线|编辑:问医卫生
“The puppy’s name can bewhatever you want”, the father in the Bizarro comic tells his son, “but makesure it is something memorable. You’ll be using it as a security questionanswer for the rest of your life.”“这只小的名字你可以随便取,”漫画Bizarro中的父亲告诉儿子,“但要确保能记住。因为你一辈子都要把它作为安全问题的。”Unfortunately the name givento the dog — say, Poppy — may or may not have been encrypted when it was leakedamong details of 500m Yahoo accounts, which included the answers to securityquestions about first pets. The dog’s name was probably also used as a passwordat some point as people often use pets’ names — maybe with a couple of numbersat the end.不幸的是,在成为遭到泄露的雅虎(Yahoo) 5亿账户细节(其中包括有关你的第一只宠物的安全问题的)之一时,这只的名字(例如Poppy)可能已经加密,也可能没有加密。这只的名字也可能被用作了密码,因为人们常常喜欢把宠物的名字用作密码,可能后面会加上两个数字。“Poppy95” is not a securepassword but it is fairly typical and it illustrates an uncomfortable fact: ourcrummy password construction is predictable. And with large breaches of popularwebsites, hackers are getting to know us better than ever.“Poppy95”并非一个安全的密码,但它相当普遍,而且说明了一个令人不安的事实:我们随随便便的密码结构是可以预测的。而且,随着一些颇受欢迎的网站遭遇大规模数据泄露,黑客对我们的习惯了解得很。People often pick animals(“monkey”), keyboard patterns (“zxcvbn”), dad jokes (“letmein”), sports teams(“liverpool”) and angst (“whatever”). All proved popular with users of theadultery site, Ashley Madison, hacked last year. In case you are thinking onlyadulterers use weak passwords, many of these also showed up in a leak from theLast.fm music service which surfaced more recently.人们经常选择动物(monkey)、键盘模式(zxcvbn)、蹩脚笑话(letmein)、运动队(liverpool)和焦虑(whatever)作为密码。事实明,所有这些密码在去年遭到黑客攻击的Ashley Madison用户中颇受欢迎。如果你认为只有用户才使用这么不安全的密码的话,你就错了,其中很多还出现在最近才曝出的音乐务网站Last.fm数据泄露事件中。Both breaches — estimated atabout 30m-40m each — are dwarfed by the 164m LinkedIn and 360m MySpace accountsthat appeared in May.今年5月曝出的LinkedIn(1.64亿个账户)和MySpace(3.60亿个账户)泄密事件令上述两起泄密事件(据估计泄密账户分别达3000万至4000万左右)相形见绌。Passwords are valuable tohackers in a couple of indirect ways. First, most people — about 60 per cent bysome estimates — reuse passwords. This means the login details from one site canbe tried out on more valuable sites — financial accounts, for example, orpeople’s work. And, combined with details such as previous addresses obtainedfrom a retailer and a date of birth from the Yahoo hack or Facebook, they maybe used to obtain credit fraudulently.密码对黑客很有价值,这表现在两种间接的方式上。首先,多数人(根据一些估计约为60%)会重复使用密码。这意味着,一个网站的登录细节可能会在更有价值的网站上使用:例如金融账户或人们的工作。结合从零售商获取的以前的地址以及从雅虎或Facebook获取的生日日期,这些密码可能会被用来骗贷。Second, the data sets can beadded to “dictionaries” comprising actual dictionaries, tens of thousands ofbooks and all of Wikipedia, which can be used to crack passwords.其次,这些数据集合可以加入包括正规词典、数万册书和维基百科(Wikipedia)全部内容的“字典”,可以用来破解密码。If you are thinking: “I mayuse the same base password but I change it a bit for different websites”, well,I have a research paper for you. A group from the University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign and elsewhere looked at the often simplistic changes peoplemake. Using passwords for the same users from different leaks, they were ableto guess almost a third of the transformed passwords within 100 or fewerattempts. Popular changes involved two to three appended characters. Keyboardsequence changes, capitalisation changes and “leet speak” — changing s to $,say — were also common.如果你在想:“我可能会使用同样的基础密码,但会在不同网站稍作改动”,好吧,这里有一份研究论文给你看。来自伊利诺伊大学香槟分校(University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign#8206;)和其他机构的研究人员考察了人们常常会做出的过分简单的改动。利用来自不同网站泄密的同一用户的密码,他们能够在100次或更少次尝试后猜出近三分之一更改后的密码。常见的更改包括后面加2到3个字符。键盘顺序变化、大小写变动以及“黑客文”(例如,把S变成$)也很常见。Unfortunately, passwordstrength meters aren’t much help as they underestimate hackers’ understandingof users’ habits.不幸的是,密码强度检测工具帮助不大,因为它们低估了黑客对用户习惯的了解。In an ideal world, websiteowners would strengthen their own security to protect users. But if theircustomers use weak passwords — or reuse strong ones on other, less secure sites— there’s only so much they can do.在理想世界中,网站所有者会增强网站安全以保护用户。但如果它们的客户使用不安全密码,或在另一个不那么安全的网站重复使用高强度的密码,它们能做的也就很有限了。There is some encouragement tobe had, though. University researchers from Pennsylvania tested whether peoplecould correctly identify the more secure password among pairs, where “security”is “guessability” using cracking tools. Participants did reasonably well —identifying the benefits of capitals, digits and symbols in the middle of apassword, and avoiding names.然而,还是有一些可喜的事情。宾夕法尼亚州的大学研究人员测试了人们能否准确识别一对密码中更安全的密码,在这里,安全是指利用破解密码工具的“可猜测性”。参与者的表现非常好,他们认识到密码中间加入大写字母、数字和符号会更安全,同时要避免使用名字。However, they alsooverestimated the usefulness of appending digits, incorrectly selecting“astley123” as more secure than “astleyabc”. The former is easier to crackbecause of the pervasiveness of the pattern of appending digits — hence theproblem with the variant of Poppy’s name.然而,他们也高估了后缀数字的用处,他们不正确地认为“astley123”比“astleyabc”更安全。前者更容易破解,因为后缀数字模式很普遍,这就是“Poppy”名字后面加上数字的问题。Participants also“underestimated the poor security properties of building a password aroundcommon keyboard patterns and common phrases”. They wrongly believed that“iloveyou88” is stronger than “ieatkale88” (which frankly seems like anexcellent name for a dog).参与者还“低估了根据常见的键盘模式和常见短语设置密码的糟糕安全性”。他们错误地认为“iloveyou88”比“ieatkale88”(坦率的来说,这似乎是一个不错的名字)更安全。The researchers concluded thatsuch misunderstandings, and poor password choices generally, stem from anunderestimation of the risk of potential attacks and a lack of knowledge abouthow dangerously common certain construction techniques are. Which is notsurprising, they note, as we don’t often see one another’s passwords.Unfortunately, hackers do.研究人员总结称,这些误解以及不安全的密码选择,一般来自于对潜在攻击风险的低估和对某些密码设置方法的普遍性和危险性缺乏认识。他们指出,这并不意外,因为我们不会经常看到别人的密码。不幸的是,黑客会经常看到。 /201610/473508Grooming and Personal Hygiene 美国人的仪容整洁与个人卫生 Grooming and personal hygiene have been around for ages. It's hard to imagine a time when people weren't concerned with taking care of their appearance and their bodies. Perhaps these practices started when Adam first took a bath and combed his hair before going on a date with Eve. Or maybe they began when Eve put on some herbal makeup to make herself more beautiful. No matter where they started, grooming and personal hygiene have become an important part of everyone's daily routine. 仪容整洁和个人卫生的讲究已经行之有年了。很难想象一个人们不在乎打理外表和身体清洁的时代。或许这些卫生习惯始于亚当第一次洗澡梳头去赴夏娃的约;也可能始于夏娃第一次搽上青草制的化妆品使自己更美丽。无论是从何时开始的,仪容整洁与个人卫生已经成为每个人生活例行事务中重要的一部份。 You might think that all modern societies would have the same grooming and personal hygiene practices. After all, doesn't everybody take baths? Most people do recognize the need for hygiene, which is the basis for cleanliness and health-and a good way to keep one's friends. Grooming practices include all the little things people do to make themselves look their best, such as combing their hair and putting on makeup. However, while most modern people agree that these things are important, people in different cultures take care of themselves in different ways. 你可能以为所有现代社会中的仪容整洁与卫生习惯都是一样的。毕竟,不是每一个人天天都要洗澡的吗?大部份人的确肯定卫生的必要性,它是清洁与健康的基础,也是维持友谊的好办法。仪容整洁的工作涵盖了所有可以使人看起来体面的琐碎小事,像是梳头和化妆。虽然大多数的现代人都同意这些事很重要,但不同文化背景的人打理自己的方法也不一样。 There used to be an old joke in America that people should take a bath once a week, whether they need one or not. In fact, though, Americans generally take a bath-or more commonly, a shower-every day. But in contrast to some cultures, most Americans get their shower in the morning, so they can start the day fresh. And instead of going to a beauty parlor for a shampoo, many Americans prefer to wash and style their own hair. So if Americans have a "bad hair day," they have no one to blame but themselves. But most people in America do head for the beauty parlor or barber shop occasionally for a haircut, a perm or just some friendly conversation. 以前在美国有一个老笑话,说不管人们需不需要,他们至少每个礼拜该洗一次澡。不过事实上,美国人每天会洗一次澡,或者更普遍的作法是每天淋浴一次。但是不同于某些文化习惯的是,美国人在清晨淋浴,以使他们展开清新的一天。而且美国人不上美容院去洗头,他们宁可自己洗头和整理发型。所以美国人如果有一天头发很丑,除了怪自己之外就没什么好抱怨的了。然而大部份的美国人偶尔会到美容院或理发厅去,剪头发、烫头发,或是去跟人聊聊天。 Americans are known for having very sensitive noses. In America, "B.O." (body odor) is socially unacceptable. For that reason, Americans consider the use of deodorant or anti-perspirant a must. Ladies often add a touch of perfume for an extra fresh scent. Men may splash on after-shave lotion or manly-smelling cologne. Another cultural no-no in America is bad breath. Americans don't like to smell what other people ate for lunch-especially onions or garlic. Their solution? Mouthwash, breath mints and even brushing their teeth after meals. 美国人的鼻子是出了名的灵。在美国,体臭在社交上是不被接受的。因此,美国人会认为使用除臭剂或止汗剂是必须的。女士们通常会再抹点香水以增加清香;男士则拍一些刮胡水或是男性古龙水在脸上。在美国文化里的另一项禁忌是口臭。美国人不喜欢闻别人午餐后留在口中的味道--尤其是洋葱或大蒜。他们怎么解决这问题呢?漱口、吃薄荷糖、甚至饭后刷牙。 Some of the cultural variations in grooming practices result from physical differences between races. Whereas many Asian men have little facial hair, Westerners have a lot. As a result, most American men spend some time each day shaving or grooming their facial hair. Beards and mustaches are common sights in America, although their popularity changes from generation to generation. Most American men who wear facial hair try to keep it nicely trimmed. American women, on the other hand, generally prefer not to be hairy at all. Many of them regularly shave their legs and armpits. 有些仪容整洁方面的文化差异是源自于种族间生理条件的不同。亚洲男性面部的胡髭长得并不多,但西方人却长得多,因此美国的男性每天得花些时间去刮除或整理他们的脸毛。在美国,男人在下巴部份或嘴唇上方留胡子是很普通的,不过不同时代胡子受欢迎的样式不相同。在美国大部份留胡子的男性都会试着将胡子修剪整齐,但另一方面,美国女性通常不喜欢毛茸茸的,很多人会定期地刮除腿部和腋下的毛。 Americans put great value on both grooming and personal hygiene. For some people, taking care of themselves has become almost a religion. As the old saying goes, "Cleanliness is next to godliness." Whether or not being clean and well-groomed brings one closer to God, it certainly brings one closer to others. Americans look down on people who don't take care of themselves, or who "let themselves go." To Americans, even if we don't have much to work with, we have to make the best of what we've got. 美国人非常看重仪容整洁与个人卫生。对某些人而言,打理自己几乎成了一种信仰,如一句古老的谚语说:清洁是仅次于圣洁第二重要的事。不管整齐清洁是不是能使人更接近上帝,但它的确能拉近与人的距离。美国人轻视那些不在乎打理自己或让自己随随便便就好的人。对美国人而言,就算我们没有非常好的先天条件,但至少该尽力将已有的好好发挥。 /200803/32738

They are strange-looking creatures, covered with hard scales (鳞). They can roll up into a ball to protect themselves from enemies and have tongues (舌头) that are longer than their bodies. They rarely get the attention of people, and some even don’t know they exist. However, pangolins (穿山甲) have recently become the focus of Chinese people, after social media posts of the strange animal being eaten at dinner caused public anger.它们浑身长满了坚硬鳞片,是一种长相奇怪的生物。它们能将身体蜷成球状以保护自己不被天敌伤害,而它们的舌头比自己的身体还长。人们鲜少注意到它们,一些人甚至根本不知道它们的存在。然而,穿山甲近来却成了中国人关注的焦点,起因是社交媒体上食用这一奇怪动物的帖子引发了众怒。Earlier this month, a screenshot (截屏) of a micro blog post showing some people in Guangxi eating pangolins at a banquet sp. A few days later, people were angered again by pictures posted on a woman’s weibo account showing her eating protected animals, including pangolins.本月早些时候,一张广西“穿山甲宴”的微截屏流传开来。几天后,一名女性在微上晒出了自己食用穿山甲等保护动物的照片,此举再度惹怒了公众。Yet this is only the tip of the iceberg. Many more pangolins have been hunted or killed. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), more than 1 million of them have been killed or sold in the last 10 years. It also said that they are the most illegally traded mammals (哺乳动物) in the world. In September, the IUCN added the pangolin to the world’s “endangered animals list”. They are now more endangered than pandas.但这只是冰山一角。还有更多的穿山甲被猎杀。据世界自然保护联盟 (IUCN) 的数据显示,在过去的十年间,超过100万的穿山甲被杀害贩卖。该组织还表示,穿山甲是世界上遭受非法贸易最严重的哺乳动物。去年9月,世界自然保护联盟将穿山甲列入世界“濒危物种名录”。现在,它们的濒危程度已经超过了大熊猫。A growing trade of their scales and meat is the main reason for their decline in numbers. Many people in Asia and Africa consider pangolin meat is a delicacy (美味). Some people even think pangolin scales have medicinal qualities. However, their scales are made of keratin (角蛋白), the same material human fingernails are made of.贩卖穿山甲鳞片和肉的案件越来越多,是它们数量递减的主要原因。在亚洲和非洲,许多人将穿山甲视作一道佳肴。一些人甚至还认为穿山甲鳞片具有药用价值。然而,它们的鳞片只是由角蛋白组成,和人类指甲的成分无异。Luckily, the situation is getting better. World Pangolin Day is on the third Saturday of February each year. This year, it fell on Feb 18. It’s a day to help people know more about pangolins. The government now stops anyone from buying and eating pangolins in China. Breaking this law is regarded as a crime (罪行). The trade of pangolins across the world is also not allowed, according to the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.幸运的是,情况正在逐渐好转。每年二月的第三个星期六是世界穿山甲日。今年的世界穿山甲日是2月18日。穿山甲日让人们了解到更多关于穿山甲的知识。中国政府现在禁止购买及食用穿山甲。违反这项法律将被视为犯罪。根据《濒危野生动植物物种国际贸易公约》,在世界范围内穿山甲贸易是被禁止的。“I hope more people will join us to protect pangolins from such a sad situation,” Zhou Canying, head of the Wildlife Protection Association in Changsha, told Xinhua News Agency.“我希望更多人能加入我们,保护穿山甲,”长沙市野生动植物保护协会会长周灿英在接受新华社采访时表示。 /201702/494609

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